Encyclopedia Astronautica
Clementine



clemeni1.jpg
Clementine
Credit: USAF
American lunar orbiter. One launch, 1994.01.25. Clementine was jointly sponsored by BMDO and NASA as the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE).

The principal objective was to space qualify lightweight imaging sensors and component technologies for the next generation of DOD spacecraft. Intended targets for these sensors included the Moon, a near-Earth asteroid (1620 Geographos), and the spacecraft's interstage adapter.

Clementine was a military-sponsored technology status that provided America's first mission to the moon in 25 years. After entering lunar orbit, Clementine provided over 1.6 million images of the Moon's surface. After the lunar mapping phase was completed, the spacecraft left lunar orbit for a planned encounter with the asteroid Geographos, but was unable to rendezvous due to a spacecraft computer failure on 17 May 1994. The spacecraft was shut down on 21 July 1994.

The spacecraft was 3-axis stabilized, and used dual GaAs solar arrays with 1-axis articulation.A fixed 1.1 m high gain antenna provided S-Band downlink to NASA's Deep Space Network and DoD tracking stations with downlink rate up to 128 kbps. A 1.9 Gbit solid state recorder was used for data storage. The satellite had two propulsions systems: a bipropellant system with a 489 N thruster, and a hydrazine system with 10 x 5.3 N and 7 x 22 N thrusters. The computer had a 32-bit R3000 processor. Lightweight ring laser gyro and IFOG (1 deg/hr) navigation. A NiH2 CPV battery with 15 AH capacity was used. Lightweight reaction wheels provided attitude control and star tracker cameras determined absolute position. A JPEG image compression chip from Matra Marconi reduced the size of image files prior to transmission to earth.

Payloads included two miniature star tracker cameras, a UV/Visible camera, a Near-IR camera, a Long wave IR camera, a high resolution camera, a laser transmitter, a charged particle telescope, four dosimeters, a radiation experiment, and an orbital meteoroid and debris counting experiment. Total payload was 8 kg in mass and consumed 68 watts.

Total project cost was $ 80 million, using a Titan II converted surplus ICBM as the launch vehicle.

Gross mass: 424 kg (934 lb).
Height: 1.90 m (6.20 ft).
First Launch: 1994.01.25.
Number: 1 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Titan The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Titan American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...
  • Titan 2 American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, developed also as the launch vehicle for the manned Gemini spacecraft in the early 1960's. When the ICBM's were retired in the 1980's they were refurbished and a new series of launches began. More...
  • Titan 2G American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Space launch version, obtained through minimal refurbishment of decommissioned ICBM's. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • NRL American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA. More...
  • Livermore American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Livermore, USA. More...
  • BMDO American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ballistic Missile Defence Organization (formerly SDIO), USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, The Clementine Mission: Initial Results from lunar mapping, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC4W Titan, Atlas launch complex. First designated PALC2-3 and used to launch Atlas Agena D with KH-7 spysats. Rebuilt in 1966 to handle Titan 3B with various military payloads. From 1988 used to launch refurbished surplus Titan 2 ICBM's in space launch role. More...

Clementine Chronology


1994 January 25 - . 16:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2G. LV Configuration: Titan II SLV 23G-11 / M68B-67 + M68B-89.
  • Clementine 1 - . Payload: Clementine 1 / DSPSE-ISA [Star-37FM]. Mass: 424 kg (934 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Clementine. USAF Sat Cat: 22973 . COSPAR: 1994-004A. Apogee: 409,890 km (254,690 mi). Perigee: 804 km (499 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 16,158.80 min. SDIO sensor technology demonstration; mapped lunar surface; planned asteroid flyby cancelled due to spacecraft failure. After two Earth flybys, lunar insertion was achieved on February 21. Lunar mapping took place over approximately two months, in two parts. The first part consisted of a 5 hour elliptical polar orbit with a perilune of about 400 km at 28 degrees S latitude. After one month of mapping the orbit was rotated to a perilune of 29 degrees N latitude, where it remained for one more month. This allowed global imaging as well as altimetry coverage from 60 degrees S to 60 degrees N. After leaving lunar orbit, a malfunction in one of the on-board computers on May 7 at 14:39 UTC (9:39 AM EST) caused a thruster to fire until it had used up all of its fuel, leaving the spacecraft spinning at about 80 RPM with no spin control. This made the planned continuation of the mission, a flyby of the near-Earth asteroid Geographos, impossible. The spacecraft remained in geocentric orbit and continued testing the spacecraft components until the end of mission. Additional Details: here....

1994 February 20 - .
  • Clementine, Moon Orbit Insertion - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Clementine.

1994 July 21 - .
  • Clementine asteroid flyby cancelled - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Clementine. Summary: After the lunar mapping phase was completed, the spacecraft left lunar orbit for a planned encounter with Geographos, but a computer fialure on 17 May 1994 led to the flyby being cancelled..

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