Block D / 11D68
Aft view of the Block D lunar crasher stage and its 11D68 engine. The Block D would have taken the LK lunar lander to near the surface of the moon. This stage remains in use today atop the Proton rocket.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian space tug. 11 launches, (1976) to (1989). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload).
Successor to 11S824. Used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary/high earth orbit spacecraft from 1976 to 1989.
Unit Cost $: 4.000 million.
AKA: 11S824; Block D; D-1-e.
More... - Chronology...
Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,830 kg (4,030 lb).
Height: 5.50 m (18.00 ft).
Diameter: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Span: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Thrust: 85.02 kN (19,113 lbf).
Specific impulse: 352 s.
Number: 11 .
RD-58M Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Proton 8K824K / 11S824M; 11S824F; 11S86; 11S861; 17S40 stage 4 (block DM). In production. Isp=353s. First flight 1974. More...
Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...
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