Encyclopedia Astronautica
HS 393


American communications satellite. 7 launches, 1989.03.06 (JCSAT 1) to 1991.10.29 (Intelsat 6A F-1). Domestic communication. Launching states: Japan, France, USA. At the time, these were the largest commercial spacecraft ever built.

The series were also the first commercial satellites to employ Satellite Switched/Time Division Multiple Access (SS/TDMA) techniques. Spin stabilized with despun antenna. Hydrazine propulsion system. Passive thermal control. Telescoping dual-cylinder structure with deployed antennas. Body mounted solar cells generate 2250 W (EOL). Solar drums are each about 6m tall. 38 (plus 12 backup) C-Band and 10 (plus 4 backup) Ku-Band transponders.120,000 telephone calls and 3 color TV broadcasts simultaneously.

Gross mass: 4,330 kg (9,540 lb).
Height: 11.80 m (38.70 ft).
First Launch: 1989.03.06.
Last Launch: 1991.10.29.
Number: 7 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • R-4D Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.490 kN. Isp=312s. Developed as attitude control thruster for the Apollo Service and Lunar Modules in 1960s. In production for numerous satellites for apogee / perigee maneuvers, orbit adjustment, and attitude control. More...

See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Titan The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Titan American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 44LP French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket + 2 solid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Commercial Titan 3 American orbital launch vehicle. Commercial version of Titan 34D military booster. It differed in having a lengthened second stage and a 4 m diameter payload shroud to handle shuttle-class or Ariane-type dual payloads. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Hughes American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Hughes Aircraft Co. , USA More...

Associated Programs
  • Intelsat Intelsat operated the world's first commercial communications satellite. It has provided the scheduled transoceanic television and voice and data communications service ever since. More...
  • JCSAT Japanese domestic communications satellite network. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC40 Titan launch complex. Constructed as part of the Titan Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) facility at the north end of Cape Canaveral in the early 1960s. Supported a wide variety of military space missions involving Titan IIIC, Titan 34D and Titan IV vehicles. More...

HS 393 Chronology


1989 March 6 - . 23:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V29.
  • JCSAT 1 - . Mass: 2,280 kg (5,020 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JCSAT. Program: JCSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. Completed Operations Date: 1998-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 19874 . COSPAR: 1989-020A. Apogee: 36,018 km (22,380 mi). Perigee: 35,971 km (22,351 mi). Inclination: 4.1000 deg. Period: 1,446.80 min. Japanese domestic communications; 150 deg E. Domestic communication. Launching states: Japan, France, USA. Launch vehicle Ariane 29 (Ariane IV). Launching organization ARIANE SPACE. Launch time 1129 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg E in 1989-1997; 148 deg E in 1997; 111 deg E in 1998 As of 31 August 2001 located at 19.12 deg E drifting at 2.653 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 63.05E drifting at 2.678W degrees per day.

1989 October 27 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V34.
  • Intelsat 6A F-2 - . Payload: Intelsat 602. Mass: 4,215 kg (9,292 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. USAF Sat Cat: 20315 . COSPAR: 1989-087A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 24.5 deg E. At the time, the Intelsat 6 series were the largest commercial spacecraft ever built. The series were also the first commercial satellites to employ Satellite Switched/Time Division Multiple Access (SS/TDMA) techniques. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes 393 bus. Spin stabilised with despun antenna. Hydrazine propulsion system. Passive thermal control. Telescoping dual-cylinder structure with deployed antennas. Body mounted solar cells generate 2250 W (EOL). Solar drums are each about 6m tall. Payload: 38 (plus 12 backup) C-Band and 10 (plus 4 backup) Ku-Band transponders.120,000 telephone calls and 3 colour TV broadcasts simultaneously. SS/TDMA (Satellite-Switched Time Division Multiple Access) techniques used. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 37 deg W in 1989-1990; 24 deg W in 1990-1991; 55 deg E in 1991; 60 deg E in 1992; 63 deg E in 1992-1997; 62 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 29 August 2001 located at 62.02 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 150.55E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

1990 January 1 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Commercial Titan 3. LV Configuration: Commercial Titan 3 CT-1.
  • JCSAT 2 - . Payload: JCSat 2 / Orbus-7S. Mass: 2,280 kg (5,020 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JCSAT. Program: JCSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. USAF Sat Cat: 20402 . COSPAR: 1990-001B. Apogee: 35,877 km (22,292 mi). Perigee: 35,868 km (22,287 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,440.50 min. Japanese domestic communications; 154 deg E. Domestic communications. Launching organization Martin Marietta. Launch time 0007 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 154 deg E in 1990-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 154.04 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 116.78W drifting at 6.255W degrees per day.

1990 March 14 - . 11:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Commercial Titan 3. LV Configuration: Commercial Titan 3 CT-2. FAILURE: Second stage failed to separate due to a wiring error in the stage separation electronics, stranding the payload in low earth orbit.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Intelsat 6 F-3 - . Payload: Intelsat 603 / Orbus-21S. Mass: 4,215 kg (9,292 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. USAF Sat Cat: 20523 . COSPAR: 1990-021A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. 38 C-band and 10 Ku-band transponders. Placed in unusable low earth orbit after second stage separation failure. In May 1992 shuttle STS-49 snared the satellite, and in three EVA's the crew attached a new perigee boost motor, which then reboosted the satellite to geosynchrounous orbit. Positioned at 34 deg W in 1992-1997; 24 deg W in 1997-2001. Later assigned to Intelsat spin-off New Skies, which positioned it at 340 East, from where it provided C-band coverage of the entire Atlantic region, including virtually all of Latin America, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the eastern half of North America. As an inclined orbit satellite, IS-603 was best suited for voice/data trunking and video contribution, but could also be used for carrier-scale IP services, notably network bridging and expansion. It supplemented the prime Atlantic region coverage provided by the station-kept NSS 7 satellite, located at 338 East. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 19.96W drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

1990 June 23 - . 11:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Commercial Titan 3. LV Configuration: Commercial Titan 3 CT-3.
  • Intelsat 6 F-4 - . Payload: Intelsat 604 / Orbus-21S. Mass: 4,215 kg (9,292 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. USAF Sat Cat: 20667 . COSPAR: 1990-056A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. International communications; 63 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 38 deg W in 1990; 27 deg W in 1990-1992; 60 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 60.04 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 61.81E drifting at 6.628W degrees per day.

1991 August 14 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V45.
  • Intelsat 6 F-5 - . Payload: Intelsat 605. Mass: 4,296 kg (9,471 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. USAF Sat Cat: 21653 . COSPAR: 1991-055A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. International communications; 14.5 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1991-1997; 27 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 27.48 deg W drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 174.03E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.

1991 October 29 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V47.
  • Intelsat 6A F-1 - . Payload: Intelsat 601. Mass: 4,330 kg (9,540 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Intelsat. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 393. USAF Sat Cat: 21765 . COSPAR: 1991-075A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. International communications; 27.5 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 27 deg W in 1992-1997; 34 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 34.48 deg W drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 63.65E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.

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