Encyclopedia Astronautica
Advanced Tiros N



tiros95.jpg
Advanced Tiros N
Credit: Lockheed-Martin
tiros.jpg
Advanced Tiros N
Credit: Lockheed-Martin
American earth weather satellite. 10 launches, 1983.03.28 (NOAA 8) to 2009.02.06.

The Advanced Tiros N / NOAA KLM satellites replaced operational sun-synchronous polar orbiter weather satellites on-orbit as required to provide continuity to the NOAA-managed operational system. Upon successful achievement of orbit, NASA conducted an engineering evaluation and checkout of each satellite. Upon completion of testing, the satellites were turned over to NOAA for routine operational control. Each spacecraft was designed to meet all on-orbit performance requirements for a minimum period of two years.

Specification

  • Mission Life: 2 years minimum required
  • Orbit: Sun-synchronous, 833 19 km or 870 19 km
  • Mass: 1478.9 kg on orbit/2231.7 kg at launch
  • Length/Diameter: 4.18 m / 1.88 m
  • Propulsion: Mono propellant hydrazine, GN2 and AKM
  • Attitude Control: 3-axis stabilized
  • Power: Direct energy transfer
  • Thermal: Passive and active controls
  • Operation Control: NOAA/SOCC CDA stations at Wallops and Fairbanks. DSN 26-m and AFSCN for contingency support.
  • Forward Data Link: S-band command uplink encrypted.
  • Return Data Link: Housekeeping telemetry from HRPT and GAC downlinks.
  • Science Data Capture: Tape playback direct to CDA (typically eleven 12-minute contacts per day), relayed to the NOAA/CEMSCS in Suitland, MD
  • Science Data Processing: NOAA/CEMSCS, Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC), International Weather Services and ARGOS

Instrument Payload

Earth imaging was accomplished by the AVHRR/3, a six-channel scanning radiometer, which viewed the same Earth area with each channel. The data acquired during each scan allowed, after ground processing, multispectral analysis of hydrologic, oceanographic, land use and meteorological parameters.

Data from channels l, 2, and 3A were used to monitor reflected energy in the visible and near-IR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These data provided means to observe vegetation, clouds, lakes, shorelines, snow, aerosols and ice. Data from channels 3B, 4 and 5 were used to determine the radiative energy from the temperature of the land, water, and sea surface as well as the clouds above them. Only five channels could be transmitted simultaneously, channels 3A and 3B being respectively switched for day/night operation and as determined by operational requirements for the afternoon satellite, while 3B would be on continuously for the morning satellite mission.

For the first time, Channels 1, 2 and 3A on these spacecraft incorporated the low light split-gain provision, providing better resolution in a portion of the radiance range. The Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) mode, using two selected channels, produces a more geometrically linear scan line but at the reduced resolution of 4 km.

The characteristics of the six channels were:

  • Channel 1 (Visible): Spectral Bandpass 0.580 - 0.68 micrometers; Spatial Resolution at nadir 1.1 km.
  • Channel 2 (Near IR): Spectral Bandpass 0.725 - 1.00 micrometers; Spatial Resolution at nadir 1.1 km.
  • Channel 3A (Near IR): Spectral Bandpass 1.580 - 1.64 micrometers; Spatial Resolution at nadir 1.1 km.
  • Channel 3B (IR-Window): Spectral Bandpass 3.550 - 3.93 micrometers; Spatial Resolution at nadir 1.1 km.
  • Channel 4 (IR-Window): Spectral Bandpass 10.300 - 11.3 micrometers; Spatial Resolution at nadir 1.1 km.
  • Channel 5 (IR-Window): Spectral Bandpass 11.500 - 12.5 micrometers; Spatial Resolution at nadir 1.1 km.

Atmospheric Sounding Instruments

Three instruments were used to determine radiance needed to calculate the atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles from the earth's surface to the stratosphere. These instruments were the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/3 (HIRS/3), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) for NOAA KLM.

The HIRS/3 had twenty spectral bands, nineteen in the IR band and one in the visible band. This instrument was basically the same as the instrument flown on earlier spacecraft, except for five spectral band changes to improve sounding parameter accuracy. The instrument measured scene radiance in nineteen channels to permit calculation of the vertical temperature profile from the Earth's surface to about 40 km. The instrument scanned 49.5 degrees, having a ground resolution (nadir) of 17.4 km, 56 instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) for each 2250-km scan line at 6.4 seconds per scan line and 42 km between IFOV's along-track (nadir).

The AMSU-A was a total power radiometer and a line scan instrument designed to permit the calculation of the vertical temperature profile from the Earth's surface to about a 2-millibar pressure height 45 km (28.0 mi). Vertical profiles were obtained through the measurements of scene radiance in fifteen channels, ranging from 23.8 to 89 GHz. The instrument had an instantaneous field-of-view of 3.3 degrees at the half-power points. The antenna provided a cross-track scan, scanning 50 degrees from nadir with a total of 30 Earth fields of view per scan line. Each Earth field of view was separated from the adjacent cell along the scan direction by 3 1/3 degrees. Spatial resolution at nadir was nominally 50 km (31.0 mi).

The AMSU-B was a line scan instrument designed to allow the calculation of the vertical water vapor profiles from the Earth's surface to about a 20-millibar pressure 12 km (7.5 mi). Vertical profiles were obtained through the measurements of scene radiance in five channels, ranging from 89 to 183 GHz. AMSU-B, like the AMSU-A, was a total power radiometer and used two target temperatures to provide for accurate radiance calibration with each scan. The instrument had an instantaneous field-of-view of 1.1 degrees at the half-power points. The antenna provided a cross-track scan, scanning of 49.5 degrees from nadir with a total of 90 Earth fields of view per scan line. Each Earth field of view was separated from the adjacent cell along the scan direction by 1.1 degrees. Spatial resolution at nadir was nominally 16.7 km (10.4 mi). AMSU-B contained four water vapor channels (channels 17 through 20 inclusive) and one window channel (channel 16). AMSU-A channel 15 and AMSU-B channel 16 shared the same atmospheric window band.

Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV)

The SBUV/2 was a non-spatially scanning, spectrally scanning sounding radiometer. It was designed to measure scene radiance and solar spectral irradiance in the spectral range from 160 to 406 nanometers (nm). In the discrete mode, measurements were made in 12 spectral bands from which the total ozone and vertical distribution of the ozone were deduced. The sweep mode provided a continuous spectral scan from 406 to 160 nm that was used primarily for solar spectral irradiance measurements. The half power FOV was 11.33 degrees or 172 km (106.9 mi).

Space Environment Monitor (SEM)

The SEM-2 provided measurements to determine the intensity of the Earth's radiation belts and data on charged particle precipitation phenomena in the upper atmosphere resulting from solar activity. It provided warnings of solar occurrences that could impair long-range radio communication or high-altitude manned operations.

The SEM-2 consisted of two separate sensor units and a common Data Processing Unit (DPU). The sensor units were the Total Energy Detector (TED) and the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED).

Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking System

The SARSAT system was designed to detect and locate Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) operating at 121.5, 243, and 406.05 MHz.

Data Collection System

The DCS/2 collected global telemetry data using a one-way radio frequency (RF) link 401.65 Mhz from data collection platforms in the form of buoys, free-floating balloons, and remote weather stations and processed these inputs for on-board storage and subsequent transmission from the satellite. For free-floating telemetry transmitters, the system determined the location within 5 km to 8 km root mean square (rms) and velocity to an accuracy of 1 meter per second (mps) to 1.6 mps rms. The DCS/2 supplements the GOES data collection system in collecting both the information from the more-northern and more-southern latitudes and the location data on free-floating transmitters.

AKA: NOAA KLM.
Gross mass: 3,775 kg (8,322 lb).
First Launch: 1983.03.28.
Last Launch: 2009.02.06.
Number: 10 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...
  • Titan The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Titan American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...
  • Atlas E American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial fully operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance system from Atlas F. Deployed as missiles from 1960 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used over twenty years as space launch vehicles. More...
  • Titan 2 American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, developed also as the launch vehicle for the manned Gemini spacecraft in the early 1960's. When the ICBM's were retired in the 1980's they were refurbished and a new series of launches began. More...
  • Titan 2G American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Space launch version, obtained through minimal refurbishment of decommissioned ICBM's. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NOAA American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Tiros TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. TIROS was followed by the TOS (TIROS Operational System) series, and then the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series, and later the NOAA series. TIROS spacecraft were developed by GSFC and managed by ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration). The objective was to establish a global weather satellite system. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Lockheed Martin Coporation, Atlas Family Fact Sheets, September 1998.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, NOAA-K Fact Sheet, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC3W Delta, Atlas launch complex. First designated LC1-1 and used to launch Atlas Agena B with Samos payloads. After Samos cancellation, rebuilt in 1963 to support launch of KH-4 Corona spysats atop Thor-Agena. Refurbished in 1973 to accomodate surplus Atlas ICBM's in space launch role. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC4W Titan, Atlas launch complex. First designated PALC2-3 and used to launch Atlas Agena D with KH-7 spysats. Rebuilt in 1966 to handle Titan 3B with various military payloads. From 1988 used to launch refurbished surplus Titan 2 ICBM's in space launch role. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC2W Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966. More...

Advanced Tiros N Chronology


1983 March 28 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 73E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • NOAA 8 - . Payload: NOAA E. Mass: 3,775 kg (8,322 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 13923 . COSPAR: 1983-022A. Apogee: 817 km (507 mi). Perigee: 793 km (492 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. Summary: Carried search and rescue package. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1984 December 12 - . 10:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 39E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • NOAA 9 - . Payload: NOAA F. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 15427 . COSPAR: 1984-123A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 833 km (517 mi). Inclination: 99.1000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1986 September 17 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 52E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • NOAA 10 - . Payload: NOAA G. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 16969 . COSPAR: 1986-073A. Apogee: 816 km (507 mi). Perigee: 795 km (493 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1988 September 24 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 63E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • NOAA 11 - . Payload: NOAA H. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 19531 . COSPAR: 1988-089A. Apogee: 854 km (530 mi). Perigee: 838 km (520 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Summary: Carried search & rescue package. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1993 August 9 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 34E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • NOAA 13 - . Payload: NOAA I. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 22739 . COSPAR: 1993-050A. Apogee: 860 km (530 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1994 December 30 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 11E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • NOAA 14 - . Payload: NOAA K. Mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 23455 . COSPAR: 1994-089A. Apogee: 861 km (534 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 98.8800 deg. Period: 102.02 min.

1998 May 13 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2G. LV Configuration: Titan II SLV 23G-12 / M68B-72 + M68B-80 + M68B-84.
  • NOAA 15 - . Payload: NOAA K. Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: RCA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N . USAF Sat Cat: 25338 . COSPAR: 1998-030A. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Perigee: 807 km (501 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. NOAA K carried a new microwave sensor in addition to the standard optical/near-infrared radiometers and imagers and the SARSAT search and rescue package. It was the first NOAA launch to use the Titan 23G launch vehicle, a refurbished ICBM. Titan 23G-12 placed NOAA K into a suborbital trajectory 6 minutes after launch. A Star 37XFP solid motor on the satellite fired at apogee to put NOAA K in orbit.

2000 September 21 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2G. LV Configuration: Titan II SLV 23G-13 / M68B-39 + M68B-96.
  • NOAA 16 - . Payload: NOAA-L. Mass: 1,476 kg (3,254 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 26536 . COSPAR: 2000-055A. Apogee: 867 km (539 mi). Perigee: 853 km (530 mi). Inclination: 98.7930 deg. Period: 102.06 min. Launch attempt on September 20 scrubbed. The NOAA polar orbit weather satellite, an Advanced Tiros N with a suite of imaging and sounding instruments. The two-stage Titan II launch vehicle, serial 23G-13, put NOAA-L into a suborbital -2500 x 800 km x 98.0 deg trajectory. The spacecraft's Thiokol Star 37XFP solid motor fired at apogee to circularize the sun-synchronous orbit at 800 km.

2005 May 20 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7320-XC. LV Configuration: Delta 7320-10C D312.
  • NOAA 18 - . Payload: NOAA-N. Mass: 1,420 kg (3,130 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 28654 . COSPAR: 2005-018A. Apogee: 866 km (538 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Delayed from June 30, 2004, February 12, March 10 and 19, May 11, 12, 13 and 14..

2009 February 6 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7320-XC.
  • NOAA 19 - . Payload: NOAA-O. Mass: 1,420 kg (3,130 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. USAF Sat Cat: 33591 . COSPAR: 2009-005A. Apogee: 867 km (538 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 102.10 min.

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