Engine 11D68 detail
Close-up view of the 11D68 Block D lunar crasher stage showing detail of the BOZ orientation/ullage thrusters that control the stage during coast, restart, and manoeuvre.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian space tug. 40 launches, (1967) to (1975). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Proton. Block D, article number 11S824. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload).
Originally designed as N1-L3 lunar expedition launch vehicle lunar orbit insertion/lunar crasher stage. Adapted for use with Proton UR-500K as a fourth stage for manned circumlunar flight. Further used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary spacecraft. Flown from 1967 to 1975.
Kerosene changed from T-1 to RG-1 to achieve sufficient chamber cooling.
Unit Cost $: 4.000 million.
AKA: 11S824; Block D; D-1-e.
More... - Chronology...
Gross mass: 13,360 kg (29,450 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb).
Height: 5.50 m (18.00 ft).
Diameter: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Span: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Thrust: 83.30 kN (18,727 lbf).
Specific impulse: 346 s.
Number: 40 .
RD-58 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Isp=349s. High-performance upper-stage engine developed for N1 lunar crasher stage, but saw general use as restartable Block D upper stage of Proton launch vehicle. First flight 1967. More...
Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...
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