Encyclopedia Astronautica
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White Sands
Location of White Sands
Credit: © Mark Wade
USA

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Associated People
  • Tingle Tingle, Scott David (1965-) American test pilot astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Lindgren Lindgren, Kjell Norwood (1973-) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Rubins Rubins, Kathleen Hallisey "Kate" (1978-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Aunon Aun, Serena Maria (1976-) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Epps Epps, Jeanette Jo (1970-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Hopkins Hopkins, Michael Scott (1968-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Vande Hei Vande Hei, Mark Thomas (1966-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Wiseman Wiseman, Gregory Reid (1975-) American test pilot astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Barrett Barrett, Barbara McConnell (1950-) American space tourist, 2009-on. More...
  • Lowell Lowell, Percival (1855-1916) American astronomer; predicted the existence of the planet Pluto; enamoured with the prospect of life on Mars and theorized that its canals were the product of intelligent life; great influence on public thinking. More...
  • Millikan Millikan, Robert A (1868-1953) American physicist, Nobel prize winner, did early research on cosmic rays, built Caltech into preeminent engineering school. More...
  • von Karman von Karman, Theodore (1881-1963) Jewish Hungarian-American aerodynamicist, immensely influential, director of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at Caltech from 1930, where he trained a generation of engineers in theoretical aerodynamics and fluid dynamics. More...
  • Goddard Goddard, Robert Father of American spaceflight; launched first liquid-fuel rocket, 1926. By 1936, testing essentially modern rockets. But reclusive, took patents but did not share lessons learned. Aerojet and von Braun did not benefit from his experience. More...
  • Wilson, Charles Wilson, Charles E 'Electric Charlie' (1886-1972) American industrialist, headed General Electric and worked with Truman's Office of Defense Mobilization in the 1950s. More...
  • Arnold Arnold, Henry H 'Hap' (1886-1950) American officer. Commander of the Army Air Forces in WW2 More...
  • Hunsaker Hunsaker, Jerome C (1886-1984) American engineer. Organized and headed department of aeronautical engineering at MIT, 1939-1951. Influentical, and discouraged development of jet and rocket propulsion in the US before 1945. More...
  • Bonestell Bonestell, Chesley (1888-1986) Renowned American architectural artist who achieved greater fame as the illustrator of von Braun's vision of human space exploration in the 1950's. His realistic paintings inspired a generation of engineers to make space travel a reality. More...
  • Dulles Dulles, Allen W (1888-1959) American intelligence officer, Director of the CIA 1953-1961. Under his watch the secret U-2 and A-12 aircraft, and Corona spy satellite were developed. He was forced to retire after the Bay of Pigs debacle. More...
  • Bush, Vannevar Bush, Vannevar (1890-1974) American engineer, primary scientific adviser to Roosevelt and Truman, immensely influential in plans for nuclear weapons, missiles, aviation, and advanced propulsion 1939-1949. Discouraged early development of the ICBM. More...
  • Rude Rude, Arthur Harry (1890-1982) American manager. Vice-President of Aerojet, 1944-1966. More...
  • Wilson, Charles Erwin Wilson, Charles Erwin 'Engine Charlie' (1890-1961) American Manager, Eisenhower's Secretary of Defense 1953-1957, an ardent opponent of spaceflight. He had previously run GM, where he coined the phrase "What's good for General Motors is good for the country". More...
  • Eisenhower Eisenhower, Dwight David (1890-1969) President of the United States, 1953-1961; began development of Jupiter, Thor, Atlas, Titan, Polaris, and Minuteman - the foundation of US access to space. His distrust of of the military led him to create NASA to handle space programs. More...
  • Waterman Waterman, Alan T (1892-1967) American physicist. First director of the National Science Foundation, 1951-1963. Disputed authority for space science with NASA. More...
  • Victory Victory, John F (1893-1975) American manager, at NACA 1915-1960, credited with maintaining good working relatioship with Congress. More...
  • Quarles Quarles, Donald A (1894-1959) American manager, secretary of the Air Force 1955 -1957, deputy secretary of defense 1957- 1959. Played a key role in the Vanguard-Jupiter satellite launcher dispute. More...
  • Brucker Brucker, Wilber M (1894-1968) American politician. Secretary of the Army 1955-1961. More...
  • Kelly, Mervin Kelly, Mervin J (1894-1971) American physicist, at Bell Laboratories from 1934, President 1951-1959. Science advisor to NASA, 1961. More...
  • Reichelderfer Reichelderfer, Francis W (1895-1983) American meteorologist. Head of US Weather Bureau, 1938-1963. At the end of his tenure the first weather satellite was designed and orbited. More...
  • Dornberger Dornberger, Gen Dr.-Ing E h Walter Robert (1895-1980) German-American officer and manager. Head of Wehrmacht rocket development; recruited von Braun and led development and deployment of V-2. Post-war worked in US, notably for Bell on the BOMI rocket bomber. More...
  • Kindelberger Kindelberger, James H 'Dutch' (1895-1962) President, North American Aviation, 1934-1948; Chairman, CEO 1948-1960. Under his leadership NAA became the leading US supplier of fighters (P-51, F-86, F-100), high speed craft (Navaho, X-15, B-70), inertial navigation, and rocket engines. More...
  • Reid Reid, Henry J E (1895-1968) American engineer, at NASA 1921-1961, designed basic instruments for flight research. More...
  • DeFrance DeFrance, Smith J (1896-1985) American engineer. Designer and director of research for wind tunnels at Langley, 1922-1940, and Ames, 1940-1965. His work in the 1950's established blunt-body shapes for re-entry vehicles. More...
  • Kimball Kimball, Dan Able (1896-1970) American businessman, Vice President of Sales at General Tire, before becoming Head of Aerojet, 1944-1969, transforming it from an undisciplined group of rocket enthusiasts to the second largest US rocket engine manufacturer. More...
  • Doolittle Doolittle, James H (1896-1993) American officer. Noted aviator 1917-1940, led one-way raid on Tokyo in 1942. Post-WW2 through to Sputnik served on scientific advisory boards that shaped US space policy. More...
  • Gross Gross, Robert Ellsworth (1897-1961) American manager. President of Lockheed, 1932-1961. Took a bankrupt company and made it an aerospace leader, including the Polaris SLBM, KH- series of reconnsats, Agena upper stage, X-17 rocket, and U-2, SR-71, and Suntan aircraft projects. More...
  • Blaik Blaik, Earl Henry 'Red' (1897-1989) American businessman. Vice president and director of Avco, 1959-60, then director and chairman of executive committee in 1960. More...
  • Bronk Bronk, Detlev W (1897-1975) American scientist, president of the National Academy of Sciences, 1950-1962, and a member of the National Aeronautics and Space Council. President of Johns Hopkins University, 1949-1953, and Rockefeller University, 1953-1968. More...
  • Twining Twining, Nathan F (1897-1982) American USAF officer, chief of staff from 1953 and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1957-1960. During this period key decisions were made regarding ICBM, manned spacecraft, and military satellite development. More...
  • Dryden Dryden, Hugh L (1898-1965) American aerodynamicist, director of NACA (NASA's predecessor) 1947-1958. More...
  • Thompson, Floyd Thompson, Floyd L (1898-1976) American engineer, at NASA 1927-1968, chief of flight research and then headed Langley. More...
  • Crowley Crowley, John W 'Gus' (1899-1974) American engineer. Worked at Langley from 1921. NASA director of research from 1945 to 1959. More...
  • Vandenberg, Hoyt Vandenberg, Hoyt S (1899-1954) Immensely influential American officer, Air Force Chief of Staff in the late 1940's and 1950's during the formative period of rocketry development and the work on intercontinental ballistic missiles. More...
  • McDonnell McDonnell, James S (1899-1980) American engineer, president of McDonnell Aircraft 1939-1972. His innovative fighter designs were initially unsuccessful, but the F-4 and F-15 were the premier US fighters after 1960. Contractor for the Mercury, Gemini , and MOL spacecraft. More...
  • Axster Axster, Herbert Felix (1899-1991) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Urbanski Urbanski, Arthur P (1900-1977) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. As of 1960, Head of Mechanical Systems Analsysis Branch, Quality Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Huntsville. More...
  • Beckman Beckman, Arnold O (1900-2004) American engineer, inventor and manufacturer of various analytical instruments. More...
  • Brode Brode, Wallace Reed (1900-1974) American scientist. Associate director of the National Bureau of Standards 1947-1958. More...
  • Buchhold Buchhold, Theodore (1900-1984) German professor. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Wiesbaden, Germany. More...
  • Kistiakowsky Kistiakowsky, George B (1900-1982) American chemist, associated with the development of the atomic bomb, and later an advocate of banning nuclear weapons. More...
  • Chidlaw Chidlaw, Benjamin (1900-1977) American officer. Deputy, Material Command, 1945-1949; commanded several USAF research and development organizations 1949-1955. More...
  • Holaday Holaday, William M (1901-1995) American manager, special assistant to the secretary of defense for guided missiles 1957-1958, then DOD director of guided missiles in 1958 and chairman of the civilian-military liaison committee, 1958-1960. More...
  • Barnes, Pancho Barnes, Florence Lowe 'Pancho' (1901-1975) American pioneering aviatrix, from 1928 a barnstormer, air racer, Hollywood stunt flier; pioneered new air routes into Mexico. Opened a desert flying dude ranch in the 1930's, later a legendary watering hole for Edwards AFB test pilots. More...
  • Ball Ball, Erich K A (1901-1990) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • DuBridge DuBridge, Lee Alvin (1901-1994) American physicist. President of Caltech 1946-1969; Science Adviser to Presidents Truman and Nixon. More...
  • Draper Draper, Charles Stark (1901-1987) American engineer. Pioneered development of inertial navigation systems in the United States and designed the Apollo navigation system. More...
  • Burke Burke, Arleigh A (1901-1996) American officer. Chief of Naval Operations, 1955-1961, during development of the Polaris SLBM. More...
  • Disney Disney, Walt (1901-1966) Spanish-American creator of children's movies and amusement parks; produced a series of three crucial television programs in 1955-1957 that popularized von Braun's concepts for manned orbital, lunar, and Mars travel with the American public. More...
  • Symington Symington, Stuart (1901-1988) American politician, Senator 1953-1977, strong advocate of aerospace projects. More...
  • McCone McCone, John A (1902-1991) American manager, director of the Central Intelligence Agency 1961-1965, during initial exploitation of satellite reconnaisance systems. More...
  • Morgenstern Morgenstern, Oskar (1902-1977) German-American economist, came to the United States in 1925, and worked at Princeton after 1938. Founded Mathematica, which provided economic analyses to government, notoriously the study that found the shuttle cheaper than expendable LVs. More...
  • Craigie Craigie, Laurence C (1902-1994) American test pilot. First American to fly a jet aircraft, the XP-59. After WW2 he directed Air Force research and development programs. USAF deputy chief of staff for development, 1951-1954. Retired 1955 after a heart attack. More...
  • Lindbergh Lindbergh, Charles A (1902-1974) American pioneering aviator, first pilot to fly solo across the Atlantic in 1927. Appointed to senior government committees on aerospace development. Worked with Guggenheim to support Goddard's rocket development in Roswell in 1930s. More...
  • Utsch Utsch, Albert (1902-1970) German-American design engineer for McDonnell on the Mercury and Gemini spacecraft. More...
  • Medaris Medaris, John Bruce (1902-1990) American US Army officer, commanded Army Ballistic Missile Agency in the 1950's during development of Redstone, Jupiter, and Saturn I. More...
  • Fischel Fischel, Eduard Martin (1902-1984) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Bad Reichenhall, Bavaria, Germany. More...
  • Collins, Duncan Collins, Merwin Duncan (1902-1987) American engineer, son of a Pasadena street railway conductor, became head of Structural Design for the Atlas missile, who translated Charlie Bossart's weight-saving ideas and aims into practical and producible hardware designs. More...
  • Greenewalt Greenewalt, Crawford H (1902-1993) American businessman. President of duPont from 1948. Chaired committee in 1959-1960 that established national space objectives for NASA (which did not include any short-term ambitious manned programs). More...
  • Kaplan Kaplan, Joseph (1902-1991) Hungarian-American geophysicist, heavily involved in efforts in the 1950s to launch the first satellite, served as the chair of the US National Committee for the International Geophysical Year, 1953-1963. More...
  • Toftoy Toftoy, Holger N (1902-1967) American Army officer, expert in ordnance, responsible for transferring von Braun's rocket technology to the US in 1945. Commanded Huntsville 1954-1956. Held other rockt development posts until retirement in 1960. More...
  • Hager Hager, Karl Franz (1903-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Beduerftig Beduerftig, Hermann F (1903-1973) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Cabell Cabell, Charles P (1903-1971) American officer. USAF intelligence, Deputy Director, CIA 1953-1962. Promoted U-2 and Corona spy satellite. Forced to resign after Bay of Pigs debacle. More...
  • Neuhoefer Neuhoefer, Kurt Kunibert Karlmann (1903-1973) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hermann, Rudolf Hermann, Rudolf (1904-1991) German-American expert in supersonics during World War II. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Lindenberg Lindenberg, Hans (1904-1946) German-American rocket technician from Dresden. Died at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Bossart Bossart, Karel Jan 'Charlie' (1904-1975) Belgian-American Chief Designer of the Atlas rocket. Conceived many innovative features - balloon propellant tanks, common fuel/oxidizer bulkheads, jettisonable booster engines, separable nose cone, and gimballed engines. More...
  • Rhode Rhode, Richard V (1904-1994) American engineer, at NASA 1925-1967, involved with air and launch vehicle research and advanced design criteria. More...
  • Monroe Monroe, Jack Pendleton (1904-2006) American career naval officer who became a rear admiral in 1956. He served as commander of the Pacific Missile Range from 1957-1961 before becoming the Director of Astronautics for the Chief of Naval Operations from 1961-1963. More...
  • Vowe Vowe, Theo (1904-1989) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • De Beek De Beek, Gerd Wilhelm (1904-1989) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Bohlen Bohlen, Charles E 'Chip' (1904-1974) American diplomat. Career foreign service officer. More...
  • Atwood Atwood, W Leland 'Lee' (1904-1999) Chief Engineer at North American Aviation, 1948-1971. Supervised development of Navaho, X-15, XB-70, Apollo, and Space Shuttle. Fought indifference of the CEO to spaceflight, made the company preeminent in rocket engines, manned spaecraft. More...
  • McElroy McElroy, Neil H (1904-1972) American manager, secretary of defense 1957-1959. More...
  • Buckley Buckley, Edmond C (1904-1977) American engineer. Instrumentation and tracking expert at NASA, 1930 - 1969. Senior NASA official for tracking operations during the moon race, 1959-1969. More...
  • Feldman Feldman, George J (1904-) American businessman. Lawyer, financier, consultant to House Select Committee on Science and Astronautics in 1960, a director of Comsat 1962-1965. More...
  • Henning Henning, Alfred H (1904-) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Went to the USA with von Braun, by 1960, Deputy Director, Weapons System Coordination Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. More...
  • Killian Killian, James R (1904-1988) American scientist, president of MIT 1949-1965, served as Eisenhower's science advisor 1957-1959 in order to establish a national response to the Sputnik launch by the Soviet Union. More...
  • Berkner Berkner, Lloyd Viel (1905-1967) American engineer. Leading organiser of the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958 More...
  • Angele Angele, Wilhelm (1905-1996) German-American engineer. Avid amateur astronomer, control specialist in von Braun's Rocket Team. Became Head of Pilot Manufacturing Development Branch, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville. More...
  • Hosenthien Hosenthien, Hans Henning (1905-1996) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Eisenhardt Eisenhardt, Otto Karl (1905-1986) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Bennett Bennett, Rawson (1905-1967) American engineer. Chief of Naval Research from 1956 to 1961 More...
  • Power Power, Thomas (1905-1970) American USAF officer, commanded Air Research and Development Command, in 1950s during development of early missiles. Commander of SAC, 1957-1964, during the crash program to deploy the Atlas, Titan, and Minuteman ICBMs. More...
  • Maus Maus, Hans Hermann (1905-1999) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Glennan Glennan, T Keith (1905-1995) American engineer, NASA administrator 1958-1961. Under his tenure NASA was created from NACA, JPL, and ABMA. He acquired von Braun's rocket team and Saturn booster from the Army, and the Air Force manned space project - renamed Mercury. More...
  • Schulze Schulze, August Wilhelm (1905-2001) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Conlon Conlon, Emerson W (1905-1996) American engineer. Directed development of the D-558 transonic research aircraft for the Navy. Later Chair of the Aeronautical Engineerng Department at Michigan, holding several USAF and NASA management positions on leaves of absence. More...
  • Bode Bode, Hendrik W (1905-1982) American engineer, vice president of military development and systems engineering at Bell Telephone Laboratories 1958-1967. Worked for Bell from 1926 to 1967. More...
  • Corson Corson, John J (1905-1990) American bureaucrat. Management at McKinsey 1951-1966. Conducted several studies on NASA-JPL relations. More...
  • Wright, John Wright, John David (1905-) American manager, went to work for Thompson Products in 1933 and rose through the ranks until he became Chairman of the Board of Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge (TRW) in 1958. More...
  • Boyd Boyd, Albert (1906-1976) American test pilot, commanded Edwards AFB 1949-1951. More...
  • Johnson, Roy Johnson, Roy W (1906-1965) American manager at GE, first director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1958-1959, headed DoD's initial space efforts. More...
  • Spohn Spohn, Eberhard Julius (1906-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Heidelberg, Germany. More...
  • Kaschig Kaschig, Erich (1906-1988) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hueter Hueter, Hans (1906-1970) German-Swiss engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2. More...
  • Burden Burden, William AM (1906-1984) American engineer. Aviation consultant, served on the National Aeronautics and Space Council 1958-1959. More...
  • Gough Gough, Melvin N (1906-1994) American test pilot. At Langley from 1926. From 1943 director of flight research. Director of NASA activities at Cape Canaveral 1958-1960. More...
  • Abbott Abbott, Ira H (1906-1988) American aerodynamicist, at NASA 1929-1962; supervised the X-15, supersonic transport, nuclear rocket, and advanced reentry programs. More...
  • Beier Beier, Anton (1906-1960) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Stack Stack, John (1906-1972) American engineer, at NASA 1928-1962. Conducted fundamental research on transonic flight which resulted in X-1 being the first manned aircraft to break the sound barrier in 1947. More...
  • Ley Ley, Willy (1906-1969) German-American writer. German-American writer, extremely effective populariser of the idea of space flight - first in Germany and then in the United States. More...
  • Burose Burose, Walter W B (1906-1983) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Thereafter with the rocket team at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Webb Webb, James E (1906-1992) American manager, NASA Adminstrator 1961-1968. A savvy political operator and manager, he was singularly responsible for NASA being able to achieve the goal of landing a man on the moon by 1970. More...
  • Perkin Perkin, Richard S (1906-1969) American Manager. Richard S. Perkin was co-founder ad president of Perkin-Elmer Corp., 1937-1960, and then chairman of the board. More...
  • Lange, Hermann Lange, Hermann E (1906-1997) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Whipple Whipple, Fred L (1906-2004) American astronomer, popular writer on planetary exploration in the 1950's, who helped to fire the public's imagination and enthusiasm for space exploration. More...
  • Rudolph Rudolph, Arthur Louis Hugo (1906-1996) German-American rocket engineer, with Valier in 1931, von Braun from 1934. Planned V-2 production. Program manager for Redstone, Pershing, and the Saturn V. Retired 1970, but named as a war criminal, returned to Germany in 1984. More...
  • LeMay LeMay, Curtis E (1906-1990) American USAF officer, created the Strategic Air Command as a special nuclear-armed force, including its ICBM components, 1947-1965. More...
  • Gates Gates, Thomas S (1906-1983) American manager. Navy Undersecretary 1953-1957; Secretary of the Navy 1957-1959, Secretary of Defense from 1959-1961. Under his watch Polaris was developed by the Navy and innumerable DOD space programs were begun. More...
  • Hintze Hintze, Guenther (1906-) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at El Paso, Texas. More...
  • Hess Hess, Harry H (1906-1969) American geologist. Senior scientist involved in analysing the lunar samples returned to Earth by Project Apollo. More...
  • Nitze Nitze, Paul H (1907-2004) American manager, director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 1944-1946, senior defense department positions 1961-1969. More...
  • Rothe Rothe, Heinrich (1907-2005) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Luehrsen Luehrsen, Hannes (1907-1986) German-American architect. Member of von Braun's team at Peenemuende and in US; designed the buildings, roads, and infrastructure at Peenemuende and at Huntsville. More...
  • Tschinkel Tschinkel, Johann G (1907-2004) German-Austrian rocket technician, arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Fluent in English prior to arrival in the United States. Died in Tallahassee, Florida. More...
  • Kuers Kuers, Werner (1907-1983) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Bergeler Bergeler, Herbert R (1907-1996) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Peenemuende, Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Heinlein Heinlein, Robert A (1907-1988) Leading American writer of technical science fiction, inspired many engineers that would later make space travel a reality. Major corporations, the military, and nuclear power were key aspects of the colonization of space in his stories. More...
  • Dorman Dorman, Bernhardt L (1907-1999) Jewish-American engineer. Key Aerojet employee, 1943-1972. More...
  • Mueller, Fritz Mueller, Fritz (1907-2001) German-American guidance system specialist, at Kreiselgeraete from 1933. Worked for von Braun in Germany and America, 1936-1960, involved in guidance platforms for Redstone, Jupiter, Pershing, and Saturn I. Went to private industry in 1960. More...
  • Nichols Nichols, Kenneth D (1907-2000) American manager, involved in directing the guided missile research and development effort for the Secretary of Defense in the early 1950's. More...
  • Wittmann Wittmann, Albin (1907-1988) German-American engineer. Member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. As of 1960, Head of Electrical Systems Analsyis Branch, Quality Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Kurzweg Kurzweg, Hermann H (1908-2000) German-American aerodynamicist, at Peenemuende, then US Naval Ordnance 1946-1960, NASA 1960-1974. More...
  • Johnson, Lyndon Johnson, Lyndon B (1908-1973) American politician, Senator 1949-1961, Vice President 1960-1963, President 1963-1969; huge supporter of civilian space flight, instrumental in creating NASA, and providing the political and budgetary support for the Apollo moon landing progra More...
  • Steinhoff, Ernst Steinhoff, Ernst August Wilhelm (1908-1987) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Teller Teller, Edward (1908-2003) Jewish Hungarian-American physicist, American Father of the H-Bomb. A dedicated cold warrior. Founded Livermore laboratory, convinced Reagan to proceed with 'Star Wars' using nuclear-bomb-pumped x-ray laser. More...
  • Ackley Ackley, Robert N 'Bob' (1908-1972) American engineer. Head of Atlas missile testing in the earliest part of the program Ackley, son of a violin repairman, was head of Atlas missile testing in the earliest part of the program. More...
  • Henning, Bruno Henning, Bruno (1908-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Engineer who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. More...
  • Rees Rees, Eberhard Friedrich Michael (1908-1998) German-American engineer, von Braun's right hand man, in charge of manufacturing 1940-1969 for V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and rockets stages for Saturn LVs that took America to the moon. Succeeded von Braun as Director at Huntsville 1970-1973. More...
  • Schomburg Schomburg, August (1908-1972) American US Army US Army Officer. August Schomburg was a career Army officer who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. From 1960 to 1962 he was commander of the Army missile ordnance command at Redstone Arsenal. More...
  • Hagen Hagen, John P (1908-1990) American astronomer. At NRL from 1935. Director, Vanguard program, 1955-1962. Thereafter professor of astronomy, Penn State. More...
  • Boehm Boehm, Josef Maria (1908-1973) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Silverstein Silverstein, Abe (1908-2001) American engineer. Chaired committee that set NASA's spaceflight plans for the 1960's. Director, NASA Cleveland 1961-1970. More...
  • Nowak, Max Nowak, Max Ernst (1908-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Dunn Dunn, Louis G (1908-1979) American engineer. At Ramo-Woolridge headed oversight of development of the Thor, Titan, Atlas, and Minuteman missiles for the USAF More...
  • Mandel Mandel, Carl Heinz (1908-1982) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II, member of von Braun rocket team. As of 1960, Head of Gyro and Stabliizer Branch, Guidance and Control Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Madison, Alabama. More...
  • Debus Debus, Kurt Heinrich (1908-1983) German-American engineer. At Peenemuende from 1940, designed and operated V-2 test launch facility. In US from 1945, headed design, build, and operation of launch facilities for the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and Saturn rockets for Apollo. More...
  • Parsons, John Parsons, John F (1908-1969) American engineer, at NASA 1931-1956, led design, construction, and operation of wind tunnels at Ames. More...
  • Dhom Dhom, Friedrich (1909-1988) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Brownsboro, Texas. More...
  • Schwarz, Friedrich Schwarz, Friedrich Wilhelm (1909-1961) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Phoenix, Arizona. More...
  • Duerr Duerr, Friedrich (1909-2000) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Paul Paul, Hans (1909-1980) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Bonney Bonney, Walter T (1909-1975) American journalist. Worked for NACA from 1949. NASA Director of Public Relations, 1958-1960. Avco Director of Public Relations 1960-1971. More...
  • Roth Roth, Ludwig (1909-1967) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Brackett Brackett, Ernest W (1909-1991) American bureaucrat. Director of NASA Procurement 1960-1968. More...
  • Milde Milde, Hans Walter (1909-1990) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. Died at Grant, Alabama. More...
  • Paetz Paetz, Robert Heinrich Karl (1909-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Bronwell Bronwell, Arthur B (1909-1985) American electrical engineer, professor at Northwestern University, then president of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute from 1955-1962, then the dean of engineering at the University of Connecticut at Storrs. More...
  • Barclay Barclay, John A (1909-1983) American officer. Commander of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency from 1958 More...
  • Bissell Bissell, Richard M (1909-1994) American CIA official who headed development of the U-2 and A-12 spy planes, and the first generation of spy satellites. Deputy Director for Plans at the time of the Bay of Pigs debacle, which resulted in his resignation. More...
  • Helm Helm, Bruno (1909-1987) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Neubert Neubert, Erich Walter (1910-1999) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Heimberg Heimburg, Karl Ludwig (1910-1997) German-American engineer. Worked in Japan 1937-1941, then at Peenemuende. Worked on test stands for Wasserfall and A4b. Helped with Backfire. Then joined von Braun team, becoming Director, Test Division, in Huntsville. More...
  • Johnson, Kelly Johnson, Clarence L 'Kelly' (1910-1990) American engineer, at Lockheed 1933-1975, headed 'Skunk Works' design shop, responsible for F-80, F-104, Suntan, U-2,, and SR-71 designs among many others. More...
  • Reisig Reisig, Gerhard Herbert Richard (1910-2005) German engineer. Expert in guided missile guidance, telemetry, and control, working for von Braun from 1937. Worked for Dornberger on Wasserfall SAM from 1943. Member of von Braun's Rocket Team in the US from 1947. More...
  • Overhage Overhage, Carl FJ (1910-1995) American physicist, director of Lincoln Laboratories 1957-1964. More...
  • Phoebus Phoebus, Clifford P (1910-1984) American naval aviator, flight surgeon and medical corps officer who rose to the rank of captain in 1953 and was commander of the U.S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine in Pensacola, Florida, from 1960-1964. More...
  • Brodie Brodie, Bernard (1910-1978) American scientist. Political scientist, specialized in Cold War strategy, member of Rand. More...
  • Gruene Gruene, Hans (1910-1980) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Jones, Robert Jones, Robert 'RT' (1910-1999) American engineer, credited by NASA as inventor of the swept-back and oblique wing concepts. More...
  • Schnarowski Schnarowski, Heinz Ludwig (1910-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Stapp Stapp, John Paul (1910-1999) American USAF flight surgeon. In 1946-1958 pioneer research with rocket sleds and balloons; defined human tolerances for G-forces, altitude, and blast, essential data for design of aerospacecraft. Personally underwent the most grueling tests. More...
  • Hyatt Hyatt, Abraham (1910-1998) American engineer. Navy chief aeronautics scientist, 1948-1958. Director positions at NASA, 1959-1964. After 1965 corporated director at NA. More...
  • MacNabb MacNabb, Byron Gordon (1910-1997) American engineer. Headed Convair operations at Cape Canaveral throughout development flight test of the Atlas. More...
  • Schriever Schriever, Bernard A (1910-2005) Key German-American military manager of development of the Thor, Atlas, Titan, and Minuteman ballistic missiles. More...
  • Luedecke Luedecke, Alvin R (1910-1998) American manager. Air force nuclear weapons and propulsion liaison positions, 1949-1958. General Manager AEC 1958-1964; Deputy Director JPL 1964-1967. More...
  • Drawe Drawe, Gerhardt (1910-1996) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Goett Goett, Harry J (1910-2000) American engineer. At Langley from 1936, headed flight research at Ames 1958-1959, director of Goddard 1959-1965. Headed important 1960 committee that established NASA LV development plans. At Ford Aerospace from 1965. More...
  • Pickering Pickering, William H (1910-2004) New Zealand-American Chief Designer, Director JPL, 1954-1976. Under his leadership the first successful probes to earth orbit, the Moon, Venus, and Mars were designed, built, and flown (Explorer, Pioneer, Ranger, Mariner,Surveryor, Viking). More...
  • Hayward Hayward, John Tucker (1910-) American officer. Naval liasison to Manhattan Project and Sandia. Deputy commanding officer for research and development, USN, 1957-1963. More...
  • Lipp Lipp, James E (1910-) American engineer, at Douglas, 1935-1948; at Rand from 1948, heading its aerospace division. More...
  • Pierce Pierce, John R (1910-) American engineer, commonly referred to as the inventor of the communications satellite in 1954. He worked for 35 years as an engineer at Bell Labs and then worked at the California Institute of Technology and its Jet Propulsion Laboratory. More...
  • Schwidetzky Schwidetzky, Walter Hans (1910-) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Living in San Diego, California in 2004. More...
  • Wade Wade, David (1910-) American USAF Officer. David Wade was a career Air Force officer who advanced to the rank of lieutenant general in 1964. He was commander of the 1st Missile Division from 1958 to 1961 and later commanded the 16th, 2d, and 8th Air Forces. More...
  • Reagan Reagan, Ronald (1911-2004) American politician, president of the USA 1981-1989. Initiated 'Star Wars' strategic defences and Space Station Freedomt. Confronted the Soviet Union with a heavy aerospace buildup which they could not match, contributing to their collapse. More...
  • Wakelin Wakelin, James H (1911-1990) American manager, assistant secretary of the Navy (research and development) 1959-1964. More...
  • Ridenour Ridenour, Louis Nicot (1911-1959) American physicist, served in leading academic, industry, and government positions, notably as chief scientist with the US Air Force in the early 1950s. More...
  • Bauschinger Bauschinger, Oscar (1911-1989) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Friedrich, Hans Friedrich, Hans Rudolph (1911-1958) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Schilling Schilling, Martin (1911-2002) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Mrazek Mrazek, Willi (1911-1992) German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from early days, but sent to Russian Front before being returned. A loads engineer, he went with von Braun to the US and became Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, at Huntsville. More...
  • Humphrey Humphrey, Hubert H (1911-1978) American politician, in Senate 1949-1964 and 1971-1978, Vice President 1965-1969. In 1958 pressed for creation of a cabinet-level Department of Science and Technology, but defeated by Eisenhower's proposal to establish NASA. More...
  • Wexler Wexler, Harry (1911-1962) American meteorologist, at US Weather Bureau 1934-1961. One of the first scientists to envision using satellites for meteorological purposes and known as the father of the Tiros satellite. More...
  • Standley Standley, Lloyd William (1912-1998) American engineer. Chief of Mechanical Design for the Atlas. More...
  • Hoelzer Hoelzer, Helmut (1912-1987) German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from 1939 on V-2 guidance system and Messina telemetry system. Led similar efforts for von Braun's later missiles, becoming Director, Computation Division, at Huntsville. More...
  • Schlitt Schlitt, Helmut Wilhelm Emil (1912-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hoelker Hoelker, Rudi (1912-2003) German-American engineer. Member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. As of 1960, Deputy Director, Aeroballistics Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Cambridge, Massachusetts. More...
  • Golovin Golovin, Nicholas E (1912-1969) American physicist. NRL, 1946-1948; NBS 1949-1958; NASA 1960. Chaired seminal NASA-DOD large launch vehicle planning group 1961. White House technical advisor for aviation and space 1962-1968. More...
  • von Braun von Braun, Wernher (1912-1977) German-American chief designer, leader of the 'Rocket Team'; developed the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and the Saturn rockets that took US to the moon. He made the idea of space travel popular in the 1950's and a reality in the 1960's. More...
  • Sieber Sieber, Werner (1912-1995) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Seaborg Seaborg, Glenn T (1912-1999) American physicist, chair of the Atomic Energy Commission 1961-1971. More...
  • Fuhrmann Fuhrmann, Herbert Walter (1912-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Heusinger Heusinger, Bruno (1912-1973) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Huzel Huzel, Dieter Karl F (1912-1994) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Horn Horn, Helmut (1912-1994) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Pace Pace, Frank (1912-1988) American manager, Secretary of the Army, 1950-1953, president of General Dynamics 1953-1962. During his tenure General Dynamics acquired Convair and other companies and became a leading defense and space contractor. More...
  • Tessmann Tessmann, Bernhard (1912-1998) Austrian-German engineer, leading engine test at Peenemuende from 1936. In 1943 evacuated to Koelpinsee; designed V-2 mobile launcher and planned Zement facility at Ebensee. In US from 1945, worked as von Braun's Deputy Director for Testing. More...
  • Hoberg Hoberg, Otto August (1912-1991) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Malina Malina, Frank J (1912-1981) American engineer, one of the inventors of the American liquid fuel rocket at CalTech in the 1930's. Led development of the WAC-Corporal rocket, but uninterested in military projects. Moved to Paris to work with UN and later was an artist. More...
  • Forman Forman, Edward S (1912-1973) Early American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet More...
  • Dannenberg Dannenberg, Konrad (1912-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Gengelbach Gengelbach, Werner Kurt (1912-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Jackson Jackson, Henry M (1912-1983) American politician. Powerful Congressman, serving from 1940-1986. In the 1950's a leading advocate of greater attention to the development of the U.S. missile program. More...
  • Lindenmayer Lindenmayer, Hans Josef (1912-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Stein Stein, Joseph A (1912-) American journalist and public information manager at NASA 1955-on. More...
  • Nixon Nixon, Richard M (1913-1994) American politician, President of the US 1969-1974; allowed the Apollo and Skylab programs to complete, but denied NASA funds for its enormous post-Apollo program. He set budget limitations resulting in a partially-reusable shuttle design. More...
  • Muehlner Muehlner, Joachim Wilhelm (1913-2004) German-American radio engineer, at Peenemuende from 1939 . One of the few of von Braun's team that worked on all major programs, from the doppler transponder for the V-2 to the electronic landing systems for the Space Shuttle in 1978. More...
  • Casey Casey, William (1913-1987) American intelligence officer. CIA Chief under Reagan, 1981-1987. Oversaw massive increase in CIA budget, including that for space activities. More...
  • Patt Patt, Kurt Paul Erich (1913-1969) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Porter Porter, Richard W (1913-1996) American engineer; his 400-strong GE team at Malta, NY, built US versions of the V-2 and Wasserfall, and engine for Vanguard. Influential, on many committees, but Malta was a dead-end, and closed in 1984. More...
  • Haukohl Haukohl, Guenther (1913-2002) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Fubini Fubini, Eugene G (1913-1997) Italian-American physicist. Worked for the US military in a succession of technical and scientific position 1942-1969. More...
  • Grau Grau, Dieter (1913-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Ross, Chan Ross, Chandler Cole 'Chan' (1913-1991) American engineer. Director of numerous advanced projects at Aerojet (including Aerotojet, Aerorocket, NERVA). More...
  • Zeiler Zeiler, Albert Franz (1913-1976) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died in Florida. More...
  • Steurer Steurer, Wolfgang Hermann (1913-1986) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Wooldridge Wooldridge, Dean E (1913-2006) American engineer, co-founder of TRW in 1953, director of TRW STL 1962-on. More...
  • Voss, Werner Voss, Werner (1913-1993) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Chavez Chavez, Salomon E 'Sol' (1913-2001) Hispanic-American engineer. Atlas missile test supervisor, 1958-1973. More...
  • Beichel Beichel, Rudi (1913-1999) German-American engineer, on von Braun's team, but left to independently advise US Army on liquid propulsion. Joined Aerojet in 1956, worked on Lox/LH2 Titan I engine conversion, Aerojet large engine studies, and USAF ARES single-stage ICBM. More...
  • Ames Ames, Milton B (1913-1992) American engineer, at NASA in leadership positions, 1936-1972. More...
  • Gilruth Gilruth, Robert R (1913-2000) American engineer, at NASA 1937-1952. Head of Mercury, 1959-1962, Director, Houston, 1962-1972. Under his leadership Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were designed and flown, America won the moon race, and the shuttle was designed. More...
  • Kershner Kershner, Robert B (1913-1982) American Chief Designer. Developer of the Transit navigation satellite system. More...
  • Gerrity Gerrity, Thomas Patrick (1913-1968) American officer. Head of Air Force ballistic missile programs 1960-1961. More...
  • Hirschler Hirschler, Otto Heinrich (1913-2001) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Stuhlinger Stuhlinger, Ernst (1913-2008) German-American engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2. More...
  • Clauser Clauser, Francis H (1913-) American aerodynamicist, at Douglas 1937-1946; Johns Hopkins, 1946-1960; Caltech 1969-1980. More...
  • Ford, Gerald Ford, Gerald R (1913-) American politician. House of Representatives 1948-1973; Vice President 1973-1974; President 1974-1977. No new space initatives, stewarded Nixon's program of ending Apollo, single Apollo-Soyuz flight, continued Shuttle development. More...
  • Kantrowitz Kantrowitz, Arthur (1913-) American physicist, founded Avco-Everett in 1955. Vice president and director of Avco Corporation, 1856-1978. More...
  • Morris Morris, Brooks (1913-1961) American Engineer. Brooks Morris was an aerospace engineer who worked as a manager of quality assurance and reliability at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1961-1981. More...
  • Rogers, William Rogers, William P (1913-) American politician, chair of the presidentially-mandated blue ribbon commission investigating the Challenger accident in January 1986 More...
  • Withee Withee, Wallace W (1913-) American engineer. Member of the Atlas management team; headed test operations. More...
  • Wasielewski Wasielewski, Eugene W (1913-1972) American engineer, at NASA 1947-1960, developing major engine-testing laboratories and supersonic wind tunnels. More...
  • Heller Heller, Gerhard Bernhard (1914-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Minning Minning, Rudolf Friederich Franz (1914-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Klaus Klaus, Ernst E (1914-1986) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Tiller Tiller, Werner (1914-1974) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Kroll Kroll, Gustav (1914-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hellebrandt Hellebrandt, Emil A H, (1914-1981) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Van Allen Van Allen, James A (1914-2006) American astrophysicist; his experiment carried aboard the first American satellite established the existence of radiation belts that encircled the Earth; also very active in sounding rocket experiments. More...
  • Rosinski Rosinski, Werner Kurt-Otto (1914-2000) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Parsons Parsons, John Marvel Whiteside 'Jack' (1914-1952) American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet, inventor of solid rocket propellant and American inventor of the storable liquid rocket. Dabbled in the occult, expelled from Aerojet on DoD orders. Killed mixing rocket fuel in his garage. More...
  • Lindner Lindner, Kurt A (1914-1960) German-American engineer. Member of the von Braun's Rocket Team, became director of the Guidance and Control Laboratory of the Research and Development Division at Huntsville. More...
  • Guendel Guendel, Herbert Hans (1914-1976) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Boston, New York. More...
  • Charles Charles, Robert H (1914-) American bureaucrat who developed several disastrous contracting models for the US government. As assistant to NASA Administrator 1963-1965, developed Apollo contracts; as Assistant Secretary USAF 1965-1969, developed C-5 contract models. More...
  • Donovan Donovan, Allen Frances (1914-) American engineer. Headed aeronautical mechanics department at Cornell 1946-1955. Senior Vice President, technical, Aerospace Corp, 1960-1978. More...
  • Haeussermann Haeussermann, Walter (1914-) German-American engineer. Worked on V-2 gyro platform at Peenemuende 1939-1942. Returned to von Braun's team in US in 1948, working on Hermes II and Redstone guidance systems, becoming Director, Guidance and Control Division, at Huntsville. More...
  • Ostrander Ostrander, Don Richard (1914-1972) American USAF officer, director of NASA launch vehicle programs and Saturn project, 1959-1961; vice commander USAF BMD 1961-1965. More...
  • Peery Peery, David J (1914-) American engineer. Influential aerospace structures engineer; proved integrity of Atlas balloon tank. More...
  • Rosenbaum Rosenbaum, Mortimer (1914-) American engineer. Vice President of Engineering for the Atlas program. More...
  • Sendler Sendler, Karl (1914-) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Schlidt Schlidt, Rudolf Karl Hans (1914-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Rosen, Milton Rosen, Milton W (1915-) American engineer, at NRL 1940-1957. Supervised Viking rocket 1947-1955, Vanguard rocket 1955-1958. Took the fall for Vanguard's loss of space race to Sputnik. At NASA 1958-1974, involved in key launch vehicle decisions 1958-1963. More...
  • Thiel, Adolf Thiel, Adolf Karl (1915-2001) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Palos Verdes Estates, California. More...
  • Woerdemann Woerdemann, Hugo H (1915-1999) German-American radio systems engineer, first worked with early rocketeers in 1934. Member of the Rocket Team at Peenemuende and the United States until 1950; thereafter working in radio technology for North American Aviation and his own firm, Magnetic Research Corporation. Died a grapefruit rancher in Temecula, California. More...
  • Klein, Johann Klein, Johann (1915-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Horowitz, Norman Horowitz, Norman H (1915-2005) American biologist, at Caltech from 1940, worked at JPL on the Viking Mars lander program. More...
  • Bergen Bergen, William (1915-1987) American Chief Designer. Oversaw the development of the Viking and Titan rockets at Martin. After the Apollo fire, hired by North American to get Apollo to the moon. Stayed on during design of the Space Shuttle and B-1 bomber. More...
  • Hoover, George Hoover, George W (1915-1998) American naval officer and early space enthusiast, who, at ONR, became a driving force behind the Skyhook, D-558-1, and a supporter of von Braun's Project Orbiter. More...
  • Schuler Schuler, Albert E (1915-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Wiesner Wiesner, Jerome B (1915-1994) American scientist. Physicist, gadfly, science advisor to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy; opposed human spaceflight, the Apollo program, and the lunar orbit rendezvous method of lunar landing. More...
  • Ridley Ridley, Jack (1915-1957) American test pilot. Technical lead for pioneering rocketplanes at Edwards AFB 1946-1956. Killed in transport aircraft crash, 1957. More...
  • Ames, Charles Ames, Charles Stuart 'Charlie' (1915-1988) American engineer, son of an iron works machinist, Project Engineer on the MX-774 and early Atlas programs. He was remembered as rock-solid, smart, practical, able to obtain the best designs by trading off inter-departmental concepts. More...
  • Storms Storms, Harrison Allen (1915-1992) American Chief Designer who led development of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn S-II at North American. Earlier he had led the company to dominance in high-speed flight, with the X-15, F-108, and B-70. Scapegoated for the the Apollo fire. More...
  • Geissler Geissler, Ernst (1915-1989) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Maloy Maloy, Travis L (1915-2006) American engineer. Manager of flight test and launch operations for the Atlas. More...
  • Kety Kety, Seymour S (1915-2000) American physician, chair of NASA's bioscience advisory committee in 1959. More...
  • Lanphier Lanphier, Thomas G (1915-1987) American manager, as pilot in WW2, one of the group that shot down Yamamoto in 1943. Secretary of the Air Force, 1949-1950; VP at Convair,1951-1960, at Raytheon from 1962. More...
  • Tucker Tucker, Charles American test pilot. Flew the X-5 # 1. More...
  • Goddard, Frank Goddard, Frank E (1915-) American aerodynamicist. Chief of aerodynamics at JPL; moved into management positions 1959-1962. More...
  • Gray Gray, Edward Z (1915-) American engineer. At Boeing Co. 1943-1963 working on jets, then DynaSoar and Minuteman. NASA director of advanced manned missions, 1963-1967. At Grumman 1967-1973, then NASA 1978-1979, finally at Bendix. More...
  • Johnson, John Johnson, John A (1915-) American manager, senior management positions and then CEO at Comsat, 1963-1980. More...
  • Katz Katz, Amron Harry (1915-) American physicist. At Rand, 1954-1969; specialist aerospace reconnaissance. Amron Harry Katz was a physicist who worked with the Rand Corp, Santa Monica, California, between 1954 and 1969. He was a specialist aerospace reconnaissance. More...
  • Newell Newell, Homer E (1915-1983) American physicist, at NRL 1944-1958, NASA 1958-1973. Leading advocate of use of sounding rockets for atmospheric and space research. More...
  • Roberts, Walter Roberts, Walter O (1915-1990) American astronomer, heavily involved in the debate over "nuclear winter" and the possibility of the "Greenhouse Effect" on the Earth in 1980s. More...
  • Nash Nash, J S American test pilot. Flew the X-4 # 2. More...
  • Stewart, Homer Stewart, Homer J (1915-) American engineer, worked on rocketry and robotic space exploration at Caltech, JPL, and NASA 1938-1967. More...
  • Siepert Siepert, Albert F (1915-) American manager. NASA, 1958-1969; Deputy Director, Kennedy Space Center 1963-1969. More...
  • Castenholtz Castenholtz, Daniel D American engineer. Manager of J-2 engine development at Rocketdyne. More...
  • Saurma von Saurma, Friedrich und Hans German-American rocket engine designer, worked at Huntsville with von Braun. Ranking Prussian aristrocrat of the German rocket team. His wife was von Braun's personal secretary. More...
  • Gavin Gavin, Jospeh American Manager. Grumman Vice Presidnet for Space Programs during development of the Apollo Lunar Module. More...
  • Wehner Wehner, R S (1915-) American Engineer. R.S. Wehner was research scientist with the Radio Corporation of America, 1943-1945; Airborne Instrument Laboratory, 1945-1948; the Rand Corp., 1948-1951; and the Hughes Aircraft Co., 1951-1959. More...
  • Zolke Zolke, Helmut Max Arthur (1915-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Kennedy Kennedy, John F (1916-1963) American polictician, President of the United States, 1961-1963. Declared the goal of landing an American on the moon by 1970 in 1961 as a means of beating the Soviet Union in the space race. More...
  • Bridgeman Bridgeman, William Barton (1916-1968) American test pilot, 1949-1960. Flew the D-558-2 rocketplane and X-3. Declared the latest "The Fastest Man Alive" in 1951. More...
  • McNamara McNamara, Robert S (1916-) American Secretary of Defense under Kennedy and Johnson, 1961-1968. Supported offloading manned space to NASA, killed X-20 Dynasoar, Blue Gemini, and SAINT. Created MOL as substitute. More...
  • Stanley Stanley, Wellington J 'Bill' (1916-2002) American engineer. Headed Atlas process engineering and facilities planning. More...
  • Bikle Bikle, Paul F (1916-1991) American engineer. Worked at Wright Field and Edwards AFB from 1940. Director NASA Edwards 1959-1971. Oversaw projects from the XB-43 through the X-15 to the NASA lifting bodies. More...
  • Finzel Finzel, Alfred Johannes (1916-1984) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Lilly Lilly, Howard Clifton 'Tick' (1916-1948) American test pilot. Flew the XS-1; died in a crash of the D-558-1. More...
  • Feltz Feltz, Charles H (1916-2003) Leading American space engineer. At North American 1940-1981. Chief Engineer on X-15, Apollo, and Space Shuttle. 1974-1981 served as Rockwell corporate trouble-shooter. More...
  • Rostow Rostow, Walt W (1916-2003) American economist, assistant to presidents Kennedy and Johnson for national security affairs. More...
  • Odishaw Odishaw, Hubert 'Hugh' (1916-1984) American scientist, executive director of the US National Committee for the International Geophysical Year, 1954-1965 More...
  • Summerfield Summerfield, Martin (1916-1996) American scientist. Early American rocket pioneer; co-founder of Aerojet in 1943; American inventor of regenerative cooling for liquid rocket engines. Left in 1944 for theoretical studies and academia, teaching at Princetone 1949-1994. More...
  • Durant Durant, Frederick C (1916-) American writer. Space exploration advocate. Engineer at Bell and several government laboratories 1945-1965; Director of Astronautics at NASM; President ARS and IAF 1953-1956; author of several works on space history. More...
  • Krieger Krieger, Robert L (1916-1990) American engineer, at NASA 1936-1981. Headed Wallops Island facility, 1948-1981. During his career there, Wallops launched thousands of test vehicles, including 19 satellites. More...
  • Moore Moore, John R (1916-) American engineer, developed pioneering inertial navigation and automated flight control systems for Navaho, leading to systems for the X-15, B-70, and Apollo, making North American the premier US contractor for advanced inertial navigation. More...
  • Stever Stever, Horton Guyford (1916-) American physicist, led numerous US government committees, advisory positions, and panels on science policy from 1947-1986. More...
  • Tepper Tepper, Morris (1916-) American meteorologist, served in key earth observation posts at NASA 1959-1979. More...
  • Wozniak Wozniak, Frank (1916-) American engineer. Member of Atlas engineering team. More...
  • Woolams Woolams, Jack (1917-1946) American Bell test pilot, flew XP-59A and XS-1. Killed in an air crash during a practice flight for a race that was to occur the next day. More...
  • Dahm Dahm, Werner Karl (1917-2008) German-American aerodynamicist, worked at Peenemuende on A9/A10, A7, A4b, and Wasserfall winged missiles. Post-war completed studies, joined von Braun team in US as Head of Aerodynamics Analysis Branch, Aeroballistics Division, Huntsville. More...
  • Shapley Shapley, Willis H (1917-2005) American manager, served at NASA 1965-1975 and 1987-1988. More...
  • Ehricke Ehricke, Krafft Arnold (1917-1984) Visionary German-American engineer. Protege of Thiel at Peenemuende; early concepts for nuclear and Lox/LH2 engines. Left von Braun team, developed Centaur at Convair 1956-1964. Prolific output of advanced concepts, but poor program manager. More...
  • Kamm Kamm, Robert W (1917-2001) American aerodynamicist, at NASA 1939-1946, 1959-1968. Served in NASA California management positions. More...
  • Prophett Prophett, Philip M (1917-1999) American engineer. Convair chief test pilot; took Atlas ICBM base activation through its most critical phase. More...
  • Ulmer Ulmer, Ralph E (1917-1985) American engineer, at NASA 1938-1973, budget officer and program analyst. More...
  • Davies Davies, Merton E (1917-2001) American scientist, worked for Douglas 1940-1948 and then RAND. Conceptual work on reconnaisance satellites led to the Corona program. Involved at JPL in early Mars imaging missions, establishing the reference systems for other planets. More...
  • Young, Robert Young, Robert B (1917-1979) American engineer. Key manager at Aerojet, working there from the 1940's, responsible for the rocket engines for the Titan, the Apollo SPS, and Shuttle OMS. More...
  • Michel, Josef Michel, Josef Martin (3797-1997) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Zisch Zisch, William E 'Bill' (1917-1998) American business manager of Aerojet, 1942-1966. No college degree or scientific training, but he led Aerojet from five employees to $700 million annual sales of JATO, Polaris, Aerobee, Delta, Titan, Apollo SPS, M-1 and Nerva rocket engines. More...
  • Fichtner Fichtner, Hans Joachim Oskar (1917-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Horner Horner, Richard E (1917-) American USAF officer, associated with aerospace activities through out his career, pilot during World War II, and duty between 1945 and 1949 as director of flight test engineering at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Kellogg Kellogg, William W (1917-) American Meteorologist. William W. Kellogg was a meteorologist with the Rand Corp. between 1947 and 1959. Thereafter, he held a senior position with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado. More...
  • Phillips, Franklyn Phillips, Franklyn W (1917-) American engineer, at NASA 1941-1964. Administered variety of aircraft and missile programs in 1950's. Assistant to NASA administrator 1958-1962. More...
  • Patterson Patterson, William Howell (1917-1999) American engineer. Part of the Atlas management team. More...
  • Vance Vance, Cyrus R (1917-) American politician, long career as a senior government official in various Democratic administrations. More...
  • Weinberger Weinberger, Caspar W (1917-) American manager, led OMB 1970-1976, shaped shuttle design by limiting its budget. As Secretary of Defence for Reagan 1981-1987, doled out large military increases, including new ICBMs, Star Wars, military satellites. More...
  • Mueller Mueller, George Edwin (1918-) American engineer. Headed the NASA Office of Manned Spaceflight during the Apollo program. More...
  • Poppel Poppel, Theodor Anton (1918-1986) German-American engineer, ember of von Braun's team, expert in guided missile ground support during WW2, and continued in that role in the US. Played a key role in designing Saturn I LC34, and the Saturn V's VAB and Transporter-Crawler. More...
  • Vandersee Vandersee, Fritz (1918-1975) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Johnson, Vincent Johnson, Vincent L (1918-2005) American engineer, at USN 1947-1960, NASA 1960-1974. Program manager for Scout, Delta, and Centaur. More...
  • Seamans Seamans, Robert C (1918-2008) American engineer. Key leadership positions at NASA 1960-1968 during the Apollo program. More...
  • Agnew Agnew, Spiro T (1918-1996) American politician. Vice President of the United States, 1968-1973. More...
  • White, Alvin White, Alvin Swauger (1918-2006) American test pilot, 1954-1967. Chief test pilot for the XB-70. More...
  • Frutkin Frutkin, Arnold W (1918-) American scientist. Deputy Director, US IGY Committee, 1956-1958. NASA senior negotiator for international space agreements, 1959-1979. More...
  • Gardner, Philip Gardner, Philip T (1918-) American engineer. Manager of test laboratories for the Atlas program. More...
  • Jacobi Jacobi, Walter (1918-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Mengel Mengel, John T (1918-) American physicist, at USN 1942-1958. Developed tracking systems for Vanguard. At NASA 1958-1973, in charge of tracking and data systems. More...
  • Pepping Pepping, Raymond Austin (1918-) American engineer. Headed the Mercury, Gemini, and Skylab programs at McDonnell Saint Louis More...
  • Johnson, Caldwell Johnson, Caldwell Christian (1919-) American designer, at NASA 1937-1972, second part of the creative pairing with American "chief designer" Max Faget. He laid out the basic design for the Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. More...
  • Young, Jack Young, John Donald 'Jack' (1919-1988) American manager, at NASA 1960-1966. More...
  • Palaoro Palaoro, Hans Rudolf (1919-1994) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Bundy Bundy, McGeorge (1919-1996) American Bureaucrat. McGeorge Bundy was a professor of government before serving as the national security adviser to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961-1966. More...
  • Houbolt Houbolt, John C (1919-) American engineer, at NASA 1945-1985. Claimed to have discovered and certainly promoted the lunar orbit rendezvous strategy used for Apollo. More...
  • von Braun, Magnus von Braun, Freiherr Magnus (1919-2003) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Fletcher Fletcher, James C (1919-1991) American engineer, administrator of NASA 1971-1977 (completion of Apollo and beginning of shuttle) and 1986-1989 (NASA restructuring after Challenger disaster). More...
  • Williams, Walter Williams, Walter C (1919-1995) American engineer, at NASA 1940-1964, founded NASA flight test facility at Edwards AFB, directed operations for Mercury. 1964-1975, VP at Aerospace Corporation. 1975-1982 chief engineer of NASA. More...
  • Wyatt Wyatt, DeMarquis D (1919-1996) American engineer, at NASA 1944-1973, specialized in supersonic research in propulsion system installations, from 1958 management positions at headquarters. More...
  • Emme Emme, Eugene M (1919-1985) American NASA Historian. Eugene M. Emme became the NASA chief historian in 1959 and served until his retirement in 1979. Previously he had been a historian with the Air University of the U.S. Air Force. More...
  • Timmons Timmons, Kenneth P (1919-1994) American engineer. Headed the Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter and External Tank projects. More...
  • Lundin Lundin, Bruce T (1919-2006) American engineer, at NASA 1943-1977, heading propulsion development efforts at Lewis, notably the Centaur engine. More...
  • Harrison Harrison, John (1919-) American engineer. Manager of Test Operations for the Atlas-Centaur and Titan 3E-Centaur. More...
  • Holderer Holderer, Oskar F (1919-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Puckett Puckett, Allen E (1919-) American engineer. Leader at Hughes Aircraft, 1949-1987. Led development of radars and missiles in 1950's, took Hughes into communications satellite field in 1960's. More...
  • Hart, Jane Hart, Jane Briggs (1920-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Asimov Asimov, Isaac (1920-1992) Jewish-American writer. Writer of science fiction and popular science. More...
  • Hilburn Hilburn, Earl D (1920-1989) American engineer. At NASA 1963-1966, in charge of industrial affairs. Later President of Western Union. More...
  • James, Lee James, Lee B (1920-2006) American Army officer, assigned to ABMA Huntsville 1956-1960. Seconded to NASA 1962-1971, where he oversaw NASA Huntsville, except for a stint 1962-1968 as Deputy Director for the Apollo program. More...
  • Bowers Bowers, Jack L 'John' (1920-2000) American engineer. Convair corporate officer in charge of Atlas development during the peak of its development phase. More...
  • Wiesemann Wiesemann, Walter Fritz (1920-2000) German-American engineer. Reassigned from Luftwaffe to Peenemuende in 1941. Worked on anti-aircraft rockets, went to America with von Braun's team in 1945, working on Huntsville projects until retirement in 1970. More...
  • Charyk Charyk, Joseph Vincent (1920-) Canadian-American engineer. Chief Scientist, USAF, and First Director, NRO, 1961-1963. Founder of geosynchronous communications satellite industry. Headed Comsat as President, CEO, Chairman, 1963-1985. More...
  • Anderson, Robert Anderson, Robert American engineer. President of Rockwell International during development of the space shuttle. More...
  • Millinger Millinger, Heinz Albert (1920-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. As of 2008 living in Marburg, Germany. More...
  • Salter Salter, Robert M (1920-) American physicist, at North American, 1946-1948; Rand, 1948-1954; Lockheed, 1954-1959. Responsible for much of the early studies of earth satellites, especially reconnaisance satellites. More...
  • Shultz Shultz, George P (1920-) American politican, Reagan's Secretary of State, 1981-1989. During his negotiated strategic arms reductions with the Soviet Union. More...
  • Holmes, Brainard Holmes, D Brainard (1921-) American engineer and senior manager, at Bell 1945-1953; RCA, 1953-1961; Deputy Associate Administration for Manned Space Flight at NASA, 1961-1963. Thereafter at Raytheon 1963-1982, and Beechcraft from 1982. More...
  • Stevenson Stevenson, Robert Everett (1921-2001) American oceanographer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1984. More...
  • Crooks Crooks, James Wesley (1921-1983) American engineer. Inventor of the Atlas radio guidance system and the Azusa and Glotrac launch vehicle tracking systems. More...
  • Phillips, Samuel Phillips, Samuel C (1921-1990) American USAF officer, talented manager who developed the B-52 and Minuteman for the Air Force, then was brought to NASA to head the Apollo program 1964-1971. More...
  • Walker, Joseph Walker, Joseph Albert (1921-1966) American NACA/NASA test pilot 1945-1966. Flew D-558, X-1, X-3, X-4, and X-5, and into space on X-15 Flights 77, 90, and 91. Killed in 1968 when the F-104 he was flying collided with the XB-70 during a photo opportunity. More...
  • Hartshorn Hartshorn, Carl Lawrence 'Larry' (1921-2000) American engineer. Chief of Design for Plant Engineering for the Atlas More...
  • Glenn Glenn, John Herschel Jr (1921-) American test pilot astronaut, later a politician and US Senator. First American in orbit on his first flight, Mercury MA-6, in 1962, and oldest person in space on his second flight, STS-95, in 1998. More...
  • Faget Faget, Maxime A (1921-2004) American Chief Designer of American manned spacecraft. Designed Mercury, Apollo, and Shuttle spacecraft. More...
  • Crossfield Crossfield, Albert Scott (1921-2006) Hispanic-American test pilot, 1950-1960. First man to reach Mach 2; first Hispanic test pilot. More...
  • Paine Paine, Thomas O (1921-1992) American engineer, at General Electric, then NASA Administrator 1968-1970. His ambitious post-Apollo programs were not received well by the Nixon administration. More...
  • Chana Chana, William 'Bill' (1921-) American engineer. Part of the Atlas management team; worked in customer support and marketing. More...
  • Dempsey Dempsey, James Raymon (1921-) American engineer. Headed development of the Atlas missile at Convair. More...
  • Flax Flax, Alexander H (1921-) American engineer. Worked at Curtiss 1940-1944; Piasecki 1944-1946; Cornell 1946-1955. Leading scientific positions at USAF 1955-1969. More...
  • Haig Haig, Thomas O American engineer and meteorologist, developed Moby Dick balloon, ground control stations for early USAF reconnsats, the first weather satellites, the Thor-Burner booster. Later worked on MOL and first global weather monitoring system. More...
  • Hedrick Hedrick, Walter (1921-) American USAF Officer. Walter Hedrick was an Air Force Brigadier General who was involved in space systems throughout the 1960s. In 1967, he became the Air Force's director of space, deputy chief of staff, research and development. More...
  • Hansen Hansen, Grant Lewis (1921-) American engineer, aerospace manager who played key roles in development of the Thor and Centaur rockets. More...
  • Hixson Hixson, Jean (1922-1984) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Cagle, Myrtle Cagle, Myrtle K Thompson (1922-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Myers Myers, Dale Dehaven (1922-) American aerodynamicist, charismatic manager that went many times through the revolving door between industry and government. Key roles in Hound Dog, Apollo, Shuttle, and B-1 programs. More...
  • Stearns Stearns, Edward V (1922-2001) American physicist, with Rand 1949-1954; assistant Chief Engineer, Lockheed Missile and Space, after 1954. More...
  • Harr Harr, Karl G (1922-2002) American manager, served in senior US government policy boards in the late 1950's. President of the Aerospace Industries Association 1963-1988 More...
  • McKay McKay, John Barron (1922-1975) American NASA test pilot, 1952-1971. Flew into space on X-15 Flight 150, but seriously injured in an X-15 crash in 1962. More...
  • North North, Warren J (1922-) American engineer, at NASA 1947-1985. Oversaw training of Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and shuttle astronauts. More...
  • Parks Parks, Robert J (1922-) American engineer, worked on the Mariner, Ranger, and Surveyor programs; served as JPL's planetary program director in the 1960s, then became JPL associate and finally deputy director. More...
  • Wallace Wallace, Fred (1922-) American engineer. Atlas Chief of Test Operations at Sycamore Canyon. More...
  • Steadman Steadman, Bernice Trimble (1923-) American pilot, winner of many awards and races, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Goodlin Goodlin, Chalmers (1923-) American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 1 and XS-1 # 2. More...
  • Paup Paup, John W (1923-1968) American North American engineer who managed their winning Apollo proposal and was the company's Apollo program manager 1961-1964. Replaced under NASA pressure, he died in 1968 before his spacecraft made it to the moon. More...
  • Yeager Yeager, Charles E (1923-) Premier American test pilot. First person to break the sound barrier. Flew all of the pioneering jet and rocketplanes of the 1950's, by the 1990's had flown 201 types of military aircraft and more than 14,000 flying hours. More...
  • Schirra Schirra, Walter Marty Jr 'Wally' (1923-2007) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MA-8, Gemini 6, Apollo 7. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and commander of first manned Apollo mission. Remembered both for practical jokes and uncompromising attention to detail. Flew 90 combat missions in the Korean War. More...
  • Sorlie Sorlie, Donald Milton (1923-) American test pilot, 1962-1973. Flights of the M2-F2. Colonel, USAF Selected as a military astronaut candidate in 1973. Later made flights of the M2-F2 lifting body. Retired on 30 June 1973. More...
  • Childs Childs, Stuart Row (1923-2006) American test pilot. Flew the X-1B. More...
  • Day Day, Melvin Sherman (1923-1986) American engineer. Worked in leadership positions in the area of technical information services at the AEC (1947-1960) and NASA (1960-1970). More...
  • Naugle Naugle, John E (1923-1993) American physicist, at NASA 1959-1981, developed projects to study the magnetosphere. More...
  • Shepard Shepard, Alan Bartlett Jr 'Al' (1923-1998) First American in space. Flew on Mercury MR-3, Apollo 14. Grounded due on medical grounds during Gemini, but reinstated, becoming fifth person to walk on the moon. Millionaire entrepreneur on the side. More...
  • Flanigan Flanigan, Peter M (1923-) American businessman. A member of the White House staff involved in gaining approval for the shuttle program in 1969-1972. More...
  • Kissinger Kissinger, Henry A (1923-) Jewish American academic, US National Security Assistant, 1969-1973; Secretary of State, 1973-1977. Pursued detente with Soviet Union, leading to missile reductions, ABM/ASAT agreements, and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. More...
  • Stroud Stroud, William G (1923-) American meteorologist at NASA, project manager for Tiros I. More...
  • White, Robert M White, Robert M (1923-) American manager, headed US Weather Bureau and ESSA in the 1960s; Administrator of NOAA in the 1970s; head of the National Academy of Engineering in the late 1980s. More...
  • York York, Herbert F (1923-) American physicist, held key scientific advisory roles in US government 1958-1961, when key decisions on space exploration, missile development, and nuclear weapons were made. More...
  • Maynard Maynard, Owen (1924-2000) Canadian-American enginner, at NASA 1960-1970, a key systems engineering figure during the Apollo program, credited with laying out the lunar module and designing the Apollo mission sequence. More...
  • Kraft Kraft, Christopher C (1924-) American engineer at NASA 1945-1982, headed manned spaceflight mission control during Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo projects. More...
  • Leverton Leverton, Irene (1924-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Apt, Milburn Apt, Milburn (1924-1956) Jewish-American test pilot, killed in 1956 air catastrophe with X-2 # 1. More...
  • Mettler Mettler, Ruben F (1924-2006) American engineer, at TRW 1955-1988, president and COO, 1969-1977; chairman of the board and CEO, 1977-1988. More...
  • Slayton Slayton, Donald Kent 'Deke' (1924-1993) American test pilot astronaut. Slated to fly third Mercury mission, grounded due to a medical issue and became astronaut commander, assigning crews for lunar landings. Later finally flew on Apollo (ASTP). More...
  • Emmerich Emmerich, Lewis (1924-2004) American engineer. Project engineer for the Atlas-Mercury manned launch vehicle. More...
  • White, Robert White, Robert Michael (1924-2010) American test pilot. First person to reach space in a rocketplane on X-15 Flight 62. More...
  • Wood Wood, James Wayne (1924-1990) American pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. More...
  • Jones, Walter Jones, Walter P (1924-1953) American test pilot, flew the D-558-1, D-558-2, X-4, and X-5. Died in crash of the YF-89D prototype interceptor. More...
  • Carter, Jimmy Carter, Jimmy (1924-) American Politician. Jimmy Carter was president of the United States between 1977 and 1981. Previously he had been a naval officer and businessman before entering politics. He entered politics in the Georgia State Legislature More...
  • Rushworth Rushworth, Robert Aitken (1924-1993) American test pilot. Selected as X-15 pilot in 1958, he made the most X-15 flights and obtained astronaut wings on X-15 Flight 87. Flew 187 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Bush Bush, George H W (1924-) American Politician. George H.W. Bush served as president of the United States between 1989 and 1993. Before that time he had been a diplomat, director of the CIA, and vice president under Ronald Reagan More...
  • Dore Dore, Frank J (1924-) American engineer, prominent manager in the Atlas program, very important in the early years as a performance analyst and project point man. NASA credited him with for convincing them that the Atlas would do the Mercury mission. More...
  • Freedman Freedman, Toby (1924-) American physician. Human factors physiologist at North American, proved feasibilty of Apollo three-crew cabin. More...
  • Finger Finger, Harold B (1924-) American physicist. At NASA 1944-1969. Early work involved compressors. Chief of the nuclear engine program 1958-1967. NASA Associate Administrator for Organization and Management 1967-1969. More...
  • Singer Singer, S Fred (1924-) American physicist, proposed a Minimum Orbital Unmanned Satellite of the Earth (MOUSE) in 1953. More...
  • Yardley Yardley, John Finley (1925-2001) American engineer. Headed the Mercury, Gemini, and Skylab programs at McDonnell; led development of the space shuttle through its first flight at NASA. More...
  • Ona Ona, John Bernhardt (1925-2004) American engineer. Headed Atlas missile final checkout; later Chief of Reliability Engineering for the Centaur. More...
  • Carpenter Carpenter, Malcolm Scott (1925-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MA-7, but left NASA under a cloud after running out of propellant on his mission and splashing down 'way down range. More...
  • Blair Blair, Clay D (1925-1998) American writer. Magazine correspondent and editor of Saturday Evening Post 1957-1964. More...
  • Healey, John Healey, John American engineer, one of the Martin managers brought to North American by Bergen after the Apollo fire. In charge of getting the Apollo 7 CSM 101 first article of the new configuration through its modification, construction, and completion. More...
  • Kranz Kranz American Engineer. Flight controller during Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. More...
  • Badgley Badgley, Peter (1925-) American scientist. NASA Chief of the Earth Resources Survey Program and Chief of Advanced Missions, Manned Space Science Program, in the 1960's. More...
  • Culbertson, Philip Culbertson, Philip Edgar (1925-) American aerodynamicist. Managed development of the Atlas space launch version at Convair; then went to NASA, being General Manager at the time of the Challenger disaster. More...
  • Fulton Fulton, Fitzhugh L (1925-) American test pilot, flew the B-52 launch aircraft for the X-15 and the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft for shuttle ALT tests. More...
  • Hage Hage, George H (1925-) American engineer. At Boeing from 1947-1968, on Bomarc, Minuteman, and reconnsats. 1968-1969 NASA Deputy Director of the Apollo program. Returned to Boeing, then from 1973 President, Aerojet. More...
  • Hujsak Hujsak, Edward J (1925-) American engineer. Designer of rocket engines and advanced launch vehicle designs; worked on the Rascal, Atlas, Centaur, and Space Station programs. More...
  • Frisbee Frisbee, Walter American phantom cosmonaut. Mysterious tenth member of second NASA astronaut group. The fearless Frisby was in fact a joke on the NASA press corps created by astronauts Lovell and Conrad. More...
  • Jastrow Jastrow, Robert (1925-) American physicist, headed NASA space studies 1961-1981. More...
  • Koelle Koelle, Prof. Dr-Ing Heinz-Hermann (1925-) Visionary German-American engineer, worked at Huntsville as Director of Future Projects for von Braun 1955-1965. Headed Lunex moon base project; key role in engine selection for Saturn. Taught in Germany at TUB after 1965. Advocate of SSTO. More...
  • Leonard Leonard, Richard (1925-) American engineer. Tooling and plant facilities engineer for the Atlas. More...
  • McDonald McDonald, Frank B (1925-) American scientist, at NASA 1959-1989. Served as project scientist on nine NASA satellite programs, NASA Chief Scientist 1982-1987. More...
  • Wilson, Chuck Wilson, Charles 'Chuck' (1925-) American engineer. Atlas Space Booster Program Manager More...
  • Dietrich, Marion Dietrich, Marion (1926-1974) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female pilots declared fit for astronaut duty in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Dixon Dixon, Thomas F (1926-) American engineer, analyzed a recovered V-2 rocket engine in 1944. Important role at Rocketdyne 1948-1961 in development of rocket engines from the V-2 through to the prototype for the F-1. NASA Deputy Associate Administrator 1961-1963. More...
  • Dietrich Dietrich, Jan (1926-2008) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Low, George Low, George M (1926-1984) Austrian-American engineer, at NASA 1950-1976. He occupied key manned spaceflight leadership positions at NASA during the Mercury, Germini, Apollo, Skylab, and early Shuttle programs. More...
  • Hjornevik Hjornevik, Wesley L (1926-2000) American bureaucrat. In federal service from 1949, NASA from 1959. Associate Director for Manned Space flight, Houston, 1961-1969. Then went to other government departments, and finally state of Texas. More...
  • Petrone Petrone, Rocco (1926-2006) American engineer, managed development of the Redstone at Huntsivlle, then the Saturn V at NASA, 1960-1974. More...
  • Grissom Grissom, Virgil Ivan 'Gus' (1926-1967) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MR-4, Gemini 3. Second American in space and first Gemini commander. Flew 100 combat missions in Korea. Died in on-pad fire of Apollo 1. More...
  • Thompson Thompson, Milton Orville 'Milt' (1926-1993) American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. Flew lifting bodies, X-15, assigned as X-20 spaceplane astronaut. More...
  • Edelson Edelson, Burton I (1926-2002) American engineer. Worked at Comsat 1969-1982. NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications 1982-1988. More...
  • Shea Shea, Joseph Francis (1926-1999) American engineer. Lead NASA manager responsible for development of the Apollo spacecraft More...
  • Henize Henize, Dr Karl Gordon (1926-1993) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. More...
  • Ryker Ryker, Norman (1926-2006) American engineer, began working at Rocketdyne. Headed North American's Apollo proposal group. Assistant Chief Engineer for Apollo. President of Rocketdyne, 1976-1983, leading development and flight of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. More...
  • Branscomb Branscomb, Lewis M (1926-) American Engineer. Lewis M. Branscomb is a Harvard University-trained physicist who served in a variety of university and public service posts before the chief scientist of the IBM Corp More...
  • Bollermann Bollermann, Bruce I (1926-) American Chief Engineer of Space Data Corporation, developer of its sounding rockets, from 1963-1996. These included the Super Loki and Viper Dart. More...
  • Beggs Beggs, James E (1926-) American engineer, served in various government and aerospace industry management positions. NASA Administrator 1981-1985. More...
  • Levine Levine, Dave (1926-) American engineer. Chief of electrical systems for the Apollo spacecraft. More...
  • Rosen, Harold Rosen, Harold A (1926-) American Hughes Engineer. Harold A. Rosen was one of the key scientists at the Hughes Aircraft Company who developed Syncom, the first geosynchronous communications satellite, for NASA. He received the National Medal of Technology in 1985. More...
  • Truhill Truhill, Geraldine 'Jerri' (1927-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Cooper Cooper, Leroy Gordon Jr 'Gordo' (1927-2004) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MA-9, Gemini 5. First American to spend over a day in space. High spirited, and reportedly denied an Apollo assignment. More...
  • Mittauer Mittauer, Richard T (1927-1973) American journalist, worked in NASA public information 1959-1972. More...
  • See See, Elliot McKay Jr (1927-1966) American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1966. Died in crash of his T-38 trainer into the McDonnell Aircraft plant. More...
  • Currie, Malcolm Currie, Malcolm R (1927-) American engineer. Joined Hughes in 1954, becoming a VP 1964-1969. After stints at Beckman and government, returned to Hughes in 1977, becoming CEO 1986-1992. Moved Hughes into DirecTV satellite-to-home business. More...
  • Johnston, Curt Johnston, Curt (1927-) American engineer. Test conductor of earliest Atlas launches; Convair base manager at Vandenberg. More...
  • Kelly, Thomas Kelly, Thomas J (1927-2002) American Chief Designer, at Grumman 1951-1992. Led development, test and flight of the Apollo Lunar Module1960-1972. More...
  • Wier Wier, Benjamin (1927-) American engineer. Atlas-E flight test conductor and later Deputy Program Manager. More...
  • Allison Allison, Rhea Hurrle nee Woltman (1928-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Borman Borman, Frank Frederick II (1928-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 7, Apollo 8. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and first to orbit the moon. More...
  • Lovell Lovell, James Arthur Jr 'Shaky' (1928-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8, Apollo 13. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and first to orbit the moon. Altitude (401,056 km) record. More...
  • Rogers Rogers, Russell Lee (1928-1967) American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. More...
  • Kincheloe Kincheloe, Iven Carl (1928-1958) American test pilot, 1956-1958. Grew up Cassopolis, Michigan, son of an automotive engineer. Flew the X-2; killed in an F-104 crash, when it flamed out after take-off. More...
  • Martin, Richard Martin, Richard (1928-) American engineer. Structural dynamicist for all versions of the Atlas. More...
  • Frosch Frosch, Robert A (1928-) American physicist, NASA administrator 1976-1981. During his tenure the shuttle was developed from paper design to flight hardware. More...
  • Healey Healey, Roger American fictitious astronaut, featured in I Dream of Jeannie television program. More...
  • Lehrer Lehrer, Tom (1928-) American mathematician and satirist, who penned the song "Wernher von Braun," dealing with the relationship of science to ethics. More...
  • Skantze Skantze, Lawrence Albert (1928-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1985. More...
  • Crews Crews, Albert Hanlin Jr (1929-) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Thornton, Bill Thornton, Dr William Edgar 'Bill' (1929-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-B. More...
  • McDivitt McDivitt, James Alton 'Jim' (1929-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 4, Apollo 9. Flew 145 combat missions during the Korean War. More...
  • Gordon Gordon, Richard Francis Jr 'Dick' (1929-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 11, Apollo 12. More...
  • Knight Knight, William Joseph 'Pete' (1929-2004) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on X-15 Flight 190. More...
  • Fagan Fagan, Donald (1929-) American test engineer. Member of the Atlas management team, heading aspects of test and flight operations. Later President of Tracor. More...
  • Genser Genser, Philip (1929-) American engineer. Chief marketer of the Atlas commercial space launch vehicle. More...
  • Hodge Hodge, John (1929-) British-American engineer. From 1952 worked at Avro. At NASA in flight controls from 1959 at Langley and Houston. 1982, Director of the Space Station Task Force, NASA HQ. Associate Administrator for Operations, Space Station, from 1986 More...
  • Kehlet Kehlet, Alan Bernard (1929-) American engineer. Inventor of lenticular manned spacecraft; managerial engineering positions on Apollo program (1962-1969); Vice President for Delta booster 1988-1993. More...
  • Lovelace Lovelace, Alan M (1929-) American materials scientist. Father of the commercial Atlas. Without his vision, leadership, and prestige the commercial Atlas would never have happened. More...
  • Philips, Robert Philips, Dr Robert Ward (1929-) American physician payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1991. More...
  • Silveira Silveira, Milton A (1929-) American manager, at NASA 1955-1986. Deputy Administrator, 1981-1983; NASA Chief Engineer, 1983-1986. More...
  • Schlesinger Schlesinger, James R (1929-) American manager, chair of the Atomic Energy Commission, 1971-1973, Secretary of Defense, 1973-1975. More...
  • Givens Givens, Edward Galen Jr 'Ed' (1930-1967) American test pilot astronaut, 1966-1967. Died in an automobile accident. More...
  • Aldrin Aldrin, Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 12, Apollo 11. Second person on the moon. More...
  • Pogue Pogue, William Reid 'Bill' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 4. More...
  • Freeman Freeman, Theodore Cordy 'Ted' (1930-1964) American test pilot astronaut, 1963-1964. Died in crash of T-38 trainer after bird strike on windshield. More...
  • Irwin Irwin, James Benson 'Jim' (1930-1991) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 15. Eighth person to walk on the moon. More...
  • Adams Adams, Michael James 'Mike' (1930-1967) American test pilot astronaut. Died in crash of X-15 Flight 191 when spacecraft went out of control during reentry. More...
  • Lind Lind, Dr Don Leslie (1930-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B. Longest wait for an American for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut (19 years). More...
  • Conrad Conrad, Charles Peter Jr 'Pete' (1930-1999) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 5, Gemini 11, Apollo 12, Skylab 2. Third person on the moon. Only astronaut to fly Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab. Commander of first successful space station mission. More...
  • Eisele Eisele, Donn Fulton (1930-1987) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 7. Died of a heart attack. More...
  • Armstrong Armstrong, Neil Alden (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 8, Apollo 11. First person to step onto the moon. Member of first crew to dock in space. More...
  • Stafford Stafford, Thomas Patten 'Tom' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 6, Gemini 9, Apollo 10, Apollo (ASTP). Member of first crew to rendezvous in space. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). More...
  • Mitchell Mitchell, Edgar Dean 'Ed' (1930-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 14. Sixth person to walk on the moon. More...
  • Young Young, John Watts (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16, STS-1, STS-9. Only astronaut to fly Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle. Ninth person to walk on the moon. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). More...
  • Collins Collins, Michael 'Mike' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 10, Apollo 11. First space walk from one spacecraft to another. More...
  • Dana Dana, William Harvey 'Bill' (1930-) American test pilot. Flew on X-15 Flight 174, X-15 Flight 197. More...
  • White White, Edward Higgins II 'Ed' (1930-1967) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 4. First American to walk in space. Died in on-pad fire of Apollo 1. More...
  • Garriott Garriott, Dr Owen Kay (1930-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on Skylab 3, STS-9. More...
  • Taylor Taylor, James Martin (1930-1970) American test pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Marshall Marshall, Frank (1930-) American engineer. Part of the Atlas management team; headed the Golden Ram program that cleared the Atlas missile for operations. More...
  • Gorelick Gorelick, Sarah Lee nee Ratley (1931-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Swan Swan, William G American Test Pilot. Pilot of first American rocket-boosted glider. More...
  • Graveline Graveline, Duane Edgar (1931-) American physician astronaut, 1965-1965. More...
  • Cobb Cobb, Geraldyne M 'Jerrie' (1931-) American pilot, holder of four aviation records, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Brand Brand, Vance DeVoe (1931-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo (ASTP), STS-5, STS-41-B, STS-35. More...
  • Van Horn Van Horn, William L (1931-1997) American manager. Program Director for the Atlas Weapon System. Manager of Long Range Planning in the Atlas production program. Later Vice President and Program Director for the Atlas Weapon System. More...
  • Macleay Macleay, Lachlan 'Mac' (1931-) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Swigert Swigert, John Leonard Jr 'Jack' (1931-1982) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 13. Survived first emergency beyond low earth orbit. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Died of complications from cancer. More...
  • Manke Manke, John A (1931-) American NASA test pilot 1962-1981. Flew record 42 lifting body rocketplane missions. More...
  • Bassett Bassett, Charles Arthur II 'Charlie' (1931-1966) American test pilot astronaut, 1963-1966. Died in crash of T-38 trainer into the McDonnell Aircraft plant. More...
  • Drew, Russell Drew, Russell C (1931-) American scientist. Important figure in management of the Polaris and Poseidon programs, 1953-1973. More...
  • Farrar Farrar, Jay (1931-) American engineer. Member of the Atlas management team; later President of Sanders Associates. More...
  • Nelson, Anthony Nelson, Anthony 'Tony' American fictitious astronaut, featured in I Dream of Jeannie television program. More...
  • Vinzant Vinzant, Allen (1931-) American Chief engineer for interfacing the Centaur upper stage with the Titan 4 launch vehicle. More...
  • Williams, Donald D Williams, Donald D (1931-1966) American engineer, instrumental in the development of the Early Bird and Syncom communications satellites. Commited suicide in 1966. More...
  • Worden Worden, Alfred Merrill (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 15. More...
  • Kerwin Kerwin, Dr Joseph Peter (1932-) American physician astronaut. Flew on Skylab 2. Member of first successful space station mission. More...
  • Bean Bean, Alan LaVerne 'Al' (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 12, Skylab 3. Fourth person to walk on the moon. More...
  • Cunningham Cunningham, Ronnie Walter 'Walt' (1932-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 7. More...
  • van den Berg van den Berg, Dr Lodewijk (1932-) Dutch-American physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B. More...
  • Neubeck Neubeck, Francis Gregory (1932-) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Llewellyn Llewellyn, Dr John Anthony 'Tony' (1932-) British-American pilot astronaut, 1967-1968. More...
  • Scott Scott, David Randolph 'Dave' (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 8, Apollo 9, Apollo 15. Seventh person to walk on the moon. First to drive a lunar wheeled vehicle. Member of first crew to dock in space. More...
  • Weitz Weitz, Paul Joseph (1932-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 2, STS-6. Member of first successful space station mission. More...
  • Carr Carr, Gerald Paul 'Gerry' (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 4. More...
  • Engle Engle, Joe Henry (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on X-15 Flight 138, X-15 Flight 143, X-15 Flight 153, STS-2, STS-51-I. More...
  • Williams, Clifton Williams, Clifton Curtis 'CC' (1932-1967) American test pilot astronaut, 1963-1967. US Marine Corps aviator. Died in crash of his T-38 trainer aircraft. More...
  • Garn Garn, Edwin Jacob 'Jake' (1932-) American senator payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D. More...
  • Lawyer Lawyer, Richard Earl (1932-2005) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Herres Herres, Robert Tralles (1932-2008) American pilot astronaut, 1967-1969. More...
  • Abbey Abbey, George Washington Sherman (1932-) American engineer, headed NASA space shuttle operations and astronaut selection 1976-2003; focus of tremendous staff demoralization. For some reason beloved by upper management, surviving both Challenger and Columbia disasters. More...
  • Abrahamson Abrahamson, James Alan 'Abe' (1933-) American pilot astronaut, 1967-1969. Later Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative More...
  • Peterson, Bruce Peterson, Bruce A (1933-2006) American test pilot, 1960-1967. Flew M2 lifting body, assigned to management after injury in a landing accident. More...
  • Roosa Roosa, Stuart Allen 'Stu' (1933-1994) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 14. Died of viral pneumonia, a complication of pancreatitis. More...
  • Anders Anders, William Alison 'Bill' (1933-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 8. Member of first crew to orbit the moon. More...
  • Peterson Peterson, Dr Donald Herod 'Don' (1933-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-6. More...
  • Evans Evans, Ronald Ellwin Jr 'Ron' (1933-1990) American pilot astronaut. Flew combat missions over Vietnam. Flew on Apollo 17. More...
  • Haise Haise, Fred Wallace Jr 'Pecky' (1933-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 13. Survived first emergency beyond low earth orbit. Altitude (401,056 km) record. More...
  • Hartsfield Hartsfield, Henry Warren Jr 'Hank' (1933-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-4, STS-41-D, STS-61-A. More...
  • Danchik Danchik, Robert J (1933-) American engineer. John Hopkins APL 1967-2000. Transit program manager for 16 years. More...
  • Cernan Cernan, Eugene Andrew 'Gene' (1934-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 9, Apollo 10, Apollo 17. Eleventh person to walk on the moon and last person to step off of the moon. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). More...
  • Michel Michel, Dr Frank Curtis 'Curt' (1934-) American scientist astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Bull Bull, John Sumter (1934-2008) American test pilot astronaut, 1966-1968. More...
  • Simon Simon, Dr George Warren (1934-) American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1985. More...
  • Chaffee Chaffee, Dr Roger Bruce (1935-1967) American pilot astronaut, 1963-1967. Killed in Apollo 1 fire on launch pad. More...
  • McMurtry McMurtry, Thomas C (1935-) American test pilot, US Navy and Lockheed 1958-1967. NASA test pilot and administrator at NASA Dryden, 1967-1999. Flew among many other aircraft the X-24 lifting body and 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. More...
  • Schmitt Schmitt, Dr Harrison Hagan 'Jack' (1935-) American geologist astronaut. Flew on Apollo 17. Twelvth person and only geologist to walk on the moon. More...
  • Musgrave Musgrave, Dr Franklin Story (1935-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-6, STS-51-F, STS-33, STS-44, STS-61, STS-80. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Duke Duke, Charles Moss Jr 'Charlie' (1935-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 16. Tenth person to walk on the moon. More...
  • Schweickart Schweickart, Russel Luis 'Rusty' (1935-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 9. More...
  • Finley Finley, John Lawrence 'Jack' (1935-2006) American test pilot astronaut, 1965-1968. More...
  • Augustine Augustine, Norman R (1935-) American engineer. Chairman and CEO of the Martin Marietta Corporation in the 1980s. More...
  • Hinners Hinners, Noel W (1935-) American geologist. Worked on Apollo at Bellcomm, 1963-1972. NASA HQ on lunar and space science programs, 1972-1979. Director NASM 1979-1982. Directed Goddard, 1982-1987. Associate Deputy Administrator 1987-1989. Martin Marietta VP, 1989-on. More...
  • Young, Lawrence Young, Lawrence Retman (1935-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1991-1993. More...
  • Lunney Lunney, Glynn S (1936-) American engineer, at NASA 1958-1985. Worked on projects Mercury and Apollo, managed Apollo-Soyuz project, managed development of the space shuttle. More...
  • Lousma Lousma, Jack Robert (1936-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 3, STS-3. More...
  • Acton Acton, Dr Loren Wilber (1936-) American solar physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. More...
  • Mattingly Mattingly, Thomas Kenneth II 'Ken' (1936-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 16, STS-4, STS-51-C. More...
  • Overmyer Overmyer, Robert Franklin 'Bob' (1936-1996) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-5, STS-51-B. More...
  • Fullerton Fullerton, Charles Gordon (1936-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-3, STS-51-F. More...
  • Parker Parker, Dr Robert Alan Ridley 'Bob' (1936-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-35. More...
  • Stumough Stumough, Gene Nora (1937-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • McCandless McCandless, Bruce II (1937-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-31. Made first untethered space walk. More...
  • Allen Allen, Joseph Percival IV 'Joe' (1937-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-5, STS-51-A. More...
  • Crippen Crippen, Robert Laurel 'Bob' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-1, STS-7, STS-41-C, STS-41-G. Member of first crew to fly a winged spacecraft to orbit and back. More...
  • Truly Truly, Richard Harrison 'Dick' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-2, STS-8. More...
  • Bobko Bobko, Karol Joseph 'Bo' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-6, STS-51-D, STS-51-J. More...
  • O Dell O Dell, Charles R (1937-) American astronomer, NASA project scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope, 1972-1983. More...
  • Aldridge Aldridge, Edward Cleveland Jr 'Pete' (1938-) American politician payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. More...
  • Love, Michael Love, Michael V (1938-1976) American test pilot. Flew on X-24B, killed during a routine chase flight in an F-4 from Edwards AFB, due to a malfunction of the ejection seat. More...
  • Prinz Prinz, Dr Dianne Kasnic (1938-2002) American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1985. More...
  • Deutch Deutch, John (1938-) American scientist, served as Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1994-199; Director of Central Intelligence from 1995-1997. Doctorate from MIT and also served as that school's dean of science and provost. More...
  • Hoernig Hoernig, Otto William Jr (1938-) British engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986. More...
  • Fabian Fabian, John McCreary (1939-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-51-G. More...
  • Funk Funk, Mary Wallace 'Wally' (1939-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Lenoir Lenoir, Dr William Benjamin 'Bill' (1939-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-5. More...
  • Holmquest Holmquest, Dr Donald Lee (1939-) American physician astronaut, 1967-1971. More...
  • Scobee Scobee, Francis Richard 'Dick' (1939-1986) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C, STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Griggs Griggs, Stanley David (1939-1989) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D. Died in the crash of a World-War-II-era training plane. More...
  • Keyworth Keyworth, George A (1939-) American physicist, science advisor to President Reagan 1981-1986, former head of Los Alamos laboratory. Played key role in 'star wars' development controversy. More...
  • Viste Viste, Norman Duane (1939-) American Chief Engineer for Atlas III and V More...
  • O Leary O Leary, Brian Todd (1940-) American scientist astronaut, 1967-1968. More...
  • O Leary O Leary, Brian Todd (1940-) American scientist astronaut, 1967-1968. More...
  • Wang Wang, Dr Taylor Gun-Jin (1940-) Chinese-American physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B. More...
  • Tito Tito, Dennis Anthony (1940-) American engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-1. First space tourist. First American to return to earth in a Russian spacecraft. More...
  • Crouch Crouch, Dr Roger Keith (1940-) American physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-83, STS-94. More...
  • Goldin Goldin, Daniel S (1940-) American engineer, NASA Administrator 1992-2001. Attempted reforms, with economical approach to space probe development and X-33, X-34, and X-38 to lower space launch costs. These seen as failures; while the ISS budget went out of control. More...
  • Truax Truax, Robert C American USN rocket pioneer, developed missiles USN 1940-1959. Loaned to USAF to run Thor program 1955-1958. At Aerojet 1958-1967. Proponent and inventor of ultra-low-cost rocket engine and vehicle concepts. More...
  • Melvill Melvill, Michael Winston 'Mike' (1941-) South African-American test pilot rocketplane pilot. Flew on SpaceShipOne Flight 15P, SpaceShipOne Flight 16P. More...
  • Gregory Gregory, Frederick Drew 'Fred' (1941-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B, STS-33, STS-44. Flew 550 combat missions in Vietnam. USAF helicopter pilot who would fly his T-38 trainer at alarmingly low altitude during cross-country trips. Paradoxically later appointed NASA Administrator for Safety. More...
  • Lampton Lampton, Dr Michael Logan (1941-) American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1990. More...
  • Hauck Hauck, Frederick Hamilton 'Rick' (1941-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-51-A, STS-26. Flew 114 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Boyle Boyle, Anthony Hugh (1941-) British-American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1984. More...
  • England England, Dr Anthony Wayne 'Tony' (1942-) American geophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. More...
  • Springer Springer, Robert Clyde 'Bob' (1942-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-29, STS-38. US Marine Corps. Flew 550 combat missions in Southeast Asia. Grew up in Ashland, Ohio. More...
  • Blaha Blaha, John Elmer (1942-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-29, STS-33, STS-43, STS-58, Mir NASA-2. Flew 361 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Nelson, Bill Nelson, Clarens William Jr 'Bill' (1942-) American congressman payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C. More...
  • Bluford Bluford, Dr Guion Steward Jr 'Guy' (1942-) African-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-61-A, STS-39, STS-53. First African-American in space. Flew 144 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Boesen Boesen, Dennis Lee 'Denny' (1942-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1987-1990. More...
  • Heiss Heiss, Klaus P (1942-) Austrian-American economist, prepared a major economic feasibility study for the Space Shuttle program in 1971. He later worked with Econ, Inc., and founded and headed Space Transportation Corp., in Princeton, New Jersey. More...
  • Magilton Magilton, Gerard Edward 'Jerry' (1942-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Worked with RCA Astro Electronics Division. Backup for Robert Cenker (STS-61C). Program manager for on-orbit performance, Martin Marietta Astro Space in Princeton, New Jersey. More...
  • Mitchell, Elliott Mitchell, Elliott American engineer, involved at USN with solid rocket development, 1942-1958, chief of the solid rocket development program 1958-1961. Important role in development of Polaris. More...
  • Williams, Bill Williams, Bill Alvin (1942-) American physiologist payload specialist astronaut, 1983-1985. More...
  • Lucid Lucid, Dr Shannon Matilda Wells (1943-) American biochemist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-34, STS-43, STS-58, Mir NASA-1. Biochemist, first American woman to make a long-duration space station mission. More...
  • Brandenstein Brandenstein, Daniel Charles 'Dan' (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-G, STS-32, STS-49. Flew 192 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Creighton Creighton, John Oliver (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-36, STS-48. Grew up in Seattle, Washington. Flew 175 combat missions in Vietnam. Bachelor navy fighter pilot with a midnight blue corvette and a ski boat dubbed Sin Ship. More...
  • Chappell Chappell, Charles Richard (1943-) American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1992. More...
  • Thagard Thagard, Dr Norman Earl 'Norm' (1943-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-51-B, STS-30, STS-42, Mir EO-18. First American to fly aboard a Russian spacecraft. Grew up in Jacksonville, Florida. More...
  • Casper Casper, John Howard (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-36, STS-54, STS-62, STS-77. Grew up in Gainesville, Georgia, son of an Air Force officer. Flew 229 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Bridges Bridges, Roy Dunbard Jr (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. Grew up in Gainesville, Georgia. Flew 226 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • McCulley McCulley, Michael James (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-34. More...
  • McBride McBride, Jon Andrew (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G. Heavyset Navy pilot with a talent for playing to a crowd. Flew 64 combat missions in Vietnam. Later ran in, but lost, the Republican primary for governor of West Virginia. More...
  • Durrance Durrance, Dr Samuel Thornton 'Sam' (1943-) American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-35, STS-67. More...
  • Vidrine Vidrine, David Matthew (1943-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. More...
  • Denver Denver, John (1943-1997) American pop singer who sought to fly into space before his death in an air crash. More...
  • Prahl Prahl, Dr Joseph Markel (1943-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1992. Assigned as backup for STS-50. Professor of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. More...
  • Walker, Dave Walker, David Mathieson 'Dave' (1944-2001) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-A, STS-30, STS-53, STS-69. Navy nickname Red Flash, a cocky pilot, over-confident in some astronaut's eyes. More...
  • Scully-Power Scully-Power, Paul Desmond (1944-) Australian-American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G. More...
  • van Hoften van Hoften, Dr James Dougal Adrianus 'Ox' (1944-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C, STS-51-I. Grew up in Burlingame, California. More...
  • Crosby Crosby, Harry American Test Pilot. Northrop Test Pilot More...
  • Jarvis Jarvis, Gregory Bruce (1944-1986) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Spring Spring, Sherwood Clark 'Woody' (1944-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B. More...
  • Veach Veach, Charles Lacy (1944-1995) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-52. Grew up in Honolulu, Hawaii. Died of cancer. More...
  • Shriver Shriver, Loren James (1944-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-31, STS-46. Grew up in Paton, Iowa. More...
  • Hoffman Hoffman, Dr Jeffrey Alan 'Jeff' (1944-) Jewish-American astrophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D, STS-35, STS-46, STS-61, STS-75. More...
  • Bartoe Bartoe, Dr John David Francis (1944-) American astrophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. More...
  • Sundberg Sundberg, Eric Edward (1945-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Later stationed at Pentagon. Retired from USAF in August 1997. Later with NRO. More...
  • Olsen Olsen, Gregory Hammond 'Greg' (1945-) American scientist cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-9. Space tourist More...
  • Smith Smith, Michael John (1945-1986) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Shaw Shaw, Brewster Hopkinson Jr (1945-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-61-B, STS-28. More...
  • Thuot Thuot, Pierre Joseph (1945-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-36, STS-49, STS-62. More...
  • Grabe Grabe, Ronald John 'Ron' (1945-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-J, STS-30, STS-42, STS-57. Flew 200 combat missions over Vietnam. More...
  • Buchli Buchli, James Frederick 'Jim' (1945-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-61-A, STS-29, STS-48. Grew up in Fargo, North Dakota. More...
  • Mullane Mullane, Richard Michael 'Mike' (1945-) American test engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-27, STS-36. Author of the frankest astronaut biography ever published. Flew 150 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Hughes-Fulford Hughes-Fulford, Dr Millie Elizabeth (1945-) American biologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-40. Biochemist. US Army More...
  • Zubrin Zubrin, Robert American Engineer. Co-developer of the Mars Direct mission model and a passionate advocate for manned exploration of Mars by methods cheaper and quicker than the NASA model. More...
  • Deppe Deppe, Hans German-American expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Holker Holker, Rudolf Franz Maria German-American expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Johnston Johnston, Mary Helen (1945-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1983-1985. More...
  • Lacklen Lacklen, Robert J American personnel manager, at NASA 1945-1964. More...
  • Raynor Raynor, Harold American engineer, at North American 1945-1963. Under his leadership the Apollo manned spacecraft was taken through the crucial first 18 months of design and development. More...
  • Schmidt Schmidt, Helmut Heinrich German-American expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Coats Coats, Michael Lloyd 'Mike' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-29, STS-39. Flew 315 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Nordsieck Nordsieck, Dr Kenneth Hugh (1946-) American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1990. More...
  • Adamson Adamson, James Craig 'Jim' (1946-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-43. US Army More...
  • Fisher, William Fisher, Dr William Frederick (1946-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I. Was married to astronaut Anna Fisher. More...
  • Lydon Lydon, Malcolm Webb (1946-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1986. More...
  • Gaffney Gaffney, Dr Francis Andrew 'Drew' (1946-) American physician payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-40. More...
  • Onizuka Onizuka, Ellison Shoji (1946-1986) American test engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Lounge Lounge, John Michael 'Mike' (1946-) American geophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I, STS-26, STS-35. Grew up in Burlington, Colorado. Flew 99 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Sefchek Sefchek, Paul Andrew (1946-1997) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. More...
  • Covey Covey, Richard Oswalt 'Dick' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I, STS-26, STS-38, STS-61. Grew up in Fort Walton Beach, Florida, son of an Air Force officer. Flew 339 combat missions during two tours in Southeast Asia More...
  • Bolden Bolden, Charles Frank Jr 'Charlie' (1946-) African-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C, STS-31, STS-45, STS-60. More...
  • Richards Richards, Richard Noel 'Dick' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-41, STS-50, STS-64. More...
  • O Connor O Connor, Bryan Daniel 'OC' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-40. More...
  • Nagel Nagel, Steven Ray (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-61-A, STS-37, STS-55. Was married to astronaut Linda Godwin. More...
  • Hart Hart, Terry Jonathan 'TJ' (1946-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C. More...
  • Gibson Gibson, Robert Lee 'Hoot' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-61-C, STS-27, STS-47, STS-71. Flew combat missions over Vietnam. Was married to astronaut Rhea Seddon. More...
  • Clegg Clegg, Robert Henry (1946-) American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1992. More...
  • Clinton Clinton, William J (1946-) American Politician. William J. Clinton became president of the United States in 1993. Previously he served as governor and attorney general of Arkansas. More...
  • Cleave Cleave, Dr Mary Louise (1947-) American ecologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-30. Engineer. More...
  • May May, Eugene F American Test Pilot. Douglas test pilot. More...
  • Carter Carter, Dr Manley Lanier Jr 'Sonny' (1947-1991) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-33. Grew up in Warner Robins, Georgia. Died in the crash of a commercial airliner while on NASA business travel. More...
  • Wright Wright, Keith Charles (1947-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Director, Satellite Control Facility in Sunnyvale. Later with Sparta Corporation, El Segundo, California. More...
  • Hoover Hoover, Herbert H American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 2. More...
  • Seddon Seddon, Dr Margaret Rhea (1947-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D, STS-40, STS-58. Physician. Was married to astronaut Robert Lee (Hoot) Gibson. More...
  • Bruenecke Bruenecke, Erhardt German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Bailey Bailey, Palmer Kent (1947-) American geologist payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1992. More...
  • Gustav Gustav, Johann German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Kroeger Kroeger, Hermann German-American aviation engineer during WW2. Recruited by von Braun and moved to the US, becoming Deputy Director, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville. More...
  • Leuhrsen Leuhrsen, Hannes Gunther German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Res Res, Eberhard Fritz Michael German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Gardner, Guy Gardner, Guy Spencer (1948-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-27, STS-35. Grew up in Alexandria, Virginia. Flew 177 combat missions over Vietnam. More...
  • Ross Ross, Jerry Lynn (1948-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-27, STS-37, STS-55, STS-74, STS-88, STS-110. Held world record of seven spaceflights. US record of nine spacewalks. More...
  • Martin Martin, John American Test pilot. Douglas test pilot. More...
  • Lichtenberg Lichtenberg, Dr Byron Kurt (1948-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-45. Flew 138 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Fitzgerald Fitzgerald, James T (-1949) American test pilot. Second person to break the sound barrier on the XS-1 # 1. Killed in a flight accident not long after his XS-1 flight series. More...
  • Lundquist Lundquist, Gustav E American test pilot, flew the X-1 rocketplane. More...
  • Payton Payton, Gary Eugene (1948-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C. More...
  • Walker Walker, Charles David (1948-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-51-D, STS-61-B. More...
  • McAuliffe McAuliffe, Sharon Christa Corrigan (1948-1986) American teacher payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Was to have been the first teacher in space. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Simonyi Simonyi, Charles 'Karoly' (1948-) Hungarian-American computer scientist, space tourist cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-12, ISS EP-16. Inventor of the Macintosh/Windows visual interface. More...
  • Cenker Cenker, Robert Joseph Jr (1948-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C. More...
  • Gardner Gardner, Dale Allan (1948-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-A. More...
  • Champine Champine, Robert A American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 2. More...
  • Aufderhaar Aufderhaar, Grant Clifford (1948-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. More...
  • Butterworth Butterworth, Louis William (1948-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1986. More...
  • Guy Guy, Will C American engineer. Deputy to Samuel K Hoffmann at Rocketdyne from 1948-1978. More...
  • Hoffman, Samuel Hoffman, Samuel K American engineer. Head of Rocketdyne's Canoga Park, California Facility 1948-1971. More...
  • Townsend Townsend, Ronald Dean (1948-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. More...
  • Cabana Cabana, Robert Donald 'Bob' (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-53, STS-65, STS-88. US Marine Corps More...
  • Dunbar Dunbar, Dr Bonnie Jeanne (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A, STS-32, STS-50, STS-71, STS-89. Engineer. Was married to astronaut Ronald Sega. More...
  • Voss Voss, James Shelton 'Jim' (1949-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-53, STS-69, STS-101, ISS EO-2. US Army More...
  • Konrad Konrad, John Harrison (1949-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1988. Systems engineer and fluid mechanics specialist at Hughes Aircraft. More...
  • Everest Everest, Frank K American test pilot. Flew 161 combat missions in WWII, shooting down six enemy aircraft. Flew the X-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. More...
  • Resnik Resnik, Dr Judith Arlene 'JR' (1949-1986) Jewish-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-51-L. Engineer. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Apt Apt, Dr Jerome J III 'Jay' (1949-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-47, STS-59, STS-79. More...
  • Sacco Sacco, Dr Albert Jr 'Al' (1949-) American chemical engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-73. More...
  • Leestma Leestma, David Cornell 'Dave' (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G, STS-28, STS-45. More...
  • Culbertson Culbertson, Frank Lee Jr (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-38, STS-51, ISS EO-3. More...
  • Shepherd Shepherd, William McMichael 'Bill' (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-27, STS-41, STS-52, ISS EO-1. Shepherd was an ex-Navy SEAL and an expert in underwater demolition. More...
  • Fisher Fisher, Dr Anna Lee Tingle (1949-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-A. First mother in space. Was married to astronaut William Fisher. Took extended leave 1989 to 1996 to raise family. More...
  • Watterson Watterson, John Brett (1949-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1986. More...
  • Griffith Griffith, John H American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 2 and X-4 # 2. More...
  • Fleming Fleming, Patrick Dawson (-1956) American test pilot, flew numerous test aircraft at Edwards AFB until killed in first crash of a B-52. More...
  • Johnson Johnson, Richard L American test pilot. Flew the XS-1 # 1 and X-4 # 2. More...
  • Wilcutt Wilcutt, Terrence Wade 'Terry' (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-68, STS-79, STS-89, STS-106. US Marine Corps More...
  • Cameron Cameron, Kenneth Donald (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-56, STS-74. US Marine Corps More...
  • Higbee Higbee, Terry Alan (1949-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. More...
  • Melnick Melnick, Bruce Edward 'Mel' (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-49. More...
  • Joseph Joseph, Daryl James (1949-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. More...
  • Bechis Bechis, Kenneth Paul (1949-) American astrophysicist payload specialist astronaut, 1987-1990. More...
  • Lewis Lewis, Fred Parker Jr (1949-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1985. More...
  • Tanner Tanner, Joseph Richard 'Joe' (1950-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-66, STS-82, STS-97, STS-115. More...
  • Hilmers Hilmers, David Carl 'Dave' (1950-) American USMC engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-J, STS-26, STS-36, STS-42. Known as a religiously conservative astronaut; summed up many astronaut's fears of the shuttle, saying before a flight "I have no plans past MECO". More...
  • Rij Rij, Jerry Jerome (1950-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Served at Onizuka AFB, California. Retired from the Air Force in 1995. Thereafter worked in private industry in Virginia. More...
  • Chang-Diaz Chang-Diaz, Dr Franklin Ramon (1950-) Costa Rican-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C, STS-34, STS-46, STS-60, STS-75, STS-91, STS-111. Held record of seven spaceflights. More...
  • Cockrell Cockrell, Kenneth Dale 'Taco' (1950-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-56, STS-69, STS-80, STS-98, STS-111. More...
  • DeLucas DeLucas, Dr Lawrence James 'Larry' (1950-) American physiologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-50. More...
  • Nelson Nelson, Dr George Driver 'Pinky' (1950-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C, STS-61-C, STS-26. More...
  • Scott, Winston Scott, Winston Elliott (1950-) African-American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-87. More...
  • Trinh Trinh, Dr Eugene Huu-Chau 'Gene' (1950-) Vietnamese-American physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-50. More...
  • Armor Armor, James Burton Jr (1950-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1985. More...
  • McNair McNair, Dr Ronald Erwin (1950-1986) African-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Meade Meade, Carl Joseph (1950-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-38, STS-50, STS-64. More...
  • Hamel Hamel, Michael Anthony (1950-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. More...
  • Knopow Knopow, Joseph J American engineer, at Lockheed in the 1950s developed the infrared radiometer, used to track and target aircraft and missiles. More...
  • Bird Bird, Cory American Engineer. White Knight project engineer. More...
  • Reightler Reightler, Kenneth Stanley Jr 'Ken' (1951-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-48, STS-60. More...
  • Phillips Phillips, John Lynch (1951-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-100, ISS EO-11, STS-119. More...
  • Ivins Ivins, Marsha Sue (1951-) Jewish-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-32, STS-46, STS-62, STS-81, STS-98. NASA flight engineer. More...
  • Akers Akers, Thomas Dale 'Tom' (1951-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-49, STS-61, STS-79. More...
  • Parise Parise, Dr Ronald Anthony 'Ron' (1951-2008) American astronomer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-35, STS-67. More...
  • Ride Ride, Dr Sally Kristen (1951-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-41-G. Physicist, first American woman in space. Was married to astronaut Steven Alan Hawley. More...
  • Gutierrez Gutierrez, Sidney McNeill 'Sid' (1951-) Hispanic-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-40, STS-59. Some data removed at subject's request. More...
  • Oswald Oswald, Stephen Scott (1951-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-42, STS-56, STS-67. More...
  • Ziegler Ziegler, Jean 'Skip' (-1953) American test pilot. Flew the X-1A and X-1D. X-1A and X-1D test pilot. Killed in the explosion of an X-2 during a captive-carry flight. More...
  • McArthur McArthur, William Surles Jr 'Bill' (1951-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58, STS-74, STS-92, ISS EO-12. US Army. Grew up in Wakulla, North Carolina. More...
  • Brady Brady, Charles Eldon Jr (1951-2006) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78. More...
  • Odle Odle, Randy Thomas (1951-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1986. More...
  • Sullivan Sullivan, Dr Kathryn Dwyer 'Kathy' (1951-) American geologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G, STS-31, STS-45. Geologist, first American woman to walk in space. As of 1999 Ms Sullivan was Director of the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. More...
  • Cannon Cannon, Joseph American test pilot. Flew the X-1 # 3. More...
  • Brown, Mark Brown, Mark Neil (1951-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-48. More...
  • Morgan Morgan, Barbara Radding 'Barby' (1951-) American teacher mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-118. Teacher. More...
  • Hawley Hawley, Dr Steven Alan (1951-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-61-C, STS-31, STS-82, STS-93. Was married to astronaut Sally Ride. More...
  • Thomas, Andrew Thomas, Dr Andrew Sydney Withiel (1951-) Australian-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-77, Mir NASA-6, STS-102, STS-114. More...
  • Leslie Leslie, Dr Fred Weldon (1951-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-73. More...
  • Dyson Dyson, Esther (1951-) American cosmonaut, 2008-2009. Internet entrepreneur, daughter of physicist and space visionary Freeman Dyson. Internet entrepreneur who paid $ 3 million to train as back-up to Charles Simonyi as a space tourist aboard Soyuz TMA-14. More...
  • Wigbels Wigbels, Lyn (1951-) American NASA manager for international affairs, 1979-on. More...
  • Hammond Hammond, Lloyd Blaine Jr (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-64. More...
  • Readdy Readdy, William Francis 'Bill' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-42, STS-51, STS-79. More...
  • Runco Runco, Mario Jr 'Trooper' (1952-) American meteorologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-54, STS-77. More...
  • Bagian Bagian, Dr James Philip 'Jim' (1952-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-29, STS-40. More...
  • Camarda Camarda, Charles Joseph (1952-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-114. More...
  • McMonagle McMonagle, Donald Ray 'Don' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-54, STS-66. More...
  • Pailes Pailes, William Arthur (1952-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut. Flew on STS-51-J. More...
  • Godwin Godwin, Dr Linda Maxine (1952-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-59, STS-76, STS-108. Physicist. Was married to astronaut Steven Nagel. More...
  • Henricks Henricks, Terence Thomas 'Tom' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-55, STS-70, STS-78. More...
  • Lee Lee, Mark Charles (1952-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-30, STS-47, STS-64, STS-82. Was married to astronaut Jan Davis, part of first married couple to fly in space together. More...
  • Hennen Hennen, Thomas John 'Tom' (1952-) American photointerpreter payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-44. US Army. Grew up in Columbus, Ohio, son of an Air Force officer. More...
  • Thornton Thornton, Dr Kathryn Ryan Cordell 'Kathy' (1952-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-33, STS-49, STS-61, STS-73. More...
  • Morin Morin, Lee Miller Emile (1952-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-110. More...
  • Clifford Clifford, Michael Richard Uram 'Rich' (1952-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-53, STS-59, STS-76. US Army More...
  • Jones, Charles Jones, Charles Edward 'Chuck' (1952-2001) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. Killed in 9-11 hijacking. More...
  • Wetherbee Wetherbee, James Donald 'Wexbee' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-32, STS-52, STS-63, STS-86, STS-102, STS-113. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Sega Sega, Dr Ronald Michael 'Ron' (1952-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-60, STS-76. Was married to astronaut Bonnie Dunbar. More...
  • Anderson, Lloyd Anderson, Lloyd Lynn Jr (1952-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1988-1989. More...
  • Mantz Mantz, Michael Ray (1953-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. More...
  • Baker Baker, Ellen Louise Shulman (1953-) Jewish-American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-34, STS-50, STS-71. Physician. More...
  • Duffy Duffy, Brian J (1953-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-45, STS-57, STS-72, STS-92. More...
  • Baker, Mike Baker, Michael Allen 'Mike' (1953-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-43, STS-52, STS-68, STS-81. More...
  • Davis Davis, Dr Nancy Jan (1953-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-47, STS-60, STS-85. Engineer, was married to astronaut Mark Lee, part of first married couple to fly in space together. More...
  • Barry Barry, Dr Daniel Thomas (1953-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-96, STS-105. More...
  • Koszelak Koszelak, Stanley Norbert Jr (1953-) American biologist payload specialist astronaut, 1989-1992. More...
  • Weaver Weaver, Carol Lynn Belt (1953-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1988-1989. More...
  • Crombie Crombie, Robert Buck (1954-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. More...
  • Reilly Reilly, Dr James Francis II 'JR' (1954-) American geologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-89, STS-104, STS-117. More...
  • Murray Murray, Arthur 'Kit' American test pilot. Flew the X-1A, X-1B and X-5 # 1. More...
  • Ashby Ashby, Jeffrey Shears 'Bones' (1954-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-93, STS-100, STS-112. Grew up near Evergreen, Colorado. Flew 33 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. More...
  • Puz Puz, Craig Anton (1954-2008) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1990. More...
  • Roberts Roberts, Katherine Eileen Sparks (1954-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. More...
  • Hanes Hanes, Horace A (-2002) American test pilot. Grew up in Bellflower, Indiana. Flew the X-1B. More...
  • Chilton Chilton, Kevin Patrick 'Chili' (1954-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-49, STS-59, STS-76. More...
  • Harer Harer, Richard James American test pilot. Flew the X-1B. More...
  • DeArmond DeArmond, Frank Maxton (1954-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. More...
  • Stewart Stewart, Robert Lee (1954-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-51-J. More...
  • Hawker Hawker, John Edward 'Hawk' (1954-) American photointerpreter payload specialist astronaut, 1988-1991. Chief Warrant Officer CW3, US-Army; graduated from Rotary Wing Flight School; in 1988 selected for TERRA SCOUT - US Army Project; retired from USA on 1994.04.01. More...
  • Ling Ling, Donald P American engineer, headed Bell Labs and Bellcom, key NASA management contractors during the Apollo project. More...
  • Detroye Detroye, Jeffrey Eliot (1955-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Bachelor of science in astronautical engineering from USAF Academy, 1977. From 1986 worked as a Shuttle Flight Controller. More...
  • Linenger Linenger, Dr Jerry Michael (1955-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-64, Mir NASA-3. More...
  • Jones Jones, Dr Thomas David 'Tom' (1955-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-59, STS-68, STS-80, STS-98. More...
  • Sellers Sellers, Piers John (1955-) British-American ecologist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-112, STS-121, STS-132. More...
  • Pettit Pettit, Donald Roy (1955-) American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-6, STS-126. First NASA astronaut to return to earth in a Russian spacecraft. More...
  • Thomas Thomas, Dr Donald Alan 'Don' (1955-) American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-70, STS-83, STS-94. More...
  • Staib Staib, David Paul Jr (1955-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. Left the astronaut corps in July 1988. Later worked at the Pentagon, then at Colorado Springs. More...
  • Precourt Precourt, Charles Joseph 'Charlie' (1955-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-55, STS-71, STS-84, STS-91. More...
  • Casserino Casserino, Frank James (1955-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. More...
  • Gemar Gemar, Charles Donald 'Sam' (1955-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-38, STS-48, STS-62. US Army More...
  • Allen, Andy Allen, Andrew Michael 'Andy' (1955-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-46, STS-62, STS-75. US Marine Corps More...
  • Walz Walz, Carl Erwin (1955-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-65, STS-79, ISS EO-4. More...
  • Hieb Hieb, Richard James 'Rick' (1955-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-49, STS-65. More...
  • Robinson Robinson, Dr Stephen Kern (1955-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-85, STS-95, STS-114, STS-130. More...
  • Sponable Sponable, Jess Mitchell (1955-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. More...
  • Johnson, Nicholas Johnson, Nicholas L American NASA Historian. Nicholas L. Johnson is NASA's chief scientist for orbital debris at the Johnson Space Center. Previously, he worked in private industry and was considered an expert on the Soviet space program. More...
  • Thompson, David Thompson, William David (1956-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1985. Retired from the USAF in 1987. Later President Spectrum Technology, Los Angeles. More...
  • Low Low, George David (1956-2008) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-32, STS-43, STS-57. Son of former NASA administrator George M Low. More...
  • Brown Brown, Curtis Lee Jr 'Curt' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-47, STS-66, STS-77, STS-85, STS-95, STS-103. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Harbaugh Harbaugh, Gregory Jordan 'Greg' (1956-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-54, STS-71, STS-82. More...
  • Brown, David Brown, David McDowell (1956-2003) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Lockhart Lockhart, Paul Scott 'Paco' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-111, STS-113. More...
  • Gernhardt Gernhardt, Dr Michael Landon (1956-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-69, STS-83, STS-94, STS-104. More...
  • Yeakel Yeakel, Glenn Scott (1956-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1988. Master of science in astronautical engineering from USAF Academy, 1978. Stationed at the US State Department. Later with National Reconnaissance Office. More...
  • Polansky Polansky, Mark Lewis 'Roman' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-98, STS-116, STS-127, , , , More...
  • Searfoss Searfoss, Richard Alan 'Rick' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-58, STS-76, STS-90. More...
  • Buckey Buckey, Jay Clark Jr (1956-) American physician payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-90. Active Paylaod Specialist Trainee for Shuttle STS-90 Neurolab Mission;he had been Alternate Payload Specialist for STS-58 Mission SLS-2. More...
  • Harris Harris, Dr Bernard Andrew Jr (1956-) African-American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-55, STS-63. First African-American to walk in space. More...
  • Rominger Rominger, Kent Vernon (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-73, STS-80, STS-85, STS-96, STS-100. More...
  • James James, Larry Dean (1956-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. More...
  • Wolf Wolf, Dr David Alexander 'Bluto' (1956-) Jewish-American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58, Mir NASA-5, STS-112, STS-127. More...
  • Kregel Kregel, Kevin Richard (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-70, STS-78, STS-87, STS-99. More...
  • Halsell Halsell, James Donald Jr (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-74, STS-83, STS-94, STS-101. More...
  • Holder Holder, Livingston Lionel Jr 'Livvy' (1956-) African-American engineer USAF spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1988. Later worked for the Boeing Company, then Vice President of Space Systems, Andrews Space. More...
  • Voss, Janice Voss, Dr Janice Elaine (1956-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-57, STS-63, STS-83, STS-94, STS-99. Engineer. More...
  • Newman Newman, Dr James Hansen 'Jim' (1956-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-69, STS-88, STS-109. More...
  • Jemison Jemison, Dr Mae Carol (1956-) African-American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-47. Physician. First African-American woman to fly in space. More...
  • Bowersox Bowersox, Kenneth Duane 'Ken' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-50, STS-61, STS-73, STS-82, ISS EO-6. More...
  • LaComb LaComb, Maureen Cecil (1956-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1990. More...
  • Collins, Eileen Collins, Eileen Marie 'Mom' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-63, STS-84, STS-93, STS-114. US Air Force test pilot, first female shuttle pilot and first female spacecraft commander. More...
  • Fettman Fettman, Dr Martin Joseph (1956-) Jewish-American veterinarian payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58. More...
  • Foale Foale, Dr Colin Michael 'Mike' (1957-) British-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-45, STS-56, STS-63, Mir NASA-4, STS-103, ISS EO-8; 373 days in space. Appointed Deputy Associate Administrator for Exploration Operations in 2004. More...
  • Carretto Carretto, Joseph Anthony Jr (1957-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. More...
  • Horowitz Horowitz, Dr Scott Jay 'Doc' (1957-) Jewish-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-75, STS-82, STS-101, STS-105. Grew up in Thousand Oaks, California. Left NASA for a position with ATK Thiokol, promoting shuttle-derived vehicles for use as the CEV launch vehicle. More...
  • Foreman Foreman, Michael James (1957-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-123, STS-129. More...
  • Forrester Forrester, Patrick Graham (1957-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-105, STS-117, STS-128. More...
  • Carey Carey, Duane Gene 'Digger' (1957-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-109. More...
  • Gorie Gorie, Dominic Lee Pudwill (1957-) American test pilot astronaut 1995-2010. Flew on STS-91, STS-99, STS-108, STS-123. Flew 38 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Gregory, William Gregory, Dr William George 'Borneo' (1957-) African-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-67. More...
  • Booen Booen, Michael Warren (1957-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987. More...
  • Wood, Robert Wood, Robert Jackson (1957-2009) American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. More...
  • Husband Husband, Rick Douglas (1957-2003) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-96, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Bursch Bursch, Daniel Wheeler 'Dan' (1957-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51, STS-68, STS-77, ISS EO-4. More...
  • Linnehan Linnehan, Dr Richard Michael (1957-) American veterinarian mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78, STS-90, STS-109, STS-123. US Army More...
  • Linteris Linteris, Dr Gregory Thomas (1957-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-83, STS-94. More...
  • Fossum Fossum, Michael Edward (1957-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-121, STS-124, ISS EO-28. More...
  • Belt Belt, Michael Eugene (1957-) American photointerpreter payload specialist astronaut, 1988-1991. More...
  • Hoffpauir Hoffpauir, Michael Edward (1957-) American Army geologist payload specialist astronaut, 1990-1992. More...
  • Johnston, Paul Johnston, S Paul American Engineer. S. Paul Johnston was director of the Institute for Aeronautical Sciences. He was also a member of the Purcell Panel that assessed space flight capabilities for the U.S. government in 1957-1958. More...
  • Land Land, Edwin American Engineer. Edwin Land was president of the Polaroid Corporation, and a member of the Purcell Panel that assessed space flight capabilities for the U.S. government in 1957-1958. More...
  • Ronney Ronney, Paul David (1957-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1996-1997. Alternate Payload Specialist for STS-83 Mission MSL-1. More...
  • Williams, Jeffrey Williams, Jeffrey Nels (1958-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-101, ISS EO-13, ISS EO-21. More...
  • Edwards Edwards, Joe Frank Jr (1958-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-89. Grew up in Lineville and Roanoke, Alabama. Flew combat missions over Lebanon in 1983 More...
  • Helms Helms, Susan Jane (1958-) American test engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-54, STS-64, STS-78, STS-101, ISS EO-2. More...
  • Ochoa Ochoa, Dr Ellen Lauri (1958-) Hispanic-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-56, STS-66, STS-96, STS-110. Engineer. More...
  • Caldeiro Caldeiro, Fernando 'Frank' (1958-2009) Hispanic-American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 1996-2009. More...
  • Wisoff Wisoff, Peter Jeffrey Kelsay 'Jeff' (1958-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-57, STS-68, STS-81, STS-92. Was married to astronaut Tammy Jernigan. More...
  • Herrington Herrington, John Bennett (1958-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-113. More...
  • Jett Jett, Brent Ward Jr (1958-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-81, STS-97, STS-115. More...
  • Grunsfeld Grunsfeld, Dr John Mace (1958-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1992-2010. Flew on STS-67, STS-81, STS-103, STS-109, STS-125. More...
  • Currie Currie, Nancy Jane nee Sherlock (1958-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-57, STS-70, STS-88, STS-109. US Army engineer. More...
  • Smith, Steven Smith, Steven Lee (1958-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-68, STS-82, STS-103, STS-110. More...
  • Hodgson Hodgson, Alfred S American bureaucrat. At NASA from 1958. 1962-1968, leading administrative positions at NASA HQ. More...
  • Matthiesen Matthiesen, Dr David Henry (1958-) American materials scientist payload specialist astronaut, 1994-1995. More...
  • Anderson, Clayton Anderson, Clayton Conrad (1959-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-15-1, STS-131. More...
  • Bloomfield Bloomfield, Michael John 'Bloomer' (1959-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-86, STS-97, STS-110. Grew up in Lake Fenton, Michigan. More...
  • Barratt Barratt, Michael Reed (1959-) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Cagle Cagle, Yvonne Darlene (1959-) African-American physician mission specialist astronaut, 1996-on. More...
  • Jernigan Jernigan, Dr Tamara Elizabeth 'Tammy' (1959-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-40, STS-52, STS-67, STS-80, STS-96. Astronomer. Was married to astronaut Jeff Wisoff. More...
  • Lawrence Lawrence, Wendy Barrien (1959-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-67, STS-86, STS-91, STS-114. US Navy ocean engineer. More...
  • Kavandi Kavandi, Dr Janet Lynn (1959-) American chemist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-91, STS-99, STS-104. Chemist. More...
  • Altman Altman, Scott Douglas 'Scooter' (1959-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-90, STS-106, STS-109, STS-125. More...
  • Hire Hire, Kathryn Patricia 'Kay' (1959-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-90, STS-130. US Navy aviator; first woman assigned to a combat aircrew. More...
  • Noriega Noriega, Carlos Ismael (1959-) Hispanic-American computer scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-84, STS-97. Grew up in Santa Clara, California. More...
  • Creamer Creamer, Timothy John 'TJ' (1959-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut, 1998-on. More...
  • Anderson Anderson, Michael Phillip (1959-2003) African-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-89, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Holt Holt, Dr Ray Glynn (1959-) American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1994-1995. More...
  • Modarelli Modarelli, James J American NASA designer, credited with the NASA logo. More...
  • Vangen Vangen, Scott Duane (1959-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1993-1995. More...
  • Whitson Whitson, Peggy Annette (1960-) American biochemist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-5, ISS EO-16. Biochemist, first female space station commander, American and female record for cumulative days in space, female record for number of spacewalks. 376 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Mastracchio Mastracchio, Richard Alan 'Rick' (1960-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-106, STS-118, STS-131. More...
  • Wheelock Wheelock, Douglas Harry (1960-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-120, ISS EO-24. US Army. More...
  • Ford Ford, Kevin Anthony (1960-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Loria Loria, Christopher Joseph 'Gus' (1960-) Hispanic-American test pilot astronaut, 1996-2005. US Marine Corps. Grew up in Belmont, Massachusetts. Flew 42 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Dunlap Dunlap, Dr Alexander William (1960-) American physician payload specialist astronaut, 1996-1998. Candidate specialist for STS-90 Neurolab. More...
  • Lindsey Lindsey, Steven Wayne (1960-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-87, STS-95, STS-104, STS-121, STS-133. Grew up in Temple City, California. More...
  • Archambault Archambault, Lee Joseph 'Bru' (1960-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-117, STS-119. Grew up in Bellwood, Illinois. Flew 22 combat missions in F-117s during the Gulf War. More...
  • Chiao Chiao, Dr Leroy (1960-) American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-72, STS-92, ISS EO-10. More...
  • Marshburn Marshburn, Thomas Henry 'Tom' (1960-) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Pawelczyk Pawelczyk, James Anthony 'Jim' (1960-) American physiologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-90. Candidate Payload Specialist for STS-90 Neurolab. More...
  • Tittle Tittle, Theresa Mary Stevens (1960-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. Graduated in operations research from the USAF Academy, 1982. US Air Force operations specialist, stationed in the Pentagon. Later a Shuttle Flight Controller at the JSC. More...
  • Swanson Swanson, Steven Ray 'Swanny' (1960-) American computer scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-117, STS-119. More...
  • Coleman Coleman, Dr Catherine Grace 'Cady' (1960-) American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-73, STS-93, ISS EO-26. US Air Force engineer. More...
  • Constan Constan, G N German-American NASA Engineer; as of November 1960 working for Von Braun as Chief, Technical Program Coordination Office at NASA Huntsville. More...
  • Einhorn Einhorn, Raymond American NASA Bureaucrat. Raymond Einhorn was a former General Accounting Office auditor who joined NASA in 1960 as its director of audits. He served in this position throughout the 1960s. More...
  • Halpern Halpern, Irwin P American Soviet specialist, director of NASA's Policy Analysis Staff in the mid 1960s; previously worked at the Central Intelligence Agency on Soviet and Chinese political-military affairs and doctrine. More...
  • Rosen, Herbert Rosen, Herbert H American engineer, deputy director of the office of public information in NASA in early 1960. More...
  • Schindler Schindler, William 'Bill' American manager. NASA Delta launch vehicle program manager, the single individual most responsible for developing the light launch vehicle into a medium lift workhorse More...
  • Willner Willner, William American NASA Manager, in charge of construction in the procurement and supply division of NASA Headquarters' office of business administration. By August 1960, he had moved to the office of research grants and contracts. More...
  • Tani Tani, Daniel Michio (1961-) Japanese-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-108, ISS EO-16-1. More...
  • Clark Clark, Laurel Blair Salton (1961-2003) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Physician. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Chawla Chawla, Dr Kalpana (1961-2003) Indian-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-87, STS-107. She perished with the rest of the crew of the shuttle Columbia on 1 February 2003. More...
  • Garriott, Richard Garriott, Richard Allen (1961-) American space tourist. Flew on ISS EP-15. Son of astronaut Owen Garriott, raised in Nassau Bay, Texas. Sold first computer game at 16; made millions in computer games. Paid $30 million for a flight to the International Space Station. More...
  • Burbank Burbank, Daniel Christopher (1961-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-106, STS-115. More...
  • Parazynski Parazynski, Dr Scott Edward (1961-) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 1992-2009. Flew on STS-66, STS-86, STS-95, STS-100, STS-120. More...
  • Sturckow Sturckow, Frederick Wilford 'Rick' (1961-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-88, STS-105, STS-117, STS-128. Grew up in Lakeside, California. US Marine Corps. Flew 41 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. More...
  • Ferguson Ferguson, Christopher John (1961-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-115, STS-126, STS-135. More...
  • Melroy Melroy, Pamela Ann (1961-) American test pilot astronaut 1995-2009. Flew on STS-92, STS-112, STS-120. Grew up in Pittsford, New York. US Air Force test pilot. More...
  • McCool McCool, William Cameron 'Willie' (1961-2003) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Kilrain Still-Kilrain, Susan Leigh (1961-) Jewish-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-83, STS-94. US Navy test pilot. More...
  • Garan Garan, Ronald John Jr (1961-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-124, ISS EO-27. More...
  • Poindexter Poindexter, Alan Goodwin 'Dex' (1961-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-122, STS-131. Grew up in Rockville, Maryland, son of John Poindexter, a US Naval Officer and senior US government official. More...
  • Hobaugh Hobaugh, Charles Owen 'Scorch' (1961-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-104, STS-118, STS-129. US Marine Corps. More...
  • Canterbury Canterbury, William Monte American officer. Senior management positions in USAF missile development, senior staff scientist, Lockheed, from 1961. More...
  • Mechanical Astronaut Mechanical Astronaut, Mercury American phantom cosmonaut. The MAS was an electronic mannequin that could 'inhale' and 'exhale' man-like quantities of gas, heat, and water vapor. It flew twice (MA 3 launch abort 1961.04.25 and one orbit on MA-4 1961.09.13). More...
  • Curbeam Curbeam, Robert Lee Jr 'Beamer' (1962-) African-American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-85, STS-98, STS-116. More...
  • Johnson, Gregory H Johnson, Gregory Harold 'Box' (1962-) British-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-123, STS-134. Flew 34 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. More...
  • Zamka Zamka, George David 'Zambo' (1962-) Hispanic-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-120, STS-130. Grew up in Rochester, Michigan. US Marine Corps. More...
  • Woodward Woodward, Neil Whitney III (1962-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut, 1998-2008. More...
  • Hernandez Hernandez, Jose Moreno (1962-) Hispanic-American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Massimino Massimino, Michael James (1962-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-109, STS-125. More...
  • Weber Weber, Dr Mary Ellen (1962-) American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-70, STS-101. Chemist. More...
  • Walheim Walheim, Rex Joseph (1962-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-110, STS-122, STS-135. More...
  • Good Good, Michael Timothy (1962-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Drew Drew, Benjamin Alvin Jr (1962-) African-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-118, STS-133. More...
  • Stott Stott, Nicole Marie Passonno (1962-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Wilmore Wilmore, Barry Eugene 'Butch' (1962-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Cohen Cohen, Aaron American engineer, at NASA 1962-1992. Played important role in Apollo program, and later directed development of space shuttle orbiter from design to initial flight test. More...
  • Stefanyshyn-Piper Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie Martha (1963-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 1996-2009. Flew on STS-115, STS-126. Engineer. More...
  • Hilliard Robertson, Patricia Consolatrix nee Hilliard (1963-2001) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 1998-2001. More...
  • Kopra Kopra, Timothy Lennart (1963-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. US Army More...
  • Nowak Nowak, Lisa Marie Caputo (1963-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-121. US Navy test pilot. More...
  • Lu Lu, Dr Edward Tsang (1963-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-84, STS-106, ISS EO-7. More...
  • Arnold, Ricky Arnold, Richard Robert II 'Ricky' (1963-) American teacher mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Schneider Schneider, William C American engineer, at NASA 1963-1980. Mission director for seven Gemini missions; Apollo mission director 1967-1968; Skylab Program director 1968-1974. More...
  • Thompson, J R Thompson, James R 'JR' American engineer, at NASA 1963-1991, deputy administrator 1989-1991; headed development test of the J-2 and SSME engines at NASA. More...
  • Bowen Bowen, Stephen Gerard (1964-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-126, STS-132, STS-133. More...
  • Melvin Melvin, Leland Devon 'Lee' (1964-) African-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-122, STS-129. More...
  • Kelly, Mark Kelly, Mark Edward (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-108, STS-121, STS-124, STS-134. Twin brother of astronaut Scott Kelly. Grew up in West Orange, New Jersey. Flew 39 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Kelly, Scott Kelly, Scott Joseph (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-103, STS-118, ISS EO-25. Twin brother of astronaut Mark Kelly. More...
  • Patrick Patrick, Nicholas James MacDonald (1964-) British-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-116, STS-130. More...
  • Kelly Kelly, James McNeal 'Vegas' (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-102, STS-114. More...
  • Richards, Paul Richards, Paul William (1964-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-102. More...
  • Higginbotham Higginbotham, Joan Elizabeth Miller (1964-) African-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-116. Engineer. More...
  • Frick Frick, Stephen Nathaniel (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-110, STS-122. Flew 26 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Boe Boe, Eric Allen (1964-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-126, STS-133. More...
  • Magnus Magnus, Sandra Hall (1964-) American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-112, ISS EO-18-1. More...
  • Ham Ham, Kenneth Todd (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-124, STS-132. More...
  • Oefelein Oefelein, William Anthony 'Bill' (1965-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-116. More...
  • Olivas Olivas, John Daniel 'Danny' (1965-) Hispanic-American engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-2010. Flew on STS-117, STS-128. More...
  • Walker, Shannon Walker, Shannon (1965-) American astrophysicist mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Love Love, Stanley Glen (1965-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-122. More...
  • Feustel Feustel, Andrew Jay 'Drew' (1965-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. Flew on STS-134. More...
  • Williams Williams, Sunita Lyn 'Suni' (1965-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-14-1. US Navy test pilot. Grew up in Needham, Massachusetts. More...
  • Satcher Satcher, Robert Lee Jr 'Bobby' (1965-) African-American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Foster Foster, John S American physicist. Director of Defense Research and Engineering 1965-1973; served on 1992 review board on post-Cold War space policy. More...
  • Kontogiannis Kontogiannis, George (1965-) American engineer, lead for the Titan 4/Centaur and Atlas V. More...
  • Ansari Ansari, Anousheh nee Raissyan (1966-) Iranian-American engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-11. First female space tourist. First Iranian in space. More...
  • Wilson Wilson, Stephanie Diana (1966-) African-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-121, STS-120, STS-131. Engineer. More...
  • Gentry Gentry (-2003) American test pilot. Flew the M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A and M2-F3. More...
  • Hurley Hurley, Douglas Gerald (1966-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. Flew on STS-127, STS-135. US Marine Corps. More...
  • Butchart Butchart, S P American test pilot, flew D-558-1, D-558-2, X-4, X-5. More...
  • Greer Greer, Robert E American officer. Major General, managed completion of development of the S-II second stage of the Saturn V. More...
  • Keathley Keathley, William C American engineer, at NASA from 1966. Project manager for the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount Optical Telescope Assembly; manager of Hubble Space Telescope from 1977. More...
  • Fincke Fincke, Edward Michael 'Mike' (1967-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-9, ISS EO-18, STS-134. 381 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Acaba Acaba, Joseph Michael (1967-) Hispanic-American geologist mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Kimbrough Kimbrough, Robert Shane (1967-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-126. US Army More...
  • Antonelli Antonelli, Dominic Anthony 'Tony' (1967-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Bresnik Bresnik, Randolph James 'Randy' (1967-) American test pilot astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Virts Virts, Terry Wayne Jr (1967-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Reisman Reisman, Garrett Erin (1968-) Jewish-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-16-3, STS-123, STS-132. More...
  • Dutton Dutton, James Patrick Jr (1968-) American test pilot astronaut, 2004-on. Flew combat air patrols over Northern Iraq during the 1990s. More...
  • Boone Boone, Walter F American USN Officer. Walter F. Boone was an admiral, who after retiring from the Navy, became the NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Defense Affairs. He held this post until retiring from NASA in 1968. More...
  • Boggess Boggess, Nancy Weber American scientist. Worked at NASA on IRAS and COBE infrared satellites. More...
  • Hoag Hoag, Peter American test pilot. Flew the HL-10. More...
  • Caldwell Dyson Caldwell, Tracy Ellen (1969-) American chemist mission specialist astronaut. Chemist. Flew on STS-118, ISS EO-23. More...
  • Nyberg Nyberg, Karen Lujean (1969-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-124. Engineer. More...
  • Briggs Briggs, Geoffrey A American scientist. Led Mars imaging teams for JPL Mariner and Viking missions 1969-1977. Deputy Director and Director, NASA HQ Solar System Exploration Division 1977-1990. Scientific Director, Ames Center for Mars Exploration, 1992-1997. More...
  • Whitehead Whitehead, Clay T American politician, a White House staff assistant during the Nixon Administration between 1969 and 1972 who was heavily involved in space policy associated with the decision to build the Space Shuttle and post-Apollo planning for NASA. More...
  • Cassidy Cassidy, Christopher John 'Chris' (1970-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Behnken Behnken, Robert Louis (1970-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-123, STS-130. More...
  • Cook Cook, Charles W American bureaucrat. Held management positions in the 1970's and 1980's in the Offices of the Secretary of the Air Force and Defense; ARPA; CIA; and industry. More...
  • Kachigan Kachigan, Karl American Chief Engineer and Director, Atlas Launch Vehicle, at General Dynamics in the 1970's and 1980's More...
  • Powell Powell, Cecil American test pilot. Flew the X-24A and M2-F3. More...
  • McArthur, Megan McArthur, Katherine Megan (1971-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Claggett Claggett, Randy (-1973) American phantom cosmonaut. Fictional Apollo 18 mission commander who died on the lunar surface in Michener's novel Space and the resulting television mini-series. More...
  • Pellerin Pellerin, Charles J American physicist, at NASA 1974-1994. Director of Astrophysics in NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications 1983-1992; Deputy Associate Administrator for Safety and Mission Quality 1992-1994. More...
  • Metcalf-Lindenburger Metcalf-Lindenburger, Dorothy Marie 'Dottie' (1975-) American teacher mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Henry Henry, Richard C American officer. Commander of Air Force Space Division, 1978-1982; Vice Commander, Air Force Space Command 1982-1983. More...
  • Barnes Barnes, Richard JH American diplomat. Director of the International Affairs Division of the Office of External Relations at NASA in the 1980s. He had been a long-time NASA official, first coming to the agency in 1961 to work in international programs. More...
  • Fuller, Craig Fuller, Craig American US Government Politician. Craig Fuller was President Ronald Reagan's Cabinet Secretary in the early 1980s and arranged for NASA's space station proposal to be discussed at a meeting of the Cabinet Council for Commerce and Trade. More...
  • Tilford Tilford, Shelby G American NASA geophysicist, from the late 1980's Director of Earth Sciences in the Office of Space Science. In 1992 he was appointed acting Associate Administrator for Mission to Planet Earth and served until 1994. More...
  • Graham Graham, Dr William R American engineer, deputy administrator of NASA 1985-1986. More...
  • Dobrick Dobrick, Werner (-1986) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Oberlenningen, Germany. More...
  • Gisel Gisel, William G (-1989) American Manager. President of Bell aircraft. More...
  • Quayle Quayle, J Danforth 'Dan' American politician, Vice President 1989-1993, headed National Space Council, invovled in development of space station and its conversion from a national to an international projects. More...
  • Dailey Dailey, John R American USMC officer, associate deputy administrator of NASA 1992-1999 and director of the NASM 2000-2009. He flew 450 missions during two tours in Viet Nam. More...
  • Prasthofer Willibald P Prasthofer (1917-1993) Austrian-American engineer and rocket technician in World War II; later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 to 1955. He returned briefly to Graz, Austria, and then went to work with von Braun's team at Huntsville, Alabama. During his tenure at NASA, he was US representative to the Paris Air Show for a number of years and lectured at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville. He was on the faculty of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. More...
  • Harris, Robert Harris, Robert D American engineer, leading Aerojet rocket engine designer; finished career as Vice President of Strategic and Space Propulsion Aerojet vice president in 1999. Retired to northern California. More...
  • Aldrich Aldrich, Rick American Engineer. White Knight crew chief. More...
  • O Keefe O Keefe, Sean American manager, NASA Administrator 2001-2005, advocate of nuclear power use in spacecraft. Reorganized the ISS program to cover overruns, was administrator when the crew of the Columbia perished, and began work on a post-shuttle program. More...
  • Shane Shane, Doug American test pilot, headed Flight Operations at Scaled Composites from 1989. More...
  • Siebold Siebold, Pete American test pilot, engineer, at Scaled Composites. More...
  • Binnie Binnie, William Brian American test pilot rocketplane pilot. Flew on SpaceShipOne Flight 17P. More...
  • Fleischer Fleischer, Karl-Otto (-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Jungert Jungert, Wilhelm German engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. More...

Associated Spacecraft
  • M1 Ames' original design for a blunt lifting body. Technical details are for single-crew version proposed in 1958 as a lower-cost alternate to Dynasoar. More...
  • AEHF The Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellite program was the next generation of global, highly secure, survivable communications system for all services of the US Department of Defense, replacing the Milstar series. The first was finally launched three years behind schedule at a cost that had doubled from the original $5 billion estimate. More...
  • PAN Classified communications satellite, perhaps providing services for the CIA to replace channels hosted on the US Navy's UHF Follow-On series. Stationed in geostationary orbit at 34 deg E. More...
  • OCO Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Launched 2009.02.24, More...
  • Mark Ridge Suit American pressure suit, tested 1933. The first full pressure suit was made by a London diving suit firm for the American balloonist Mark Ridge. More...
  • Wiley Post Suit American pressure suit, operational 1934-35. B F Goodrich made a full pressure suit for pioneering aviator Wiley Post, who used it to make ten stratospheric flights in 1934-1935. More...
  • Tomato Worm Suit American pressure suit, tested 1940-43. Project MX-117 full "tomato worm" pressure suits were developed during World War II. More...
  • XS-1 American manned rocketplane. Design begun 1943. Also known as the X-1. This rocket plane was the first aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the first in a line of X- aircraft leading to the space shuttle. More...
  • Henry PPS American pressure suit, tested 1943. J P Henry and D R Drury designed the capstan partial pressure suit and exposed subjects to 24,000 m. Three models were tested. These would be the basis of the post-war Dave Clark rocketplane suits. More...
  • MX-324 American manned rocketplane. Flown 1944. First U.S. military rocket-powered plane; built by Northrop. More...
  • X-2 American manned rocketplane. Design began 1945. X-2 was an AAF/ Bell project that flew three supersonic flight research aircraft, powered by liquid rockets. Originally designated XS-2. More...
  • XP-79 American manned rocketplane. Flown in 1945. The XP-79 was Jack Northrop's design for a rocket-propelled flying wing fighter. More...
  • Von Braun Station American manned space station. Study 1945. In the first 1946 summary of his work during World War II, Wernher von Braun prophesied the construction of space stations in orbit. More...
  • D-558-1 American manned high-speed research aircraft. Flown 1947-1953. The D-558-I "Skystreaks" were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and XF-92A. More...
  • T-1 American pressure suit, operational 1948. David Clark Company developed Dr. Henry's original capstan partial pressure suit. More...
  • XP-92 American manned delta-wing rocketplane. Never flown with rockets, but flew as a turbojet-powered research aircraft, 1948-1953. More...
  • D-558-2 American manned rocketplane. Flown from 1949. Research airplane Douglas D-558. Airplane had both jet and rocket engines and was flown from ground takeoff. The D-558-II Skyrocket exceeded the speed of sound at Edwards AFB, Calif. More...
  • XF-91 American manned rocketplane. Study 1949. The Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor was a mixed-power interceptor, being powered by both a jet engine and by a battery of rocket motors. Although it showed promise, it was not put into production. More...
  • Model 4 American pressure suit, operational 1950. The Model 4 Full Pressure Suit was developed for D-558-2 Douglas Skyrocket test pilots. It was first flown by Navy test pilot Marion Carl for a 26 km altitude record flight. More...
  • X-1D American manned rocketplane. Study 1953. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. More...
  • Bomi American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1952. Bell manned skip-glide space bomber project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. More...
  • Von Braun Passenger Ship American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars orbiter based on engineering analysis. 10 passengers would be housed in a 20-m-diameter sphere during the 963 day mission to Mars, in Mars orbit, and back to earth. More...
  • Von Braun Lunar Lander American manned lunar lander. Study 1952. Von Braun's first lunar lander design was an immense spacecraft, larger in earth orbit than a Saturn V booster. More...
  • Von Braun Landing Boat American manned Mars lander. Study 1952. The first design for a manned Mars lander based on engineering analysis. The enormous glider would have a wingspan of 153 m, and land on Mars horizontally either on skis, skids, or wheels on a prepared runway. More...
  • X-1A American manned rocketplane. Study 1951. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. More...
  • MX-2145 American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1953. In May 1953 the Air Force funded Boeing to study their MX-2145 boost-glide vehicle as a successor to the B-58 supersonic medium-range bomber. This was a competitor to Bell's BOMI. More...
  • S-2 Pressure Suit American pressure suit, operational 1953. The S-2 was a modified capstan partial pressure suit evolved from the T-1 with no anti-G and no chest bladder. It was produced in 12 sizes for bomber aircraft. More...
  • X-1B American manned rocketplane. Flown 1952. The X-1A, B, and D were essentially identical rocketplanes intended to reach speeds above Mach 2. More...
  • D-558-3 American manned rocketplane. Flown 1954. The D-558-3 was a US Navy/Douglas counterpart to the X-15, which would have kept the Navy in the 'space race' and Douglas in the running for future manned spaceplanes. More...
  • Ehricke 4-man orbital station American manned space station. Study 1954. In 1954 Ehricke postulated a four-man design that might serve a number of different purposes, depending upon altitude and orbital inclination. More...
  • Man-high American manned balloon. Study 1955. Project Manhigh was established in December 1955 to obtain scientific data on the behavior of a balloon in an environment above 99% of the earth's atmosphere and to investigate cosmic rays and their effects on man. More...
  • X-1E American manned rocketplane. Study 1954. The X-1E was designed to test an ultra-thin 4% thickness to cord wing for supersonic flight. More...
  • S-4 American pressure suit, operational 1955. The S-4 was a modified S-2 partial pressure suit, no anti-G, chest bladder incorporated for ease of breathing. More...
  • Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. North American was the final selected vendor for Manned-In-Space-Soonest. The 1360-kg ballistic capsule would be launched by an Atlas booster to an 185-km altitude orbit. More...
  • Hywards American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1956. Hypersonic manned test spaceplane project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. More...
  • Brass Bell American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1956. Hypersonic manned reconnaissance spaceplane project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. More...
  • Robo American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1955. Hypersonic manned rocket bomber project of the 1950's. Predecessor to Dynasoar. More...
  • 1956 Von Braun Passenger Ship American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1956. The 1956 version of Von Braun's Mars design was slashed by 50% in mass, while the number of passengers was increased from 10 to 12. More...
  • 1956 Von Braun Cargo Ship American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1956. Using the same basic systems as the Passenger Ship, the Cargo Ship would substitute a 177 metric ton Landing Boat for the surface expedition in place of the Passenger Sphere and propellant for the return home. More...
  • 1956 Von Braun Landing Boat American manned Mars lander. Study 1956. The 1956 modification of Von Braun's Landing Boat design was reduced in mass by 12%, and the wingspan by 10%. More...
  • MC-1 American pressure suit, operational 1956. Modified S-2 partial pressure capstan suit with chest breathing bladder, 12 sizes, high altitude, fighters and bombers, smaller capstan in torso area, pressure gloves, K-1 or MB-5 helmet, David Clark Company. More...
  • Mark 1 Mod III American pressure suit, operational 1956. While the USAF concentrated on partial pressure suits, the US Navy worked on omni-environmental full pressure suits to combine altitude and immersion protection. More...
  • Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1956 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. Von Braun's Mars expedition presented in the 1956 book he co-authored with Willy Ley, The Exploration of Mars, was vastly reduced in scope from the 1952 version. More...
  • Vanguard 1 American technology satellite. 4 launches, 1957.12.06 (Vanguard 1A) to 1958.04.29 (Vanguard 2A). An engineering test satellite. Based on orbital position data derived from its transmissions, the shape of the earth was refined. More...
  • Ames Mach 10 Demonstrator American manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Ames proposed in 1957 to air-launch a high-wing designed hypersonic glider from a B-36 bomber. Early versions would use an XLR-99-powered booster stage and be capable of reaching Mach 6. More...
  • Bell Rocket Transport 1957 American manned rocketplane. Study 1957. Proposed civilian transport version of Bomi rocket bomber. Bell was unable to interest any airlines in putting up the development funds for the project. More...
  • MB-1 American pressure suit, tested 1957. MB-1 & 2 were experimental test pilot's partial pressure suits using the K-1 helmet. More...
  • MC-3 American pressure suit, operational 1957. A capstan partial pressure suit with horizontal shoulder zipper, sewn breaklines, no anti-G, height/weight sizing criteria, used on bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, came in 12 sizes. More...
  • Stuhlinger Mars 1957 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1957. In 1954 Ernst Stuhlinger conceived the first Mars expedition using solar-electric propulsion. More...
  • Explorer A American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1958.02.01 (Explorer 1) to 1958.03.26 (Explorer 3). Discovered Van Allen radiation belts. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • ARTV American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. 3 launches, 1958.04.24 (ARTV 1) to 1958.07.23 (ARTV 3). Suborbital advanced reentry test vehicle. More...
  • Vanguard 2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1958.05.28 (Vanguard 2B) to 1959.02.17 (Vanguard 2). The actual operational satellite that was to be launched by the Vanguard launcher. More...
  • SAINT American military anti-satellite system. Cancelled 1963. More...
  • SAINT II American manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1961. At the beginning of the 1960's, the USAF examined a number of approaches to a manned spacecraft designed to rendezvous with, inspect, and then, if necessary, destroy enemy satellites. More...
  • Pilot American technology satellite. 6 launches, 1958.07.25 (Pilot 1) to 1958.08.28 (Pilot 6). Pilot launches were deep-black tests of the US Navy's 1950's reconnaissance satellite and ASAT designs. More...
  • Explorer B American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1958.07.26, Explorer 4. Mapped project Argus radiation. More...
  • Adam American manned spacecraft. Study 1957. In early 1958 Wernher von Braun proposed launching an American aboard an Army Redstone on a suborbital mission into space before the end of 1959 at a cost of under $12 million. More...
  • Pioneer 0-1-2 American lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1958.08.17 (Pioneer (1)) to 1958.11.08 (Pioneer 2). Pioneers 0, 1 and 2 were the first U. S. spacecraft to attempt to leave Earth orbit. More...
  • Explorer C American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1958.08.24, Explorer 5. More...
  • M2b Version of M2 lifting body proposed in 1958 as an alternate to the Dynasoar winged glider configuraiton. More...
  • Beacon 1 American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1958.10.23 (Beacon 1) and 1959.08.15 (Beacon 2). More...
  • Pioneer 3-4 American lunar flyby probe. 2 launches, 1958.12.06 (Pioneer 3) to 1959.03.03 (Pioneer 4). Smaller than the previous Pioneers, Pioneer 3 and 4 each carried only a single experiment to detect cosmic radiation. More...
  • Score American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1958.12.18. Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment; first communications satellite; transmitted taped messages for 13 days. More...
  • Aeronutronics Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Aeronutronics' proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a cone-shaped vehicle 2.1 m in diameter with a spherical tip of 30 cm radius. It does not seem to have been seriously considered. More...
  • Avco Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. AVCO's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 690 kg, 2. More...
  • Bell Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Bell's preferred concept for the Air Force initial manned space project was the boost-glide vehicle they had been developing for the Dynasoar program. More...
  • C-4 American pressure suit, operational 1958. A partial pressure capstan suit, with vertical shoulder laces, adjustable break lines, anti-G suit, MG-1 Berger Bros. gloves, MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover. More...
  • Convair Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Convair's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project involved a large-scale manned space station. When pressed, they indicated that a minimum vehicle - a 450 kg, 1. More...
  • C-1A American pressure suit, tested 1958. A partial pressure capstan suit with incorporated anti-G bladders for USN fighter aircraft, 12 standard sizes. More...
  • CSU-2P American pressure suit, tested 1958. Developmental dual capstan partial pressure suit for altitude protection by Berger Brothers. Used pressure socks and double capstan for looser fit. More...
  • FJ-4F American manned rocketplane. Study 1958. The FJ-4F was a US Navy Fury fighter fitted with a Rocketdyne AR1 engine for quick intercept of Soviet bombers. Two prototypes were tested which reached Mach 1.41 at 22 km altitude. More...
  • Goodyear Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Goodyear's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 2.1 m diameter spherical vehicle with a rearward facing tail cone and ablative surface. More...
  • Lockheed Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Lockheed's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 20 degree semiapex angle cone with a hemispherical tip of 30 cm radius. The pilot was in a sitting position facing rearward. More...
  • Lunex Lunar Lander American manned lunar lander. Studied 1958-1961. The largest single development objective for the Lunex program was to provide a spacecraft capable of transporting men and equipment to the lunar surface and returning them to a selected earth base. More...
  • Lombard Suit American pressure suit, tested 1958. Developmental partial pressure suit developed by Dr. Lombard of Northrop. More...
  • MC-2 American pressure suit, operational 1958. The XMC-2 full pressure suit developed in the mid-1950s jointly by Wright Field personnel and the David Clark Company for X-15 pilots. More...
  • McDonnell Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. McDonnell's design for the Air Force initial manned space project was a ballistic vehicle coordinated with Faget's NACA proposal and resembling the later Soviet Soyuz descent module. More...
  • Martin Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Martin's proposal for the Air Force manned space project was a zero-lift vehicle launched by a Titan I with controlled flight in orbit. The spacecraft would be boosted into a 240 km orbit for a 24 hour mission. More...
  • MC-4A American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-4 with height/weight fit for fighter aircraft, anti-G suit. Suits produced by David Clark, Berger Brothers and Seymour Wallace. More...
  • MC-3A American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-3 suit with vertical shoulder laces and adjustable break lines. Produced by David Clark and Berger Brothers. MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover. More...
  • Mark IV Model 3 Type I American pressure suit, operational 1958. )roduction suit which US Navy aircrew wore on high altitude flights during its cold weather operations. More...
  • Mark I ELSS American space suit, tested 1958-59. The USAF Mark I Extravehicular and Lunar Surface Suit was tested during 1958-59, and led to subsequent development of more refined and satisfactory RX-series "Moon Suits" for NASA. More...
  • Northrop Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Northrop's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a boost-glide vehicle based on work done for the Dynasoar project. More...
  • Outpost American manned space station. Study 1958. In 1958, the year after Sputnik 1, Krafft Ehricke, then with General Dynamics' Convair Division, designed a four-man space station known as Outpost. More...
  • Project Mer American manned spacecraft. Study 1956. April 1958 design of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics for a Manned Earth Reconnaissance spacecraft - consisting of a cylindrical fuselage and telescoping, inflatable wings for flight in the atmosphere. More...
  • Republic Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Republic's studies for the Air Force or NACA initial manned space project started at the beginning of 1958. Their unique concept was a lifting re-entry vehicle, termed the Ferri sled. More...
  • X-15B American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. North American's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was to extend the X-15 program. The X-15B was a 'stripped' X-15A with an empty mass of 4500 kg. More...
  • KH-1 American military surveillance satellite. 22 launches, 1959.01.21 (Thor Agena test) to 1960.09.13 (Discoverer 15). First US film reconnaissance satellite, and first polar orbiting satellite. More...
  • Vanguard 3 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1959.04.14 (30-inch Sphere) to 1959.09.18 (Vanguard 3). Radiation, micrometeoroid data. More...
  • Navy SLV American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The spacecraft for a US Navy lunar landing program that was to place a naval aviator on the moon by 1967. More...
  • Horizon Lunar Outpost American manned lunar base. Study 1959. In 1959 the US Army completed a plan for a manned military outpost on the moon. More...
  • Mercury American manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). America's first man-in-space project. The capsule had to be as small as possible to match the orbital payload capability of America's first ICBM, the Atlas. More...
  • RISP American lunar flyby probe. Study 1959. The Recoverable Interplanetary Space Probe was a 1957 proposal of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. More...
  • Mercury Mark I American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Proposed derivatives of the basic one-crew Mercury capsule for investigation of earth orbit rendezvous, lifting re-entry and land landing. More...
  • X-15A American manned spaceplane. 174 launches, 1959.06.08 (X-15 Flight 1) to 1968.10.24 (X-15 Flight 199). The X-15 was the first USAF and NASA project for manned spaceflight, initiated years before Mercury. More...
  • S-1 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1959.07.16 (Explorer) to 1959.10.13 (Explorer 7). Magnetic field, solar flare data. More...
  • MRSV American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Advanced Research Projects Agency representatives visited Army Ordnance Missile Command to discuss studies of a Maneuverable Recoverable Space Vehicle (MRSV). More...
  • S-2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1959.08.07, Explorer 6. First Earth photo; radiation data. More...
  • Transit American navigation satellite. 46 launches, 1959.09.17 (Transit 1A) to 1988.08.25 (Transit O-31). The Transit Navigation System began development in 1958. More...
  • Ideal Home Station American manned space station. Study 1959. Designed by Douglas, the Space Vehicle was represented by a full-scale model at the Ideal Home Show in London in 1962. It had a length of 19 m and was 5.2 m in diameter. More...
  • Pioneer P 3 American lunar orbiter. 4 launches, 1959.11.26 (Pioneer (P 3)) to 1960.12.15 (Pioneer (P 31)). The least successful lunar spacecraft; none even achieved orbit in four attempts. More...
  • 1 Crew Lifeboat Long Term American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. One crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. For use on Mars/Venus expedition. More...
  • 1 Crew Lifeboat American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. One crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 266 kg. More...
  • 3 Crew Lifeboat Long Term American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. Three crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. For use on Mars/Venus expedition. Mass per crew 511 kg. More...
  • 3 Crew Lifeboat American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1959. Three crew bailout lifeboat separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 239 kg. More...
  • Horizon Space Suit American pressure suit, study of 1959. For sustained operation on the lunar surface Project Horizon advocated a 'body conformation suit' having a substantial outer metal surface. More...
  • Horizon LERV American manned lunar lander. Study 1959. Lunar landing and return vehicle planned to take up to 16 crew to the lunar surface and back in the US Army's Project Horizon of 1959. More...
  • Mercury Space Suit American space suit, operational 1960. The Mercury spacesuit was a custom-fitted, modified version of the Goodrich U.S. Navy Mark IV high altitude jet aircraft pressure suit. More...
  • NF-104 American manned rocketplane. Study 1959. The NF-104 aerospace trainer was a modified F-104A fighter, incorporating an LR-121 liquid fuel rocket engine in addition to the conventional J-79 turbojet engine. More...
  • Apollo Lunar Landing American manned lunar expedition. Begun in 1962; first landing on the moon 1969; sixth and final lunar landing 1972. The project that succeeded in putting a man on the moon. More...
  • Midas American military early warning satellite. 18 launches, 1960.02.26 (Midas 1) to 1966.10.05 (Midas 12). Part of a then-secret USAF program known as WS-117L, the MIDAS (Missile Defense Alarm System) program began in November 1958. More...
  • Pioneer 5 American solar satellite. One launch, 1960.03.11. Pioneer 5 was designed to provide the first map of the interplanetary magnetic field. The vehicle functioned for a record 106 days, and communicated with Earth from a record distance of 36.2 million km. More...
  • S-46 American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1960.03.23, Explorer. More...
  • TIROS American earth weather satellite. 12 launches, 1960.04.01 (Tiros 1) to 1966.02.28 (ESSA 2). TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. More...
  • GRAB American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 9 launches, 1960.04.13 (Dummy subsatellite) to 1965.03.09 (Solrad 7B). GRAB, the first US electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite, was not declassified until June 1998. More...
  • Echo American passive communications satellite. 2 launches, 1960.05.13 (Echo 1) and 1960.08.12 (Echo 1). The Echo satellites were NASA's first experimental communications satellite project. More...
  • Courier American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1960.08.18 (Courier 1A) and 1960.10.04 (Courier 1B). Experimental communications. More...
  • Samos American military surveillance satellite. 17 launches, 1960.10.11 (Samos 1) to 1962.11.11 (Samos 11). First generation photo surveillance; return of camera and film by capsule; program still partially classified, evidently due to embarrassment. More...
  • KH-2 American military surveillance satellite. 10 launches, 1960.10.26 (SRV 506) to 1961.08.04 (SRV 512). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried one 'C-Prime' panoramic camera, with a focal length of 61 cm and a ground resolution of 9 m. More...
  • S-30 American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1960.11.03, Explorer 8. Ionospheric research. More...
  • S-56 American earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1960.12.04 (Explorer (9) S 56) to 1961.02.16 (Explorer 9). 12 foot diameter. balloon; atmospheric density studies. More...
  • A/P 22S-2 American pressure suit, operational 1960. The David Clark XMC-2-DC prototype, although still in need of substantial development, evolved into the MC-2 suit and then into a standardized Air Force high altitude, full pressure garment known as the A/P 22S-2. More...
  • A/P 22S-3 American pressure suit, operational 1960. USAF version of the USN Mark IV suit (B. F. Goodrich and Arrow Rubber Company). Full pressure, two layers, oxygen regulator exterior of helmet, 12 torso sizes, 7 gloves sizes, 2 helmet sizes. More...
  • Agena B American space tug. 94 launches, (1960) to (1967). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Agena B; Thor Agena B. More...
  • Bell Hypersonic Rocket Transport 1960 American manned rocketplane. Study 1960. In March 1960 Bell proposed a revised hypersonic transport design based on its work on boost-glide vehicles during the 1950's. There was no government or airline interest in the concept. More...
  • Bono Manned Mars Vehicle American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. In 1960 Philip Bono, then working at Boeing, proposed a single-launch Mars manned expedition. Bono's scenario was the classic trade-off of weight for risk. More...
  • FIRST Re-Entry Glider American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1960. FIRST (Fabrication of Inflatable Re-entry Structures for Test) used an inflatable Rogallo wing for emergency return of space crew from orbit. More...
  • Mars Expedition NASA Lewis 1960 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. The first NASA study of a manned Mars expedition outlined an opposition-class, nuclear thermal rocket powered spacecraft that would take seven astronauts to the planet's surface for 40 days. More...
  • Mercury Capsule American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). Reentry capsule. More...
  • Mercury Retropack American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). More...
  • Orion CM American manned spacecraft module. Orion re-entry vehicle (crew module). A 25% scale-up of the Apollo capsule of the 1960's. More...
  • Rocket Chair American manned lunar lander. Study 2005. In 2005 SpaceDev resurrected the 1960 NASA Langley individual crew lunar lander concept. More...
  • KH-5 American military surveillance satellite. 16 launches, 1961.02.17 (Discoverer 20) to 1964.08.21 (KH-5 9066A). US mapping satellite. Carried one frame camera, with a focal length of 76 mm, and a ground resolution of 140 m. More...
  • Lofti American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1961.02.22 (Lofti) and 1963.06.15 (Lofti 2A). The Low Frequency Trans-Ionospheric (LOFTI) satellites were produced as a cooperative effort with the Radio Division. More...
  • P-14 American solar satellite. 3 launches, 1961.02.24 (Explorer) to 1961.05.24 (Explorer). Magnetic field data. More...
  • Early Spring American military anti-satellite system. Studied from 1960, officially cancelled, but possibly developed further as a black program. Early Spring was a conventional ASAT launched by Polaris missiles from US Navy ballistic missile submarines. More...
  • Gemini American manned spacecraft. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). It was obvious to NASA that there was a big gap of three to four years between the last Mercury flight and the first scheduled Apollo flight. More...
  • MORAD American manned spacecraft. Study 1961. MORAD (Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking) would require the use of the Mercury-Atlas and Scout in the 1961- 1963 period. More...
  • Prospector American lunar rover. Study 1961. The Prospector spacecraft was a NASA/JPL unmanned lunar rover of the early 1960's. More...
  • S-15 American solar satellite. One launch, 1961.04.27, Explorer 11. Gamma ray data. More...
  • Gemini LOR American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Original Mercury Mark II proposal foresaw a Gemini capsule and a single-crew open cockpit lunar lander undertaking a lunar orbit rendezvous mission, launched by a Titan C-3. More...
  • Apollo A American manned space station. Study 1961. Apollo A was a lighter-weight July 1961 version of the Apollo spacecraft. More...
  • Injun American earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1961.06.29 (Injun 1) to 1968.08.08 (Explorer 40). Radiation decay data satellite. May also have been a cover for some NRL ELINT satellites. More...
  • S-55 American earth micrometeoroid satellite. 4 launches, 1961.06.30 (Explorer (13) S 55) to 1964.11.06 (Explorer 23). Micrometeoroid research. More...
  • EPE American solar satellite. 4 launches, 1961.08.16 (Explorer 12) to 1964.12.21 (Explorer 26). Radiation and solar wind data. More...
  • Ranger 1-2 American lunar impact probe. 2 launches, 1961.08.23 (Ranger 1) to 1961.11.18 (Ranger 2). More...
  • KH-3 American military surveillance satellite. 12 launches, 1961.08.30 (Discoverer 29) to 1962.01.13 (SRV 571). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried one 'C-Double Prime' panoramic camera, with a focal length of 61 cm and a ground resolution of 7.6 m. More...
  • Hi-Hoe American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1961.10.05 (Hi-Hoe 1) to 1962.07.26 (Hi-Hoe 3). US antisatellite tests. More...
  • Westford Needles American passive communications satellite. 3 launches, 1961.10.21 (Westford) to 1963.05.09 (Westford). In an attempt to lay a radio-reflective ring around the world, small metal dipole needles were allowed to sublimate out of a matrix. More...
  • Radio Test Spacecraft American tracking network technology satellite. One launch, 1961.11.01, Mercury-Scout 1. Small satellite was to have verified the readiness of the worldwide Mercury tracking network More...
  • TRAAC American technology satellite. One launch, 1961.11.15. Transit Research and Attitude Control. More...
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Apollo Martin 410 American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The Model 410 was Martin's preferred design for the Apollo spacecraft. More...
  • Advanced Manned System 1961 American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1961. Six crew ballistic re-entry capsule. Orbital escape - abort capability. Mass per crew 548 kg. More...
  • Apollo Direct CM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Conventional spacecraft structures were employed, following the proven materials and concepts demonstrated in the Mercury and Gemini designs. More...
  • Apollo Direct TLM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Final letdown, translation hover and landing on the lunar surface from 1800 m above the surface was performed by the terminal landing module. Engine thrust could be throttled down to 1546 kgf. More...
  • Apollo Direct RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The retrograde module supplied the velocity increments required during the translunar portion of the mission up to a staging point approximately 1800 m above the lunar surface. More...
  • Apollo Direct SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The Service Module housed the fuel cells, environmental control, and other major equipment items required for the mission. More...
  • Apollo Direct 2-Man American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 75% scale 2-man Apollo command module. More...
  • Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle American manned lunar rover. Study 1961. The Bendix Manned Lunar Vehicle was a lunar rover design of November 1961. The vehicle had 4 wheels and a range of 400 km with a crew of 3 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Centaur C American space tug. 22 launches, (1961) to (1967). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. More...
  • Gemini Lunar Lander American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 2-man Gemini re-entry vehicle instead of the 3-man Apollo capsule. More...
  • Hope Station American manned space station. Study 1961. Douglas space station concept of the early 1960's using a spent Saturn S-IV stage and Gemini spacecraft as crew shuttles. More...
  • Kehlet Lenticular Vehicle American manned spaceplane. Study 1961. Alan B. Kehlet of NASA's Space Task Group New Projects Panel, worked at NASA Langley and first conceived of his lenticular manned spacecraft design in 1959. More...
  • Lunar Mobile System American lunar rover. Study 1961. The Bendix Lunar Mobile System was an unmanned lunar rover design of September 1961. The vehicle had 3 wheels, powered separately, and a range of 800 km. More...
  • LEAP American manned lunar flyer. Study 1961. LEAP was an early 1960's British design for getting disabled astronauts on the lunar surface quickly to lunar orbit for ferrying home. More...
  • LM Langley Lighter American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab Langley design used cryogenic propellants. The cryogenic design was estimated to gross 3,284 kg - to be compared with the 15,000 kg / 2 man LM design that eventually was selected. More...
  • LM Langley Lightest American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Extremely light-weight open-cab lunar module design considered in early Langley studies. More...
  • LM Langley Light American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab single-crew Langley lunar lander design used storable propellants, resulting in an all-up mass of 4,372 kg. More...
  • Mariner R American Venus probe. Study 1961. Planned 1961 JPL crash program to beat the Soviet Union in launching the first probe to another planet. More...
  • Program 661A American ion engine technology satellite. Study 1961. In November of 1961, Electro-Optical Systems was awarded a contract by the U. S. Air Force to develop a 8.9 mN, cesium-contact ionization IPS for three sub-orbital flight tests. More...
  • Saturn S-N C-5N American space tug. Study 1961. Upper stage / space tug - Study 1961. Launched by Saturn C-5N-3. Nuclear upper stage considered in lieu of S-IVB in final Saturn C-5 study in November 1961. More...
  • Saturn S-N C-3BN American space tug. Study 1961. Upper stage / space tug - Study 1961. Launched by Saturn C-5N-3. Nuclear upper stage considered in lieu of S-IVB in final Saturn C-3B study in November 1961. More...
  • SECOR American earth geodetic satellite. 13 launches, 1962.01.24 (Secor) to 1969.04.14 (SECOR 13). More...
  • Lofti 2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1962.01.24. Carried 5 satellites. More...
  • SURCAL American military target satellite. 15 launches, 1962.01.24 (Surcal) to 1969.09.30 (Surcal). More...
  • Ranger 3-4-5 American lunar lander. 3 launches, 1962.01.26 (Ranger 3) to 1962.10.18 (Ranger 5). More...
  • Ferret American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 19 launches, 1962.02.21 (Ferret 1) to 1971.07.16 (OPS 8373). More...
  • KH-4 American military surveillance satellite. 31 launches, 1962.02.27 (Discoverer 38) to 1963.12.21 (KH-4 9062). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'Mural' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 7.6 m. More...
  • OSO American solar satellite. 9 launches, 1962.03.07 (OSO 1) to 1975.06.21 (OSO 8). The Orbiting Solar Observatories, developed for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, were designed primarily as stabilized platforms for solar-oriented scientific instruments. More...
  • G2G American space suit, tested 1962. The BF Goodrich space suit was developed in competition with the Dave Clark G2C suit for Project Gemini. It was not flown. More...
  • Highwater American earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1962.04.25 (Highwater 1) and 1962.11.16 (Highwater 2). Release of large quantities of chemicals at high altitudes during suborbital tests of Saturn I. More...
  • Ariel American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1962.04.26 (Ariel 1) to 1979.06.02 (Ariel 6). Ionospheric studies; returned X-ray, ionospheric, cosmic ray data. More...
  • Program 505 American military anti-satellite system. Operational 1962 to 1966. America's first ASAT system was Program 505, which used prototype Nike Zeus DM-15S anti-ballistic missiles, operated from Kwajalein Atoll by the U.S. Army. More...
  • Anna American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1962.05.10 (Anna 1A) and 1962.10.31 (Anna 1B). More...
  • G4C American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G4C flight suits were designed for wear by Gemini astronauts. More...
  • Program 35 American earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1962.05.24 (P 35-1) to 1963.09.27 (P 35-1). First US weather satellite, classified for many years. Predecessor to the DMSP series of military satellites. More...
  • Apollo CSM American manned lunar orbiter. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions. More...
  • Beanstalk American technology satellite. One launch, 1962.05.31. Suborbital. More...
  • A7L American pressure suit, operational 1968. Hamilton Standard had overall development responsibility for the Apollo suit and associated portable life support system. A subcontract was awarded to International Latex Corporation for development of this suit. More...
  • Telstar American communications satellite. 2 launches, 1962.07.10 (Telstar 1) and 1963.05.07 (Telstar 2). More...
  • Mariner 1-2 American Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.07.22 (Mariner 1) to 1962.08.27 (Mariner 2). The world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. More...
  • Lunar Bus American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. The lunar "bus" was an early NASA Apollo logistics vehicle study. More...
  • M2-F2 American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. The least stable of the lifting body designs. The 'flying bathtub' had a rounded belly / flat top layout as opposed to the flat belly / rounded top of the other designs. More...
  • Apollo ULS American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. An Apollo unmanned logistic system to aid astronauts on a lunar landing mission was studied. More...
  • ERS American earth magnetosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1962.09.17 (TRS) to 1967.04.28. Environmental Research Satellites were especially designed for piggyback launching from large primary mission vehicles. More...
  • TAVE American technology satellite. One launch, 1962.09.29. Thor Agena Vibration Experiment More...
  • MORL American manned space station. Study 1962. In June 1964 Boeing and Douglas received Phase I contracts for Manned Orbital Research Laboratory station designs. The recommended concept was a 13. More...
  • Orbital Workshop American manned space station. Study 1965. The Orbital Workshop (OWS) was a 1960's NASA program to create an embryonic space station in orbit using the spent S-IVB rocket stage of a Saturn IB. More...
  • Starfish American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1962.10.26 (Starfish Radiation 1) and 1965.09.02 (Starfish Radiation 2). Satellite collected artificial radiation data (resulting from atmospheric and exoatmospheric nuclear explosions). More...
  • G3C American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G3C initial Gemini production flight suits were worn aboard Gemini 3, and by the spacecraft commanders of Gemini 6 and 8.. More...
  • NRL ELINT American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1962.12.13 (Black Sphere) to 1969.09.30 (Surcal). NRL ELINT satellite. More...
  • Relay American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.12.13 (Relay 1) and 1964.01.21 (Relay 2). More...
  • 5 Crew Lifeboat American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1962. Five crew lifeboat capsule, separable, not re-entry capable, short duration. Mass per crew 284 kg. More...
  • Apollo W-1 American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's W-1 design for the Apollo spacecraft was an alternative to the preferred L-2C configuration. The 2652 kg command module was a blunt cone lifting body re-entry vehicle, 3.45 m in diameter, 3.61 m long. More...
  • Apollo M-1 American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Convair/Astronautics preferred M-1 Apollo design was a three-module lunar-orbiting spacecraft. More...
  • Apollo D-2 American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1962. The General Electric design for Apollo put all systems and space not necessary for re-entry and recovery into a separate jettisonable 'mission module', joined to the re-entry vehicle by a hatch. More...
  • Apollo R-3 American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. General Electric's Apollo horizontal-landing alternative to the ballistic D-2 capsule was the R-3 lifting body. This modified lenticular shape provided a lift-to-drag ratio of just 0. More...
  • Apollo L-2C American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's L-2C design was the basis for the Apollo spacecraft that ultimately emerged. The 2590 kg command module was a flat-bottomed cone, 3. 91 m in diameter, 2.67 m high, with a rounded apex. More...
  • Apollo Lenticular American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The Convair/Astronautics alternate Lenticular Apollo was a flying saucer configuration with the highest hypersonic lift to drag ratio (4.4) of any proposed design. More...
  • Douglas Astro American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. The Douglas "Astro" was a VTHL TSTO system designed for launching space station crews and cargo by the 1968-70 period. More...
  • EMPIRE Aeronutronic American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Aeronutronic's Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 170 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a single launch of a Nova booster. More...
  • EMPIRE Lockheed American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Lockheed's manned Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 100 metric tons. More...
  • EMPIRE General Dynamics American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. General Dynamics' manned Mars orbiter spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 900 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a two launches of a Nova booster or eight launches of a Saturn V. More...
  • G1C American space suit, tested 1962. NASA Gemini prototype full pressure suit, closed loop. The G-1C lead to the G-2C, G-3C (IVA suits), G-4C (both IVA and EVA suit), and G-5C with a soft head enclosure for the 14 day Gemini 7 mission. More...
  • Gemini-Centaur American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. In the first Gemini project plans, it was planned that after a series of test dockings between Gemini and Agena rocket stages, Geminis would dock with Centaur stages for circumlunar flights. More...
  • Macuh Suit American space suit, tested 1962. Closed cell foam suit concept by Macuh Laboratories, USAF/NASA study, report MLTRD-62-13. More...
  • Martin Astrorocket American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. Early two-stage-to-orbit shuttle study, using storable propellants, Dynasoar-configuration delta wing orbiter. More...
  • Navigator American outer planets probe. Study 1962. 1962 JPL concept for a dedicated spacecraft to be launched by a Saturn C-2 or RIFT booster on missions to Mercury and Jupiter. Never went beyond preliminary study stage. More...
  • S901/970 American pressure suit, operational 1962. A-12, F-12A and SR-71 full pressure suit; integrated subsystems, parachute harness, automatic flotation system, urine collection device, redundant pressure control and breathing system, thermal protective garment. More...
  • Stuhlinger Mars 1962 American manned Mars expedition. By 1962 Ernst Stuhlinger's ion-drive Mars expedition had evolved within the Research Projects Division into five 150 m long spacecraft, housing a total crew of 15. A much shorter 475 day mission time was planned. More...
  • S-939 American space suit, cancelled 1962. Full Pressure Suit for the X-20A Dyna-Soar program. More...
  • USAF Recommended Station American manned space station. Study 1962. During 1962 NASA Centers, the Air Force, and many of the major aerospace contractors were developing possible space station concepts and studying their potential uses. More...
  • X-15A-3 American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1962. It had been proposed that X-15 number 3 would be reworked to install a delta wing and designed to reach Mach 8. More...
  • Apollo LLRV American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. Bell Aerosystems initially built two manned lunar landing research vehicles (LLRV) for NASA to assess the handling characteristics of Apollo LM-type vehicles on earth. More...
  • LORL American manned space station. Study 1962. Large Orbiting Research Laboratory was a term applied to a number of NASA and USAF designs of the 1960's intended to succeed MORL. Typically these were rotating stations orbited in a single Saturn V launch. More...
  • Apollo LM American manned lunar lander. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). More...
  • Syncom American communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1963.02.14 (Syncom I; Syncom 1) to 1964.08.19 (Syncom 3). Experimental telecommunications satellite. More...
  • P 11 American technology satellite. One launch, 1963.03.18, P-11. More...
  • KH-6 American military surveillance satellite. 3 launches, 1963.03.18 (KH-6 8001) to 1963.07.31 (KH 4A-07). US reconnaissance satellite, lashed together to meet an emergency requirement for close-up imaging of a suspected Soviet ICBM site near Tallinn. More...
  • SSF American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 54 launches, 1963.03.18 (P-11 No. 1) to 1989.08.08 (USA 41). More...
  • G2C American space suit, tested 1963. The Dave Clark G2C was the prototype IVA space suit for project Gemini. None were flown. The flight versions were G4C and G5C. More...
  • AE American earth atmosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1963.04.03 (Explorer 17) to 1975.11.20 (Explorer 55). Atmospheric research. More...
  • Dash American military technology satellite. 2 launches, 1963.05.09 (Dash 1) and 1963.07.18 (Dash 2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • TRS American technology satellite. 5 launches, 1963.05.09 (TRS 2) to 1964.07.17 (TRS 6). TRS satellites undertook a range of engineering experiments related to radiation-hardening of solar cells and spacecraft electronics. More...
  • RADOSE American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1963.06.15. Radiation dosimeter measurements. More...
  • GRS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1963.06.28. Space gas data. More...
  • KH-7 American military surveillance satellite. 43 launches, 1963.07.12 (KH 7-01 (Gambit)) to 1967.06.04 (KH 7-38). US reconnaissance satellite. Still classified. Camera believed to have ground resolution of 0.46 m. Film returned in two capsules. More...
  • KH-4A American military surveillance satellite. 70 launches, 1963.08.25 (KH-4A 1001) to 1969.09.22 (SRV 743R). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'J-1' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 2.7 m. More...
  • LAMPO American military target satellite. One launch, 1963.08.29. More...
  • Asset American manned spaceplane. 6 launches, 1963.09.18 (ASSET 1) to 1965.02.23 (ASSET 6). One part of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane project was ASSET ( 'Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests') . More...
  • APL American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.09.28 (APL SN 39) to 1964.12.13 (APL SN 43). Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory built several satellites for the Air Force in the 1960's. More...
  • Paracone American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. The Douglas Paracone was one of the most minimal schemes for bail-out from orbit. The objective was to hit a continental land mass; for such purposes totally manual re-entry operations were used. More...
  • Apollo LLRF American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. The Lunar Landing Research Facility. The huge structure (76.2 m high and 121.9 m long) was used to explore techniques and to forecast various problems of landing on the moon. More...
  • Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1963.10.17 (Vela 2) to 1965.07.20 (Vela 6). The Vela (meaning "watchman" in Spanish) series of spacecraft were designed to monitor world-wide compliance with the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty. More...
  • IMP American earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1963.11.27 (Explorer 18) to 1973.10.26 (Explorer 50). More...
  • Surveyor American lunar lander. 13 launches, 1963.11.27 (Atlas Centaur 2) to 1968.01.07 (Surveyor 7). Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Surveyor series soft-landed on the moon, provided images of the lunar surface, and tested the characteristics of the lunar soil. More...
  • Dynasoar American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1963. The X-20A Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a single-pilot manned reusable spaceplane, really the earliest American manned space project to result in development contracts. More...
  • ADE American earth atmosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.12.19 (Explorer 19) to 1968.08.08 (Explorer 39). 12 foot diameter. balloon; identical to Explorer 9; atmospheric density studies. More...
  • Apollo LM Taxi American manned lunar lander. Cancelled 1968. The LM Taxi was essentially the basic Apollo LM modified for extended lunar surface stays. More...
  • Apollo LM Shelter American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The LM Shelter was essentially an Apollo LM lunar module with ascent stage engine and fuel tanks removed and replaced with consumables and scientific equipment for 14 days extended lunar exploration. More...
  • 10 Crew Shelter American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. Ten crew emergency shelter capsule, not separable, not re-entry capable, long duration. Mass per crew 301 kg. More...
  • Agena D American space tug. 205 launches, (1963) to (1987). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Agena D; Thor Agena D; Titan 3B; Titan 34B. More...
  • Apollo CSM Boilerplate American manned spacecraft. Boilerplate structural Apollo CSM's were used for various systems and booster tests, especially proving of the LES (launch escape system). More...
  • A4H American space suit, tested 1963. ILC Dover and Hamilton Standard full pressure suit, Contained a secondary bladder and restraint with a wrist cuff/dam for NASA/HSD (1963-1964), modified A4H suit for NASA-AMES (1964-1965). More...
  • Apollo CSM Block I American manned spacecraft. The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions. More...
  • Astrocommuter American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. The Lockheed Astrocommuter was a 1963 design for a manned space shuttle that would use the Saturn 1B as a first stage. More...
  • Bambi American military anti-ballistic missile satellite. Cancelled 1963. BAllistic Missile Boost Intercept ABM system, cancelled May 1963. More...
  • Bendix Lunar Logistic System American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Bendix Lunar Logistic System was a lunar rover design of January 1963. The vehicle had 4 wheels with alternative front or all-wheel steering and a range of 800 km with a crew of 3 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Boeing LES Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Boeing Lunar Exploration Systems lunar rover design of November 1963 was for a multipurpose rover with a range of 480 km with a crew of 2 on a 8 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 4.95 cubic meters. More...
  • Bono Saucer American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In 1963 Phil Bono of Douglas Aircraft considered a lenticular configuration for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable booster. This was the largest application found to date for the lenticular concept. More...
  • Dynasoar AS American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1963. Abort Section, equipped with Thiokol XM-92 Minuteman Stage II motor. Contingency boost. More...
  • Faget Mars Expedition American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. NASA Houston supported a conference in May 1963 which examined a number of Mars expedition scenarios. More...
  • Ford Mars Lander American manned Mars lander. Study 1963. The Mars lander assumed in NASA studies from 1964 to 1966 was a lifting body conceived by Ford Aeronutronic in May-December 1963. Given a go-ahead by 1965, it would be available for Mars missions by 1975. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - Unmanned American lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 unmanned rover design of February 1963 had 4 wheels (two equal-weight, 2 wheel modules of 360 cm diameter). The robot had a range of 750 km. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 1 man American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 single-crew rover of January 1963 had 2 x two-wheeled power modules. Each wheel was 360 cm in diameter, and the rover had a range of 300 km on a 3.3 day traverse. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 3 man American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 three-man lunar rover design of January 1963 used a 3 module vehicle. It had a range of 2340 km on a 28 day traverse. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 2 man American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 two-man rover design of January 1963 consisted of the basic vehicle, a manned module, and a tanker. This provided a range of 370 km on a 7 day traverse. More...
  • Gemini Transport American logistics spacecraft. Study 1963. This Gemini Transport version was proposed as a Gemini program follow-on in 1963. With the extended reentry module, this was the ancestor of the Big Gemini spacecraft of the late 1960's. More...
  • Grumman LSS Project 344 Rover - 2 man 3 kW American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Grumman Lunar Logistics System Project 344 alternate three-crew lunar rover design of February 1963 vehicle had three x two wheeled modules. The rover would have a range of 770 km on a 23.5 day traverse. More...
  • Gemini Ferry American manned spacecraft. Study 1963. The Gemini Ferry vehicle would have been launched by Titan 3M for space station replenishment. More...
  • LSS Site Survey Payload American lunar rover. Study 1963. The BellComm Lunar Logistic System unmanned Site Survey Payload was outlined in a January 1963 study. The 2 x 2 vehicle had articulated wheels, a 1.5 m diameter folded chassis. and a range of 260 km. More...
  • Lockheed Space Taxi American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. Lockheed investigated the economics of reusable launch vehicles for crews and light space station cargo during the early 1960s. Lockheed proposed a new reusable 10-man spaceplane as a follow-on to the Apollo CSM. More...
  • Lockheed 1963 Space Station American manned space station. Study 1963. Lockheed made an unsolicited proposal to NASA in 1963 for an ambitious space station project. The elements would be launched by Saturn I, as would the 'Astrocommuter' shuttle. More...
  • Lockheed RTTOCV American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations. More...
  • Lunar Logistic System 6 kW American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This NASA Lunar Logistic System lunar rover design of March 1963 had 4 wheel unit, each wheel 1.3 m in diameter and 20 cm wide. It had a range of 370 km with a crew of 2 on a 7 day traverse. More...
  • Lunar Logistic System 13.7 kW American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This NASA Lunar Logistic System lunar rover design of March 1963 had 4 wheels, rigidly mounted, and a range of 450 km with a crew of 2 on a 30 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 9.72 cubic meters. More...
  • McDonnell Spaceplane 1963 American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In June 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations. More...
  • MOOSE American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. MOOSE was perhaps the most celebrated bail-out from orbit system of the early 1960's. The suited astronaut would strap the MOOSE to his back, and jump out of the spacecraft or station into free space. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV-1 American lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV-1 unmanned lunar rover design of January 1963 had 3 wheels, rigidly mounted, and a range of 80 km. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV3 RV4 American lunar rover. Study 1963. The unmanned portion of the January 1963 Northrop Lunar Logistic System had 4 articulated wheels and a range of 240 km. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV5 American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This Northrop Lunar Logistic System design of January 1963 was a 3 wheel open cart and had a range of 30 km with a crew of 2. It could also tow the RV6 50 kg, 2 to 4 wheeled dolly or trailer. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV7 American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV7 was a lunar rover design of January 1963. The one-crew vehicle was designed for scooping and dozing operations. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV8 American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV8 was a lunar rover design of January 1963. Dual single-crew vehicles were designed to be operated separately or together as a system. More...
  • Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV-1A American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV-1A crewed rover of January 1963 had 4 tracks and a range of 2900 km on a 27 day traverse. More...
  • NAA Manned Bombardment and Control Vehicle American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In the early 1960's, one configuration studied by North American Aviation for the USAF space bomber study was this 12-m-diameter flying saucer design. More...
  • NAA RTTOCV American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. North American Aviation's Reusable Ten Ton Orbital Carrier Vehicle design of 1963 had as a standard payload a lenticular 12-man orbital transfer vehicle spaceplane for space station logistics and crew transfer. More...
  • Re-Entry Escape System American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. One crew lifting re-entry capsule. No abort capability. Mass per crew 1171 kg. More...
  • Re-Entry Glider-Six Crew American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. A six-man parasail escape system was studied as an elaboration of the single-crew system. It was to provide rescue from manned spacecraft as well as stations. More...
  • Self-Deploying Space Station American manned space station. Study 1963. The first space station designs using the Saturn V launch vehicle involved spinning stations, providing artificial G for the crew. More...
  • TRW Mars American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. In 1963 TRW designed a Mars expedition using aerobraking at both Mars and Earth, and a swingby of Venus on return. More...
  • GGSE American gravity gradient technology satellite. 5 launches, 1964.01.11 (GGSE 1) to 1967.05.31 (GGSE 5). Developed designs and deployment techniques later applied to the NOSS / Whitecloud naval reconnaissance satellites. More...
  • AFP-43 American military technology satellite. 4 launches, 1964.01.19 (OPS 3367A) to 1964.06.18 (OPS 4467B). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Echo 2 American passive communications satellite. One launch, 1964.01.25. Passive communications satellite; balloon; 1st joint US/USSR space mission. More...
  • Jupiter nose cone American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1964.01.29, Saturn 5. Launch vehicle test. More...
  • Ranger 6-7-8-9 American lunar impact probe. 4 launches, 1964.01.30 (Ranger 6) to 1965.03.21 (Ranger 9). After a series of failures with the more ambitious early Ranger spacecraft, the design was simplified and the lander was deleted. More...
  • X-15A-2 American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. The crash-damaged X-15 number 2 was rebuilt to attain even higher speeds. The body frame was stretched, and two drop tanks were added, increasing propellant load by 75%. More...
  • A1C American space suit, tested 1965. For the initial Block I Apollo missions a modification of the Gemini G4C suit was to have been flown. After the death of the Apollo 1 crew on the pad, Block I missions were cancelled and the suit never flew. More...
  • BE American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.03.19, Explorer (20). Also known as Explorer S-66. More...
  • FIRE American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. 2 launches, 1964.04.14 (FIRE 1) and 1965.05.22 (FIRE 2). Suborbital re-entry test program that used a subscale model of the Apollo Command Module to verify the configuration at high reentry speed. More...
  • Program 437 America's second operational anti-satellite system, launched on sub-orbital trajectories by Thor LV-2D's operated by the US Air Force from Johnson Atoll in the Pacific. Operational 1964-1970. More...
  • Starflash American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.06.13 (Starflash 1A) and 1964.08.21 (Starflash 1B). Sub-satellite of unknown purpose, released from KH-5 photo reconnaisance satellites on two missions. More...
  • ESRS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.06.25. Environmental Sciences Research Satellite. More...
  • Apollo LM Truck American lunar logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1968. The LM Truck was an LM Descent stage adapted for unmanned delivery of payloads of up to 5,000 kg to the lunar surface in support of a lunar base using Apollo technology. More...
  • Gemini EMU American space mobility device, tested 1966. Vought developed the EMU, which was to have been flown in the Gemini program. This design approach led to the Space Shuttle's MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) was put into operation. More...
  • IE American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.08.25, Explorer 20. Ionospheric research. More...
  • Nimbus American earth weather satellite. 8 launches, 1964.08.28 (Nimbus 1) to 1978.10.13 (Nimbus 7). More...
  • OGO American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1964.09.05 (OGO 1) to 1969.06.05 (OGO 6). More...
  • Calsphere American military target satellite. 11 launches, 1964.10.06 (Calsphere 1) to 1971.02.17 (Calsphere 5). Radar calibration objects (but also cover for other classified subsatellites). More...
  • Beacon American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.10.10 (Explorer 22) to 1965.04.29 (Explorer 27). Early technology satellite. None reached orbit. More...
  • Apollo MSS American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Mapping and Survey System was a kit of photographic equipment that was at one time part of the basic Apollo Block II configuration. More...
  • Surveyor Block II American lunar lander. Study 1964. The Surveyor Block II spacecraft was imagined as an unmanned scout that could reconnoiter a specific lunar landing site for Apollo and assist the manned Lunar Module in making a precise touch down. More...
  • Mariner 3-4 American Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.05 (Mariner 3) to 1964.11.28 (Mariner 4). This spacecraft completed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. More...
  • AX5L American space suit, tested 1964. NASA Apollo suit prototype, rated for intravehicular activity only. More...
  • Apollo CM American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). More...
  • Apollo SM American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). More...
  • AX-Series American space suit, tested 1964-68. Between 1964 and 1968 two hard suit assemblies were developed at NASA-ARC, identified as the AX-1 (Ames Experimental) and AX-2. These suits were the first to demonstrate multiple bearing technology. More...
  • Bendix SLRV American lunar rover. Study 1964. The Bendix SLRV unmanned lunar rover design of April 1964 had a speed up to 25 kph on 4 tracks with floating pivot articulation. It was designed for a 105 day traverse mission. More...
  • Gemini - Saturn I American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1964. In the spring of 1964, with manned Apollo flights using the Saturn I having been cancelled, use of a Saturn I to launch a Gemini around the moon was studied. More...
  • Gemini EM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). More...
  • Gemini AM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). More...
  • Gemini RM American manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). More...
  • Gemini - Saturn V American manned lunar orbiter. In late 1964 McDonnell, in addition to a Saturn 1B-boosted circumlunar Gemini, McDonnell proposed a lunar-orbit version of Gemini to comprehensively scout the Apollo landing zones prior to the first Apollo missions. More...
  • Lunar Leaper American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. One of the many bizarre modes for lunar transportation proposed in the early 1960's. More...
  • Northrop Molab American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. The Northrop Molab lunar rover design of March 1964 had 4 wheels, each a flexible torus or controlled flexible disc. It could accommodate a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Northrop ALSS Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. Northrop completed Molab Studies under a Apollo Logistic Support Systems contract in March 1964. More...
  • Project Selena American manned lunar base. Study 1964. Bono's enormous ROMBUS booster could fly all the way to the lunar surface and back if low Earth orbit rendezvous and propellant transfer were used. He therefore proposed using the booster to establish a lunar base. More...
  • Project Deimos American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Project Deimos was a Mars expedition proposed by Philip Bono in the mid-1960's. It would use the huge Rombus single-stage-to-orbit booster, refueled in earth orbit, as the propulsion system to Mars and back. More...
  • Reusable Orbital Carrier American manned spaceplane. Study 1964. The Reusable Orbital Carrier (ROC) was a 1964 Lockheed study of a sled-launched HTHL TSTO. The second stage orbiter rocketplane would use Lox/LH2 propulsion to orbit and make an unpowered glide return and landing. More...
  • RX-Series American space suit, tested 1964. RX-1 Litton full pressure hardsuit, weighed 40 kg, rolling convolute joint technology, 2-plane enclosure, modular sizing, 1964. Followed by RX-2, 40 kg. in 1964 and RX-2A, 36 kg in 1964. More...
  • Saturn II Stage Wet Workshop American manned space station. Study 1964. Wernher von Braun made a rough sketch of a space station based on fitting out of an expended Saturn II stage in orbit on 24 November 1964. More...
  • UMPIRE Convair American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Unfavorable Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition profiles were studied under NASA Huntsville contracts to General Dynamics and Douglas in June 1963. More...
  • UMPIRE Douglas American manned Mars expedition. Study 1964. Unfavorable Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition profiles were studied under NASA Huntsville contracts to General Dynamics and Douglas in June 1963. More...
  • DMSP Block 4A American earth weather satellite. 13 launches, 1965.01.19 (DMSP-Block-4A F1) to 1969.07.23 (DMSP-Block-4A F13). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. More...
  • OV1 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 27 launches, 1965.01.21 (OV1-1) to 1971.08.07 (OV1-21P). More...
  • LES American communications technology satellite. 8 launches, 1965.02.11 (LES 1) to 1976.03.15 (LES 9). More...
  • Pegasus American earth micrometeoroid satellite. 3 launches, 1965.02.16 (Pegasus 1) to 1965.07.30 (Pegasus 3). Pegasus satellites consisted of vast detector panels deployed from Saturn IV stages on Saturn I test flights. More...
  • DODECAPOLE American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1965.03.09 (DODECAPOLE 1/Porcupine 1) and 1965.08.13 (Dodecapole 2). More...
  • Surveyor Lunar Rover American lunar rover. Cancelled 1965. Follow-on Surveyor unmanned lunar landers were to deploy small nuclear-powered rovers (a carry-over from the cancelled Prospector spacecraft). More...
  • Snapshot American ion engine technology satellite. One launch, 1965.04.03. Carried SNAP-9A nuclear power source. The on-board reactor provided electrical power for a 2.2-lb ion engine. More...
  • Intelsat 1 American communications satellite. One launch, 1965.04.06. Intelsat 1, also called Early Bird, was the world's first commercial communications satellite. It provided the first scheduled transoceanic TV service and was operational for 3.5 years. More...
  • LCS American military target satellite. 3 launches, 1965.05.06 (LCS 1) to 1971.08.07 (LCS 4). Aluminum sphere used for radar calibration. More...
  • Surveyor Orbiter American lunar orbiter. Study 1965. NASA originally planned to have a version of the Surveyor spacecraft conduct detailed orbital photographic reconnaissance of the moon in preparation for the Apollo manned landings. More...
  • Gemini - Double Transtage American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. In June 1965 astronaut Pete Conrad conspired with the Martin and McDonnell corporations to advocate an early circumlunar flight using Gemini. More...
  • LFV Bell American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a rocket-propelled Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV) to aid Apollo astronauts in their exploration of the moon. More...
  • MFS American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a Manned Flying System for Apollo as a tool for lunar surface exploration. More...
  • Apollo LM Lab American manned space station. Study 1965. Use of the Apollo LM as an earth-orbiting laboratory was proposed for Apollo Applications Program missions. More...
  • G5C American space suit, operational 1965. This David Clark lightweight suit was developed for long duration project Gemini missions. It was designed to be easily removed during flight and to provide greater comfort than the standard Gemini space suit. More...
  • Tempsat American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1965.08.13 (Tempsat 1) and 1969.09.30 (Tempsat 2). Surveillance Calibration; black 14 inch diameter. sphere. More...
  • Radar Evaluation Pod American logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1965.08.21, Gemini 5 REP. The Radar Evaluation Pod was a small reflecting target released from Gemini spacecraft to test the rendezvous radar. More...
  • OV2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1965.10.15 (OV2-01) to 1968.09.26 (OV2-05). OV2 satellites were built for the USAF Office of Aerospace Research, and flew as secondary payloads on Titan IIIC test flights. More...
  • GEOS American solar satellite. 3 launches, 1965.11.06 (Explorer 29) to 1975.04.09 (Geos 3). The GEOS spacecraft were gravity-gradient-stabilized, solar-cell powered satellites designed exclusively for geodetic studies. More...
  • Voyager 1973 American Mars lander. Cancelled 1967. The original Voyager project was an ambitious NASA project to hurl a 3 metric ton spacecraft using a Saturn IB-Centaur booster toward Mars by 1969. More...
  • IQSY American solar satellite. One launch, 1965.11.19, Explorer 30. Solar radiation data. More...
  • DME American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1965.11.29, Explorer 31. Explorer 31, the Direct Measurement Explorer, was launched with a Canadian Alouette II on November 28, 1965, on a Thor-Agena rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. More...
  • Apollo Experiments Pallet American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Experiments Pallet was a sophisticated instrument payload that would have been installed in the Apollo CSM for dedicated lunar or earth orbital resource assessment missions. More...
  • Pioneer 6-7-8-9-E American solar satellite. 5 launches, 1965.12.16 (Pioneer 6) to 1969.08.27 (Pioneer E). Pioneers 6, 7, 8, and 9 were created to make the first detailed, comprehensive measurements of the solar wind, solar magnetic field and cosmic rays. More...
  • AX-1C American space suit, tested 1965. Full pressure, Apollo Block II prototype suit for both IVA/EVA by the David Clark Company. Not put into production. More...
  • Apollo LM CSD American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1965. The Apollo Lunar Module was considered for military use in the Covert Space Denial role in 1964. More...
  • AES Series American space suit, tested 1965. Developmental suit hybrids using laminated fabrics, rolling convolutes, toroidal joints, sealed bearings, and modular sizing. Versions by both AiResearch and Litton. More...
  • Bendix Molab American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix Molab lunar rover design of June 1965 had 4 wheels and a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. The cabin had a volume of 12.8 cubic meters. More...
  • Boeing LSSM American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Boeing LSSM lunar rover design of June 1965 had 4 wheels of 1.2 or 1.6 m diameter. and a range of 200 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Bendix LSSM American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix LSSM lunar rover design of October 1965 had 4 wheels. and a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. More...
  • Bendix ALSS Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1965. The Bendix ALSS Payloads lunar rover design of June 1965 had a range of 400 km with a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. A variety of configurations were studied in detail. More...
  • CSU-4/P American pressure suit, operational 1965. A bladder type partial pressure suit, with quick don, 8 sizes. More...
  • CSU-5/P American pressure suit, operational 1965. A modified bladder type partial pressure CSU-4/P suit with integrated wet suit. More...
  • Extended Mission Gemini American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A McDonnell concept for using Gemini for extended duration missions. The basic Gemini would dock with an Agena upper stage. More...
  • GE Lunar NEP Tug American lunar logistics spacecraft. Nuclear electric tug proposed by General Electric in a 1965 study to support an Apollo Applications Lunar Base. A Snap-50 space reactor generating 1.9 MW would power the tug. More...
  • Gemini Satellite Inspector American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A modification of Gemini to demonstrate rendezvous and inspection of noncooperative satellites was proposed. The Gemini would rendezvous with the enormous Pegasus satellite in its 500 x 700 km orbit. More...
  • INSATRAC American military anti-satellite system. Study 1965. Follow-on to SAINT anti-satellite. No information available beyond the name. More...
  • Isinglass American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. CIA air-launched, rocket-powered high speed manned vehicle project of 1965-1968 that developed basic technologies used in later shuttle and reusable launch vehicle programs. More...
  • Janus American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. This TRW design of 1965 used a unique concept - a lifting body main stage, that provided both ascent propulsion and re-entry protection. More...
  • MORL Mars Flyby American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Near-term manned Mars flyby spacecraft proposed by Douglas in 1965 for flight as early as 1973. More...
  • NASA Mars Flyby 1965 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Mars flyby mission designed by NASA Huntsville in 1965 to use existing Apollo hardware, allowing a manned flyby of Mars by 1975. More...
  • S-100 American pressure suit, operational 1965. Pressure suit which introduced many modifications from the early MC-3A capstan suits. More...
  • Saturn MS-IVB-1 American space tug. Study 1965. Upper stage / space tug - Marshall studies, 1965. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB structurally strengthened to handle larger payloads, otherwise unchanged More...
  • Saturn MS-IVB-2 American space tug. Study 1965. Upper stage / space tug - Douglas study, 1965. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB with 315 k high pressure 3000 psia engine, 350,000 pounds propellant More...
  • S-1029 American pressure suit, tested 1965. Developmental bladder type partial pressure suit. More...
  • Space Sled American space mobility device, tested 1965. Marquardt developed a sled design in the mid-1960's for maneuvering in the vicinity of a spacecraft. The space sled approach was dropped in preference to the shuttle manned maneuvering unit. More...
  • Salkeld Shuttle American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. 1965 concept for a manned spaceplane equipped with drop tanks, which would be air-launched from a C-5 More...
  • Saturn MS-IVB-x American space tug. Study 1965. Upper stage / space tug - studied by NASA Marshall in 1965. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB structurally strengthened to handle larger payloads, otherwise unchanged More...
  • TFX American pressure suit, tested 1965. Prototype bladder type partial pressure suit with a separate Anti-G suit valve. APL program with Navy and ILC Dover. More...
  • Apollo ATM American manned space station. Study 1966. The Apollo Telescope Mount began as a solar telescope built into the spaceframe of an Apollo lunar module. More...
  • Bluebell American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1966.02.15 (Bluebell 2C (Cylinder)) and (Bluebell 2S (Sphere)). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • G4C AMU American space suit, operational 1966. This space suit was designed to provide thermal protection to astronauts using the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). More...
  • Apollo LMSS American manned space station. Cancelled 1967. Under the Apollo Applications Program NASA began hardware and software procurement, development, and testing for a Lunar Mapping and Survey System. The system would be mounted in an Apollo CSM. More...
  • OAO American visible astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1966.04.08 (OAO 1) to 1972.08.21 (OAO 3). More...
  • Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1969 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. Von Braun's final vision for a manned expedition to Mars was a robust plan that eliminated much of the risk of other scenarios. Two ships would fly in convoy from earth orbit to Mars and back. More...
  • IMIS 1968 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. In January 1968 Boeing issued a report that was the result of a 14 month study on manned Mars missions. More...
  • Lunar Worm American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The Aeronutronic Division of Philco Corp. proposed the unique Lunar Worm Planetary Roving Vehicle Concept in 1966. More...
  • OV3 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1966.04.22 (OV3-01) to 1967.12.05 (OV3-06). The OV3 GUS General Utility Satellite were built for the Air Force as part of the OV3 satellite series. More...
  • Gemini Lunar Surface Rescue Spacecraft American manned lunar lander. Study 1966. This version of Gemini would allow a direct manned lunar landing mission to be undertaken in a single Saturn V flight, although it was only proposed as an Apollo rescue vehicle. More...
  • Atlas Target Docking Adapter American logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1966.06.01, Gemini 9 ATDA. An unpowered Gemini docking collar less the Agena rocket stage, launched one time by an Atlas when the Agena stage was not available. Fairing separation failed. More...
  • GGTS American gravity gradient technology satellite. One launch, 1966.06.16. Gravity gradient stabilization tests. More...
  • IDCSP American military communications satellite. 35 launches, 1966.06.16 (IDCSP 1-1) to 1968.06.13 (IDCSP 4-8). More...
  • Pageos American earth geodetic satellite. 3 launches, 1966.06.24 (Pageos 1) to (Pageos canister half). 100 foot diameter. balloon. More...
  • M2-F3 American manned spaceplane. 43 launches, 1966.07.12 to 1971.12.21 . The crashed M2-F2 was rebuilt as the M2-F3 with enlarged vertical stabilizers. Maximum speed achieved was Mach 1.6, top altitude 21,800 m. More...
  • KH-8 American military surveillance satellite. 61 launches, 1966.07.29 (OPS 3014) to 1984.04.17 (OPS 8424). Longest-lived and last US film-return reconnaissance satellite. Ground resolution 0.5 m. Film returned in two capsules. Typical life 50 days. More...
  • Lunar Orbiter American lunar orbiter. 5 launches, 1966.08.10 (Lunar Orbiter 1) to 1967.08.01 (Lunar Orbiter 5). Photography of the moon's surface from selenocentric orbit. The Lunar Orbiter series took photos of lunar surface from selenocentric orbit. More...
  • TOS American earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1966.10.02 (ESSA 3) to 1969.02.26 (ESSA 9). TOS spacecraft marked the first operational system of US polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. More...
  • Intelsat 2 American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1966.10.26 (Intelsat 2 F-1) to 1967.09.28 (Intelsat 2 F-4). The Intelsat 2 series expanded ITSO coverage to include 2/3 of the Earth's surface. More...
  • MOL American manned space station. Cancelled 1969. MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) was the US Air Force's manned space project after Dynasoar was cancelled, until it in turn was cancelled in 1969. The earth orbit station used a helium-oxygen atmosphere. More...
  • OV4 American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1966.11.03 (OV4-03) to (OV4-01T). Whispering gallery experiments. More...
  • ATS-1 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1966.12.07, ATS 1. During its 18 year lifetime, ATS-1 examined spin stabilization techniques, investigated the geostationary environment, and performed several communications experiments. More...
  • Biosatellite American biology satellite. 3 launches, 1966.12.14 (Biosatellite 1) to 1969.06.29 (Biosatellite 3). Biosatellite was a NASA spacecraft designed in the early 1960's to study the effects of the space environment on living organisms in missions. More...
  • Prime American manned spaceplane. 3 launches, 1966.12.21 (Prime 1) to 1967.04.19 (Prime 3). The Prime (Precision Recovery Including Maneuvering Entry) project was the second part of the USAF START program. More...
  • HL-10 American manned spaceplane. 37 launches, 1966.12.22 to 1970.07.17 . The HL-10 was the favored lifting body configuration of NASA Langley in the 1960's. It reached Mach 1.86 and 27,700 m during its flight tests. More...
  • Apollo LASS S-IVB American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. The Douglas Company (DAC) proposed the "Lunar Application of a Spent S-IVB Stage (LASS)". The LASS concept required a landing gear on a S-IVB Stage. More...
  • Apollo SMLL American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. North American Aviation (NAA) proposed use of the SM as a lunar logistics vehicle (LLV) in 1966. The configuration, simply stated, put a landing gear on the SM. More...
  • Boyles Law Suit American pressure suit, tested 1966. Concept by Otto Schueller, patented by Davis, Moore, Ritzinger and Whitmore at USAFSAM. More...
  • FLEM American manned Mars expedition. Study 1966. More...
  • Gemini LSRS AM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini LSRS LM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini LSRS LOIM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini LSRS RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. More...
  • Gemini Paraglider American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. The paraglider was supposed to be used in the original Gemini program but delays in getting the wing to deploy reliably resulted in it not being flown. More...
  • GE Life Raft American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The GE Life raft was a rigid unpressurized aeroshell. Three crew in space suits with parachutes would strap themselves into the seats. More...
  • Gemini Observatory American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Proposed version of Gemini for low-earth orbit solar or stellar astronomy. This would be launched by a Saturn S-IB. It has an enlarged reentry module which seems to be an ancestor of the 'Big Gemini' of 1967. More...
  • Hyperion SSTO American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Yet another of Philip Bono's single-stage-to-orbit designs of the 1960's, using a plug-nozzle engine for ascent and as a re-entry heat shield. More...
  • Ithacus American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Adaptation of Phillip Bono's enormous ROMBUS plug-nozzle semi-single-stage-orbit launch vehicle as a 1,200 soldier intercontinental troop transport. More...
  • JAG Mars Flyby 1966 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1966. Final NASA attempt to mount a manned Mars flyby mission by 1975 using Apollo hardware. It took the best elements of the NASA Huntsville and Douglas concepts of 1965, requiring only four Saturn V launches. More...
  • Lockheed EEOED American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. Lockheed's EEOED was a three-crew Discovery-type re-entry vehicle. More...
  • LLV L-II American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Landing stage for delivery of up to 13,400 kg payload from lunar orbit to lunar surface. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Delivery of lunar base elements from lunar orbit to lunar surface. More...
  • LLV L-I American manned spacecraft module. Study 1966. Lunar Orbit Insertion stage for placing LLV into lunar orbit. Propulsion 2 x RL10-A3 with N2O4/MMH thrusters for orientation, midcourse, and ullage. Lunar orbit insertion of Lunar Logistics Vehicle lander and payload. More...
  • MOBEV R1CB American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1CB Base Support Vehicle -- Special Purpose was a manned lunar tractor, which provided base support capability in terms of earth moving, towing, and general utility within close proximity of the base. More...
  • MOBEV R1B American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Early manned operations would utilize the basic Apollo LM or an augmented version of it. The augmented version would a small mobility unit. More...
  • MOBEV F1B American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV F1B one-man pogo flying vehicle was the selected configuration for the one-man pogo application from three alternatives. Maximum operational mass with astronaut and payload, 258 kg. More...
  • MOBEV F2E American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV selected return to orbit vehicle, F2E, was provided with six degree of freedom control for rendezvous as well as normal attitude control. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 1364.5 kg. More...
  • MOBEV R3DE American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R3DE Extended Traverse Vehicle was a 90-Day MOBEX, a manned mobile laboratory used for exploration of the moon. More...
  • MOBEV R2C(1)E American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R2C(1)E manned Mobile Laboratory Vehicle (MOLAB) was to be used for exploration of the moon. The MOLAB provided complete life support capabilities for its two-man crew during a 14-day, 400-km mission. More...
  • MOBEV R1DE American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1DE recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Cabined LSSM, a manned exploration vehicle designed to provide a shirt-sleeve (open spacesuit faceplate) environment. More...
  • MOBEV R0AE American lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R0AE was based on the cancelled Surveyor Lunar Roving Vehicle, originally conceived for the Apollo site selection program. More...
  • MOBEV R0DE American lunar rover. Study 1966. Robotic vehicle delivered to the lunar surface with a LM-Shelter or a LM-Truck-Shelter and used during and after the manned mission to explore areas prior to committing a man. More...
  • MOBEV R0CE American lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R0CE utilized a Surveyor probe from a lunar orbiting vehicle. The rover would operate in lunar day or night and have a total range capability of 200 km over a 90-day period. More...
  • MOBEV RIB(1)E American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV RIB(1)E recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Greater Versatility LSSM, an exploration vehicle designed for both manned and unmanned operation. More...
  • MOLEM American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of LM derivative equipment were studied by Grumman in a report delivered on 10 May 1966. More...
  • MOCOM American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of the CM were studied by North American in 1966 to further modify a CM shelter to provide mobility. Essentially the CM was mounted on a four-wheel chassis. More...
  • MOCAN American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOCAN was a manned Lunar Rover using the planned Boeing pressurized Apollo Multipurpose Mission Module (CAN) as the basic structure and MOLAB wheels More...
  • Pegasus VTOVL American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. Bono design for semi-single-stage-to-orbit ballistic VTOVL launch vehicle. More...
  • Rescue Gemini American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. A version of Gemini was proposed for rescue of crews stranded in Earth orbit. This version, launched by a Titan 3C, used a transtage for maneuvering. More...
  • Republic Moon Suit American pressure suit, tested 1966. This was a Republic Aviation design for a hard space suit for extended operations on the lunar surface. More...
  • Saturn MS-IVB-1A American space tug. Study 1966. Upper stage / space tug - Boeing study 1967. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB with 16.5 foot stretch, 350,000 pounds propellant, standard J-2 engine. More...
  • SAVER American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. The Rockwell SAVER concept provided return of a single crew member in his ejection seat. A nosecap only the size of the seat absorbed most of the re-entry heat. More...
  • Winged Gemini American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. Winged Gemini was the most radical modification of the basic Gemini reentry module ever considered. More...
  • ATS-2 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1967.04.06, ATS 2. ATS-2 was placed into an undesirable orbit due to a launch vehicle failure. More...
  • OV5 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 8 launches, 1967.04.28 (OV5-03) to 1969.05.23 (OV5-09). OV5 was a version of the USAF Environmental Research Satellites dedicated to radiation research and VLF plasma wave detection. More...
  • Advanced Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1967.04.28 (Vela 7) to 1970.04.08 (Vela 11). More...
  • Owl American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.18 (Transit 16) to 1967.09.25 (Transit 17). More...
  • ALSS Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. The ALSS (Apollo Logistics Support System) Lunar Base would require a new development, the LM Truck, to allow delivery of up to 4100 kg in payload to the lunar surface. More...
  • AES Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. AES (Apollo Extension Systems) was planned as the first American lunar base. It would involve minimal modification of Apollo hardware. The Apollo CSM would be modified for long duration lunar orbit storage. More...
  • Timation American navigation technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.31 (Timation 1) and 1969.09.30 (Timation 2). More...
  • Mariner 5 American Venus probe. One launch, 1967.06.14. Mariner 5 was a refurbished backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 Mars mission converted to fly a Venus mission. More...
  • Aurora American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1967.06.29. Investigated aurora borealis. More...
  • DODGE American gravity gradient technology satellite. One launch, 1967.07.01. The Navy's 195 kg DODGE (Department Of Defense Gravity Experiment) satellite had the primary mission to explore gravity gradient stabilization at near synchronous altitude. More...
  • KH-4B American military surveillance satellite. 24 launches, 1967.09.15 (KH-4B 1101) to 1972.05.25 (KH-4B 1117). Early US reconnaissance satellite. Carried two 'J-3' panoramic cameras, with a focal length of 61 cm, and a ground resolution of 1.8 m. More...
  • IS-A Russian military anti-satellite system. 22 launches, 1967.10.27 (Cosmos 185) to 1982.06.18 (Cosmos 1379). First operational ASAT. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original. More...
  • ATS-3 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1967.11.05, ATS 3. The goals for ATS-3 included investigations of spin stabilization techniques and VHF and C-band communications experiments. More...
  • Apollo LTA American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1967.11.09 (LTA-10R) to 1968.12.21 (LTA-B). Apollo Lunar module Test Articles were simple mass/structural models of the Lunar Module. More...
  • TTS American tracking network technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.12.13 (TTS 1) and 1968.11.08 (TTS 2; TATS 2 (TETR 2)). Tested Apollo tracking network. More...
  • A/P22S-4 American pressure suit, operational 1967. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-2, 8 sizes for use in bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. Evolved from the original MC-2 design. More...
  • Apollo RM American logistics spacecraft. Study 1967. In 1967 it was planned that Saturn IB-launched Orbital Workshops would be supplied by Apollo CSM spacecraft and Resupply Modules (RM) with up to three metric tons of supplies and instruments. More...
  • Big Gemini AM American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Earth orbit maneuver and retrofire. More...
  • Big Gemini CM American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Space station resupply. More...
  • Big Gemini RV American manned spacecraft module. Reached mockup stage 1967. Crew and cargo return. More...
  • Centaur D/E American space tug. 56 launches, (1967) to (1983). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Centaur D; Titan 3E. More...
  • Gemini LORV RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. More...
  • Gemini LORV SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini LSSS LM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft, dimensions of propellant tanks. More...
  • Gemini LSSS SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. More...
  • Gemini Lunar RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1967. Calculated mass based on mission requirements, drawing of spacecraft. More...
  • Gemini Lunar Surface Survival Shelter American manned lunar habitat. Study 1967. Prior to an Apollo moon landing attempt, the shelter would be landed, unmanned, near the landing site of a stranded Apollo Lunar Module. More...
  • Gemini LORV American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1967. This version of Gemini was studied as a means of rescuing an Apollo CSM crew stranded in lunar orbit. The Gemini would be launched unmanned on a translunar trajectory by a Saturn V. More...
  • MEM American manned Mars lander. Study 1967. The Mars Excursion Module was designed by North American for the Marshall Spaceflight Center in an October 1966-August 1967 study. More...
  • Manned Venus Orbiting Mission American manned Venus orbiter. A 1967 a NASA study examined requirements for a manned Venus orbiter. It concluded such a mission could be mounted by 1975 using Apollo technology. More...
  • Saturn MS-IVB-3B American space tug. Study 1967. Upper stage / space tug - Boeing study, 1967. Launched by Saturn V. S-IVB with 16.5 foot stretch, 350,000 pounds propellant, 1 x 400,000 pound thrust toroidal engine. More...
  • Saturn MS-IVB-4(S)B American space tug. Study 1967. Upper stage / space tug - studied by Boeing in 1967. Standard S-IVB but with structural strength increased from 78% to 217% depending on station, resulting in 11.8% increase in empty weight. More...
  • Solrad American solar satellite. 4 launches, 1968.03.05 (Explorer 37) to 1976.03.15 (Solrad 11B). SOLRAD was Satellite Techniques' first major project and NRL's first post-Vanguard satellite. More...
  • RAE American radio astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1968.07.04 (Explorer 38) to 1973.06.10 (Explorer 49). More...
  • Canyon American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 7 launches, 1968.08.06 (Canyon 1) to 1977.05.23 (Canyon 7). The first large US signals intelligence satellite. More...
  • ATS-4 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1968.08.10, ATS 4. A launch vehicle failure stranded ATS-4 in a much lower than planned orbit, making the satellite nearly useless. More...
  • Orbiscal American earth ionosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1968.08.16 (AVL-802 Grid Sphere 7-1) to (AVL-802 Grid Sphere 7-1). Investigate effects of ionosphere on radio signals. More...
  • RM American earth micrometeoroid satellite. 2 launches, 1968.08.16 (RM-18) and 1970.11.09 (RM-1; RMS). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • RADCAT American military technology satellite. 2 launches, 1968.08.16 (Radcat) and 1972.10.02 (RADCAT). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Intelsat 3 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1968.09.19 (Intelsat-3 F-1) to 1970.07.23 (Intelsat 3 F-8). Intelsat 3 spacecraft were used to relay commercial global telecommunications including live TV. More...
  • Apollo 120 in Telescope American manned space station. Study 1968. Concept for use of a Saturn V-launched Apollo CSM with an enormous 10 m diameter space laboratory equipped with a 3 m diameter astronomical telescope. More...
  • Apollo LPM American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1968. The unmanned portion of the Lunar Surface Rendezvous and Exploration Phase of Apollo envisioned in 1969 was the Lunar Payload Module (LPM). More...
  • Apollo LM AS American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). More...
  • Apollo ELS American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The capabilities of a lunar shelter not derived from Apollo hardware were surveyed in the Early Lunar Shelter Study (ELS), completed in February 1967 by AiResearch. More...
  • Apollo LASS American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. In the LASS (LM Adapter Surface Station) lunar shelter concept, the LM ascent stage was replaced by an SLA 'mini-base' and the position of the Apollo Service Module (SM) was reversed. More...
  • Apollo LM DS American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17). More...
  • AIRMAT American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. Inflatable; space suits required; ejection seat; requires development of flexible heat shield and new materials. Mass per crew 570 kg. More...
  • Boost Glide Re-entry Vehicle American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Study 1968. The Boost Glide Re-entry Vehicle investigated related technological problems, particularly hypersonic maneuvering after re-entry into the atmosphere. More...
  • EEM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Re-entry at extreme velocities from manned interplanetary missions.. More...
  • ILRV American manned spaceplane. Study 1968. In late 1968 the USAF Flight Dynamics Laboratory proposed its Integrated Launch and Re-entry Vehicle. This was a 1.5 stage-to-orbit concept with an external drop tank. More...
  • Lunar Exploration Program 1968 American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. In January 1968, Bellcomm, NASA's Apollo project management advisor, proposed a four-phase program for exploration of the lunar surface using Apollo and Apollo-derived hardware. More...
  • LESA Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) represented the ultimate lunar base concept studied by NASA prior to the cancellation of further Saturn V production in June 1968. More...
  • LSSM American manned lunar rover. Study 1968. The Bendix Local Science Survey Module was a forerunner of the Lunar Rover. The LSSM was a small size vehicle used to support a local manned survey. It was proposed for delivery with an LM Shelter. More...
  • MOBEV F2B American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1968. The F2B was the MOBEV selected configuration for a multi-man surface-to-surface flying vehicle. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 844 kg. More...
  • Molab American manned lunar rover. Cancelled 1968. The moderate capacity mobile laboratory (MOLAB) concept was studied in two NASA/MT contracts to determine configurations and capabilities of vehicles in the 2950 to 3850 kg class. More...
  • MM American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1968. The Mission Module (MM) could be modified according to requirements of a particular interplanetary manned mission. More...
  • Orion Mars American manned Mars expedition. Study 1968. Nuclear pulse spacecraft for manned mission to Mars. More...
  • Program 922 American military anti-satellite system. Study 1968. Program 922 was a non-nuclear sub-orbital ASAT in development in the late 1960's. More...
  • PPM American space tug. Study 1968. The Primary Propulsion Module was the definitive 1960's design for a nuclear thermal rocket stage suitable for interplanetary operations. More...
  • Rib Stiffened Expandable Escape System American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. This Rockwell concept was stowed in a canister. In an emergency, the articulated rib-truss structure would be deployed into a mechanically rigid aeroshell shape. More...
  • S1010 American pressure suit, operational 1968. A special variant of the S901, designated the S1010 PPA, was developed specifically for use in the U-2R aircraft in the mid-1960s. More...
  • Saturn S-N V-25(S)U American space tug. Study 1968. Upper stage / space tug - study 1969. Launched by Saturn V-25(S)U. Version of Nerva studied by Boeing for manned Mars expedition. More...
  • Transtage American space tug. Flown 1968-1982 on Titan 3A and 3C boosters. Transtage mass remaining after insertion of Dynasoar and Abort Stage into orbit. Transtage had its own RCS. Maneuver in earth orbit. More...
  • TACSAT American communications technology satellite. First launch 1969.02.09. TACSAT was designed to experimentally test and develop tactical communications concepts for all US military services. More...
  • Mariner 6-7 American Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1969.02.25 (Mariner 6) to 1969.03.27 (Mariner 7). Mariner 6 and 7 comprised a dual-spacecraft mission to Mars. More...
  • X-24A American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1969.04.17 to 1971.06.04 . The X-24A was the Martin Corporation's subsonic test version of the US Air Force's preferred manned lifting body configuration. More...
  • A9L American space suit, tested 1969. Two hard-shell, constant-volume suits entered development for the Apollo Applications Program. More...
  • Apollo ALSEP American lunar lander. 7 launches, 1969.07.16 (EASEP) to 1972.12.07 (ALSEP). ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) was the array of connected scientific instruments left behind on the lunar surface by each Apollo expedition. More...
  • PAC American technology satellite. One launch, 1969.08.09. Package Attitude Control; semi-active gravity gradient stabilization tests. More...
  • ATS-5 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1969.08.12, ATS 5. More...
  • Apollo LRM American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. Grumman proposed to use the LM as a lunar reconnaissance module. But NASA had already considered this and many other possibilities (Apollo MSS, Apollo LMSS); and there was no budget available for any of them. More...
  • TETR American tracking network technology satellite. 2 launches, 1969.08.27 (TETR C) and 1971.09.29 (TETR 3). Test satellite for NASA's Manned Space Flight Network. More...
  • LLV American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. Many versions of new Lunar Logistic Vehicles (LLV's) using several possible candidate propellants were studied by NASA and its contractors in the mid-1960's for post-Apollo lunar base support. More...
  • LESA Shelter American manned lunar habitat. Study 1966. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) was an advanced lunar surface shelter. More...
  • SOICAL American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1969.09.30 (SOICAL Cone) and (SOICAL Cylinder). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • LFV North American American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1969. The North American design for a Lunar Flying Vehicle would have taken one astronaut and up to 167 kg of cargo to a distance of 3. 2 to 8.5 km from a lunar landing site in minutes, at a maximum speed of 85 m/s. More...
  • Apollo MET American lunar hand cart. Flown 1971. NASA designed the MET lunar hand cart to help with problems such as the Apollo 12 astronauts had in carrying hand tools, sample boxes and bags, a stereo camera, and other equipment on the lunar surface. More...
  • Gemini B RM American manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1969. Gemini was extensively redesigned for the MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. The resulting Gemini B, although externally similar, was essentially a completely new spacecraft. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Gemini B AM American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1969. Adapter module for Gemini B, the engines serving as both abort motors during ascent to orbit and for retrofire on return to earth. Abort/deorbit propulsion. More...
  • IMLSS American space mobility device. Cancelled 1969. In 1968-69 Hamilton Standard developed this Integrated Maneuvering Life Support System (IMLSS) for the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. More...
  • MOL LM American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The Laboratory Module consisted of a forward unpressurized section 2.43 m long, followed by an aft pressurized section, a 3.37 m long cylinder with 2.79 m diameter hemispherical bulkheads at each end. Space station military. More...
  • MOL MM American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The MOL Mission Module took up most of the spacecraft. It had a length of 11.24 m and was divided into two major bays, the forward section 4.42 m long, and the aft section 6.82 m long. More...
  • MURP American manned spaceplane. Study 1969. The McDonnell Douglas Space Shuttle Phase A studies were conducted under contract NAS9-9204. Their Class I vehicle was dubbed MURP - Manned Upper Reusable Payload. More...
  • MOL Space Suit American space suit. Cancelled 1969. Space suit designed to support launch/re-entry and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) aboard the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Developed from 1965-1969, when MOL was cancelled. More...
  • ITOS American earth weather satellite. 8 launches, 1970.01.23 (ITOS 1) to 1976.07.29 (NOAA 5). ITOS was the follow-on to the TIROS series of polar-orbiting US weather satellites, and marked the beginning of the use of the NOAA designator. More...
  • SERT American ion engine technology satellite. One launch, 1970.02.04. Electric ion engine tests. More...
  • DMSP Block 5A American earth weather satellite. 3 launches, 1970.02.11 (DMSP-Block-5A F1) to 1971.02.17 (DMSP Block 5A F3). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. More...
  • TOPO American earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1970.04.08. US Army topographic / geodesic satellite launched in 1970. More...
  • Rhyolite American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 4 launches, 1970.06.19 (Rhyolite 1) to 1978.04.07 (Rhyolite 4). More...
  • DSP American military early warning satellite. 23 launches, 1970.11.06 (IMEWS 1) to 2007.11.11 (USA 176). An evolving series of satellites built by the United States to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles on launch. More...
  • OFO American biology satellite. One launch, 1970.11.09. The Frog Otolith Experiment Package (FOEP) contained all apparatus necessary to assure survival of two frogs. More...
  • CEPE American satellite. One launch, 1970.12.11. Cylindrical Electrostatic Probe Experiment (orbital experiment attached to Delta second stage) More...
  • Apollo Rescue CSM American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. Influenced by the stranded Skylab crew portrayed in the book and movie 'Marooned', NASA provided a crew rescue capability for the first time in its history. More...
  • ENCAP American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. The ENCAP encapsulated bailout-from-orbit concept consisted of a folded heat shield. The astronaut would exit his stranded spacecraft and strap into the seat. More...
  • EIS/OES American space suit, tested 1970. Developmental 0.54 bar Emergency Intravehicular Suit (EIS) and Orbital Extravehicular Suit (OES) programs were conducted by NASA in the 1970's. More...
  • S1030 American pressure suit, operational 1970. Upgraded SR-71 full pressure suit, link net with integrated subsystems. More...
  • Space Base American manned space station. Study 1970. Growth of Space Station into a 50 man Space Base was a required capability in the Phase B NASA Space Station studies of 1969-1970. More...
  • S-IVB Advanced Station American manned space station. Study 1970. Follow-on to Skylab proposed by Douglas. The station would still use the S-IVB stage as the basis, but would be much more extensively outfitted for larger crews. More...
  • Skylab Lunar Orbit Station American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1970. McDonnell Douglas (Seal Beach, CA) did a study on modifying the to modify the Skylab as a moon-orbiting observatory and station More...
  • Intelsat 4 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1971.01.26 (Intelsat 4 F-2) to 1975.05.22 (Intelsat 4 F-1). The Intelsat 4 series continued the growth of the Intelsat communications network. More...
  • Jumpseat American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 7 launches, 1971.03.21 (Jumpseat 1) to 1983.07.31 (Jumpseat 7). Jumpseat signals intelligence satellites were launched by Titan 3B or 34B into highly elliptic Molniya-type orbits. More...
  • Mariner 8-9 American Mars orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.05.09 (Mariner H) to 1971.05.30 (Mariner 9). The Mariner Mars 71 mission was planned to consist of two spacecraft on complementary missions. More...
  • SESP American military technology satellite. 3 launches, 1971.06.08 (SESP 70-1) to 1976.07.08 (SESP 74-2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • KH-9 American military surveillance satellite. 26 launches, 1971.06.15 (KH-9 no. 01 (Big Bird)) to 1986.04.18 (SRV-4). Popularly known as 'Big Bird'. Titan 3C-class film-return reconnaissance satellite. More...
  • PAET American military technology satellite. One launch, 1971.06.20. Suborbital. More...
  • Apollo LRV American manned lunar rover. 3 launches, 1971.07.26 (LRV-1) to 1972.12.07 (LRV-3). More...
  • PFS American lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.07.26 (Apollo 15 Subsatellite) to 1972.04.16 (Apollo 16 Subsatellite). Released from Apollo; particles and fields experiments. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). More...
  • Musketball American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Rigidsphere American military target satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Mylar American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Gridsphere American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1971.08.07 (Gridsphere 1) and (Gridsphere 2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Cannonball American military target satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • DMSP Block 5B American earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1971.10.14 (DMSP-Block-5B F1) to 1974.03.16 (DMSP-Block-5B F5). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. More...
  • ASTEX American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.10.17. Space Test Program; technology experiments. More...
  • DSCS II American military communications satellite. 15 launches, 1971.11.03 (DSCS II-01) to 1982.10.30 (DSCS II-15). DSCS provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. More...
  • SSS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.11.15, Explorer 45. Studies magnetosphere, energetic particles. More...
  • NOSS American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 22 launches, 1971.12.14 (OPS 7898 P/L 1) to 1993.08.02 (TLD). Ocean surveillance; aka White Cloud type spacecraft; Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite; PARCAE. More...
  • LSV American manned lunar rover. Study 1971. The Lunar Sortie Vehicle (LSV), was a North American Rockwell design of 1971, conceived as a railroad train without the rails. More...
  • NASA Mars Expedition 1971 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1971. Final NASA Mars expedition before the 1980's. The spacecraft would use shuttle hardware, including SSME engines in the rocket stages. More...
  • Space Tug American space tug. Study 1971. The original Boeing Space Tug design of the early 1970's was sized to be flown either in a single shuttle mission or as a Saturn V payload. Optimum mass was found to be 20.6 metric tons regardless. More...
  • Space Activity Suit American space suit, tested 1971. Prototype for a Mechanical Counter Pressure suit made up of six layers of elastic material accompanied by a full bubble helmet. More...
  • X-38 American manned spaceplane. 2 launches, 1972.02.16 (HL-10 LB Test?) to 1972.05.20 (HL-10 LB Test?). Lifting body reentry vehicle designed as emergency return spacecraft for International Space Station crew. More...
  • Pioneer 10-11 American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.03 (Pioneer 10) to 1973.04.06 (Pioneer 11). Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first spacecraft to fly by Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11 only). More...
  • Landsat 1-2-3 American earth land resources satellite. 3 launches, 1972.07.23 (Landsat 1) to 1978.03.05 (Landsat 3). The first 3 Landsat missions were also known as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) series. More...
  • MTS American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1972.08.13, Explorer 46. Micrometeoroid tests. More...
  • TIP American navigation satellite. 6 launches, 1972.09.02 (Triad 1) to 1988.06.16 (Nova 2). More...
  • Radsat American military technology satellite. One launch, 1972.10.02. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • HS 333 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1972.11.10 (Anik A1) to 1979.08.10 (Westar 3). The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. More...
  • Aerospike Test Vehicle American manned spacecraft. George Detko of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center produced a design for a minimum SSTO VTOVL vehicle in 1972. The vehicle had a gross liftoff mass of only 22 metric tons, and could deliver a two-person crew to orbit. More...
  • EGRESS American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1972. The EGRESS space escape system was based on the proven Encapsulated Ejection Seat System developed for the B-58 bomber in the 1960's. More...
  • Mini-shuttle American manned rocketplane. Study 1972. In August 1972 it was proposed to test a subscale version of the shuttle to test the aerodynamics. The 13,750 kg vehicle would be 11 m long and have a wingspan of 7 m. More...
  • Modularised Space Station American manned space station. Study 1972. Space station design of 1972 using modules sized for transport in the Space Shuttle payload bay. could be carried inside the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. More...
  • Skylab American manned space station. One launch, 1973.05.14. First US space station. The project began life as the Orbital Workshop- outfitting of an S-IVB stage with a docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. More...
  • X-24B American manned spaceplane. 36 launches, 1973.08.01 to 1975.11.26 . More...
  • Skylab MDA American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Docking module for two CSM, one ATM. More...
  • Skylab ATM American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Solar Telescope module. More...
  • Skylab AM American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Airlock for EVA's, mounting of STS and TNL. More...
  • Space Cruiser American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1973. The space cruiser was a US Navy design for a single-place crewed space interceptor designed to destroy Soviet satellites used to track the location of US warships. More...
  • Skylab OWS American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Main laboratory. More...
  • Skylab AMU American space mobility device, tested 1973. One of several extravehicular mobility devices tested by the Skylab astronauts within the spacious station. More...
  • S-IVB IU American manned space station module. One launch, 1973.05.14. Used for guidance during orbital insertion only. More...
  • Viking American Mars lander. 5 launches, 1974.02.11 (Viking Dynamic Simulator) to 1975.09.09 (Viking 2 Lander). First successful soft landings made at two locations on the Martian surface and returned the first images from the surface. More...
  • Sphinx American military technology satellite. One launch, 1974.02.11. Space Plasma High Voltage Interaction Experiment. Research payload carried on test flight of Titan 3E booster. More...
  • SMS American earth weather satellite. 2 launches, 1974.05.17 (SMS 1) and 1975.02.06 (SMS 2). Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. More...
  • ATS-6 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1974.05.30, ATS 6. In addition to its technology experiments, ATS-6 became the world's first educational satellite. More...
  • Hawkeye American solar satellite. One launch, 1974.06.03, Explorer 52. Solar wind experiments. Follow-on to Injun. More...
  • Enterprise American manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Enterprise was the first Space Shuttle Orbiter. It was rolled out on September 17, 1976. More...
  • X-24C American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1977. Two X-24C NHFRF (National Hypersonic Flight Research Facility) aircraft were to be built under a $ 200 million budget. More...
  • NTS American navigation technology satellite. 2 launches, 1974.07.14 (NTS 1) and 1977.06.23 (NTS 2). Demonstrated navigation technologies. More...
  • DMSP Block 5C American earth weather satellite. 3 launches, 1974.08.09 (DMSP-Block-5C F1) to 1976.02.19 (DMSP-Block-5C F3). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. More...
  • Manned Orbiting Facility American manned space station. Study 1974. NASA carried out a number of space station studies while the Shuttle was being developed in the mid-1970s. More...
  • Skylab AME American space mobility device, tested 1974. Another of the EVA maneuvering units tested by the Skylab astronauts within the capacious station. More...
  • P 72 American military technology satellite. One launch, 1975.04.13. Unknown satellite lost on a single Atlas launch failure. Evidently not repeated. More...
  • Apollo ASTP Docking Module American manned space station module. One launch, 1975.07.15, Docking Module 2. The ASTP docking module was basically an airlock with docking facilities on each end to allow crew transfer between the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft. More...
  • Intelsat 4A American communications satellite. 10 launches, 1975.09.26 (Intelsat 4A F-1) to 1981.02.21 (Comstar 4). Intelsat 4A satellites increased satellite capacity to 7250 voice circuits or 2 TV channels. More...
  • GOES American earth weather satellite. 8 launches, 1975.10.16 (GOES 1) to 1987.02.26 (GOES 7). Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. More...
  • DAD American earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1975.12.06 (DAD-B) and (DAD-B). Dual Air Density; air density experiments. More...
  • AS 1000 American communications satellite. 3 launches, 1975.12.13 (Satcom 1) to 1979.12.07 (RCA Satcom 3). More...
  • A/P22S-6 American pressure suit, operational 1975. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-4. 12 sizes, for bomber, reconnaissance and fighter aircraft. More...
  • A/P22S-6A American pressure suit, operational 1975. Modified A/P22S-6 suit to add urine collection device with other material and hardware changes. More...
  • MOSES American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1975. The General Electric MOSES space rescue concept of the early 1980's took advantage of large re-entry capsules already developed for classified US military projects. More...
  • SPIKE American military anti-satellite system. Study 1975. Project SPIKE was a 1970's suborbital conventional warhead ASAT air-launched from an F-106 interceptor. Considerable work was done from the early 1970s under the Missile and Space Defense Program. More...
  • Marisat American communications satellite. 3 launches, 1976.02.19 (Marisat 1) to 1976.10.14 (Marisat 3). Maritime communications. More...
  • NOSS-Subsat American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 27 launches, 1976.04.30 (SSU 1 (NOSS 1)) to 1996.05.12 (USA 121). Detected the location of naval vessels using radio interferometry. More...
  • LAGEOS American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1976.05.04 (Lageos) and 1992.10.22 (Lageos 2). The LAGEOS satellites were passive vehicles covered with retroreflectors designed to reflect laser beams transmitted from ground stations. More...
  • P 76 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1976.05.22. Communications propagation experiments. More...
  • SDS American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1976.06.02 (SDS no. 1) to 1987.02.12 (USA 21). SDS satellites, put into Molniya-type orbits, provided data relay services for optical reconnaissance and other military spacecraft. More...
  • DMSP Block 5D American earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1976.09.11 (AMS 1) to 1980.07.15 (AMS 5). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. More...
  • KH-11 American military surveillance satellite. 9 launches, 1976.12.19 (KH-11 no. 1) to 1988.11.06 (USA 33). Also known as Kennan, Program 1010. Used systems developed for KH-10 Manned Orbiting Laboratory. More...
  • Apollo CM Escape Concept American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Escape capsule using Apollo command module studied by Rockwell for NASA for use with the shuttle in the 1970's-80's. Mass per crew: 750 kg. More...
  • GAS American technology satellite. Study 1976. NASA's getaway special program, officially known as the Small, Self-Contained Payloads program, offered interested individuals or groups opportunities to fly small experiments aboard the space shuttle. More...
  • Northrop LBEC American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Northrop, building on its work on the HL-10 and M2-F3 lifting bodies, proposed a lifting body three-crew lifeboat. The piloted spacecraft would use a parasail for recovery. More...
  • Rockwell SHS American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. The Rockwell Spherical Heat Shield escape concept used a return capsule shell like a Vostok capsule cut in half. Two crew could be returned in a pressurized environment. Mass per crew 220 kg. More...
  • HEAO American x-ray astronomy satellite. 3 launches, 1977.08.12 (HEAO 1) to 1979.09.20 (HEAO 3). The 3 satellites of the High Energy Astronomical Observatory program surveyed the celestial sphere for X-ray sources and gamma and cosmic ray phenomena. More...
  • Voyager American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1977.08.20 (Voyager 2) and 1977.09.05 (Voyager 1). The twin Voyager spacecraft were designed to perform close-up observations of the atmospheres, magnetospheres, rings, and satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. More...
  • ISEE American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1977.10.22 (ISEE 1) to 1978.08.12 (ISEE 3). These Explorer-class heliocentric spacecraft were part of the mother/daughter/heliocentric mission (ISEE 1, 2, and 3). More...
  • HAFO American pressure suit, operational 1977. High Altitude Flying Outfit. Prototype developmental full pressure suit with integrated thermal/pressure/chemical defense/immersion and anti-G protection, ILC Dover. More...
  • HAPS American pressure suit, operational 1977. High Altitude Protective System (HAPS). Hybrid get-me-down system assembled for NASA Dryden Flight Research Center test pilots. More...
  • PHAFO American pressure suit, tested 1977. Prototype High Altitude Flying Outfit. Prototype partial pressure suit by David Clark to integrate altitude, thermal, immersion, chemical defense and anti-G protection. More...
  • IUE American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1978.01.26. More...
  • FLTSATCOM American military communications satellite. 8 launches, 1978.02.09 (Fltsatcom 1) to 1989.09.25 (USA 46). More...
  • GPS Block 1 American navigation satellite. 11 launches, 1978.02.22 (Navstar 1) to 1985.10.09 (USA 10). GPS Block 1 prototype satellites formed the GPS Demonstration system and were followed by the Block 2 operational system. More...
  • PIX American technology satellite. One launch, 1978.03.05. Plasma Interaction Experiment. More...
  • AEM American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1978.04.26, HCMM. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; produced thermal maps of atmosphere. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. More...
  • Conventional ASAT American military anti-satellite system. Study 1978. In May 1978, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a priority list of potential Soviet target satellites for the MHV hit-to-kill ASAT then under development. More...
  • Pioneer 12 American Venus probe. One launch, 1978.05.20, Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Part of the Pioneer program Pioneer Venus Orbiter was designed to perform long-term observations of the Venusian atmosphere and surface features. More...
  • Chalet American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1978.06.10 (Chalet 1) to 1989.05.10 (USA 37). Geosynchronous orbit signals intelligence satellite series that replaced Canyon. Also called Program 366 and Vortex. More...
  • Seasat American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1978.06.27. Seasat was the first satellite designed for remote sensing of the Earth's oceans with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). More...
  • Pioneer 13 American Venus probe. 5 launches, 1978.08.08 (Pioneer Venus 2) to (Pioneer Venus Probe 4). The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe consisted of a bus which carried one large and three small atmospheric probes. More...
  • Tiros N American earth weather satellite. 6 launches, 1978.10.13 (Tiros N) to 2002.06.24 (NOAA 17). Tiros N was part of the ongoing US series of polar-orbiting weather satellites. These were preceded by the TIROS series and the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series. More...
  • CAMEO American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1978.10.13. Released barium cloud. More...
  • SCATHA American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1979.01.30. More...
  • SAGE American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.02.18. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. More...
  • Solwind American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.02.24. Ionosphere and magnetosphere studies; destroyed 9/13/85 (while still functioning) as part of ASAT test. More...
  • Magsat American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.10.30. Measured near-Earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies. More...
  • Space Operations Center American manned space station. Study 1979. The Space Operations Center was proposed by NASA's Johnson Spaceflight Center in 1979. More...
  • SMM American solar satellite. One launch, 1980.02.14. The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) was intended primarily to study solar flares and related phenomena. More...
  • HS 376 American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant. More...
  • Intelsat 5 American communications satellite. 9 launches, 1980.12.06 (Intelsat 5 F-2) to 1984.06.09 (Intelsat 5 F-9). The last five of the nine spacecraft in this block carry a maritime mobile payload (seven additional transponders) for lease by Inmarsat. More...
  • LIPS American tether technology satellite. 3 launches, 1980.12.09 (LIPS 1) to 1987.05.15 (LIPS 3). More...
  • Dream Chaser American manned spaceplane. Study 2016. A six-passenger human space transport system announced in 2006 by SpaceDev, based on the ten-passenger HL-20 Personnel Launch System developed by NASA Langley in the 1980's. More...
  • EES American space suit, operational 1980. The initial series of shuttle flights were equipped with specially adapted SR-71 ejection seats for the two crew. More...
  • Nerva American space tug. Study 1980. Upper stage / space tug - Development 1971. More...
  • S1031 American pressure suit, operational 1980. The S1010 and several S1010 dash variants were later replaced by a further advanced model, the S1031 PPA. The S1031 special projects full pressure suit came in 12 sizes and was used in the TR-1 and U-2R. More...
  • Skylab Reboost Module American logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1980. Module developed for Shuttle to deliver to Skylab to boost it to a higher orbit for use during the Shuttle program. More...
  • Science and Applications Manned Space Platform American manned space station. Study 1980. While NASA/Johnson was studying the Space Operations Center concept, the Marshall Space Flight Center was lobbying for its own station -- the Science and Applications Manned Space Platform (SAMSP). More...
  • STS External Tank Station American manned space station. Study 1980. NASA studied several concepts in the 1980's using the 'wet workshop' approach to the capacious External Tank carried into orbit with every shuttle flight. More...
  • Shuttle EMU American space suit, operational 1980. Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit reusable suit. For a particular crew member and mission it was tailored from a stock of standard-size parts. Certified for eight EVA's. More...
  • TR-1 American pressure suit, tested 1980. Prototype full pressure suit developed by ILC Dover for the TR-1 aircraft. More...
  • TAV American manned spaceplane. Developed in the 1980s but halted in favor of the X-30. USAF program of the 1980's that reached the test hardware stage and was leading to a single-stage-to-orbit, rocket-powered, winged manned vehicle. More...
  • Columbia American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1981.04.12 (STS-1) to 2003.01.16 (STS-107). Columbia, the first orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, was named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe. More...
  • Dynamics Explorer American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1981.08.03 (Dynamics Explorer 1) and (Dynamics Explorer 2). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • SME American solar satellite. One launch, 1981.10.06. The Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite was developed to investigate the processes that create and destroy ozone in the Earth's upper atmosphere. More...
  • AS 3000 American communications satellite. 25 launches, 1981.11.20 (RCA Satcom 4; RCA Satcom 3R) to 1996.01.14 (Koreasat 2). More...
  • LEH Helmet American space wear, operational 1981. US Space Shuttle crews on operational flights (STS-5 through Mission 51-L) wore no special protective pressure garments. More...
  • PH-D Proposal American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1981. 1981 Mars orbiter expedition design, using Phobos and Deimos as bases, and using solar electric propulsion. More...
  • Landsat 4-5 American earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1982.07.16 (Landsat 4) to 1984.03.01 (Landsat 5). More...
  • DSCS III American military communications satellite. 15 launches, 1982.10.30 (DSCS III-01) to 2003.08.29 (USA 170). DSCS satellites provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. More...
  • DMSP Block 5D-2 American earth weather satellite. 9 launches, 1982.12.21 (AMS 5) to 1997.04.04 (USA 131). DMSP 5D-2 was the military's sixth generation of weather satellites. More...
  • Industrial Space Facility American manned space station module. Study 1982. In 1982 Space Industries Inc. planned to develop an 'Industrial Space Facility' (ISF), a 'mini space station' that would fly unmanned most of the time but be serviced regularly by the Space Shuttle. More...
  • Space Station Designs - 1982 American manned space station. Study 1982. NASA regarded a permanently manned space station as the next 'logical step' in manned spaceflight after the Space Shuttle entered service in April 1981. More...
  • TLSS/ALSS American pressure suit, tested 1982. Tactical Life Support System. Developed by the USAF and Boeing/Gentex to provide get-me-down protection from 18 km. More...
  • IRAS American infrared astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1983.01.26 (IRAS) and (PIX 2). All-sky survey of astronomical IR bodies. More...
  • TDRS American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1983.04.04 (TDRS 1) to 1995.07.13 (TDRS 7). Satellite communications network, for use by Shuttle and US military satellites. More...
  • Challenger American manned spaceplane. 10 launches, 1983.04.04 (STS-6) to 1986.01.28 (STS-51-L). More...
  • SPAS American military strategic defense satellite. 6 launches, 1983.06.18 (SPAS-01) to 1997.08.07 (CRISTA). More...
  • HILAT American communications satellite. One launch, 1983.06.27. Communications technology tests. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication. More...
  • Spacelab American manned space station module. 20 launches, 1983.11.28 (Spacelab 1) to 1998.04.17 (Neurolab). More...
  • HL-20 American manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The HL-20 was a NASA Langley design for a manned spaceplane as a backup to the space shuttle (in case it was abandoned or grounded) and as a CERV (Crew Emergency Return Vehicle) for the Freedom space station. More...
  • IRT American technology satellite. One launch, 1984.02.03. Deployed from STS 41B 2/5/84. More...
  • LDEF American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1984.04.06. More...
  • AMPTE American earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1984.08.16 (CCE-1) to (Solar Cell Experiment). Charge Composition Explorer; detected tracer ions released into magnetosphere by IRM. More...
  • Discovery American manned spaceplane. 39 launches, 1984.08.30 to 2011.02.24. More...
  • HS 381 American military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1984.08.30 (Syncom IV-2) to 1985.08.27 (Syncom IV-4). The Leasat HS 381 series was developed as a commercial venture to provide dedicated communications services to the U. S. military. More...
  • ERBS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1984.10.05. ERBS was part of the NASA's three-satellite Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), designed to investigate how energy from the Sun is absorbed and re-emitted by the Earth. More...
  • Case for Mars II American manned Mars expedition. Study 1984. The Case for Mars II Mars expedition plan was presented at a conference on 10-14 July 1984. More...
  • Centaur I American space tug. 18 launches, (1984) to (1997). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas I. More...
  • Copper Canyon American manned spaceplane. Study 1984. DARPA program of 1984 that proved the technologies and concept for the X-30 National Aerospace Plane concept. More...
  • JSC Moon Base 1984 American manned lunar base. Study 1984. In 1984 a Johnson Space Center team lad by Barney Roberts took NASA's first look at a return to the moon after the shuttle was in service. More...
  • Lunar Orbit Station American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1984. A variety of lunar orbital way-stations, based on space station components, were studied by NASA in the 1980's. More...
  • Polar Platform American manned space station. Study 1984. In order to increase the Space Station's and Space Shuttle's appeal, NASA tried to involve as many users as possible. More...
  • Rescue Ball American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1984. The Personal Rescue Enclosure (PRE) Rescue Ball was an 86 cm diameter high-tech beach ball for transport of astronauts from a spacecraft in distress to the space shuttle. More...
  • Space Station 1984 American manned space station. Design as of 1984. President Reagan finally approved a space station project for NASA in January 1984. More...
  • Shuttle MMU American space mobility device, tested 1984. The MMU Manned Maneuvering Unit was designed for maneuvering by astronauts untethered from the shuttle. It was used on several satellite retrieval missions in the early 1980's. More...
  • Magnum American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1985.01.24 (USA 8) to 1990.11.15 (USA 67). Shuttle-launched geostationary ELINT satellite model that replaced Rhyolite/Aquacade. More...
  • International Space Station American manned space station. Development from 1994. Assembled in orbit from 1998, with completion expected 2010. In 1987-1993 the Russians successfully assembled and operated the 124-metric ton Mir station. More...
  • Geosat American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1985.03.13. Geosat was a US Navy satellite designed to measure sea surface heights to within 5 cm. More...
  • Intelsat 5A American communications satellite. 6 launches, 1985.03.22 (Intelsat 5A F-10) to 1989.01.27 (Intelsat 5A F-15). The Intelsat 5A series was derived from the Intelsat 5. More...
  • NUSAT American military target satellite. One launch, 1985.04.29. Air traffic control radar calibration. More...
  • Spartan American solar satellite. 8 launches, 1985.06.17 (Spartan 1) to 1998.10.29 (Spartan 201). More...
  • PDP American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1985.07.29. Plasma Diagnostics Package; released by STS 51F 8/1/85, retrieved 8/2/85. More...
  • Atlantis American manned spaceplane. 33 launches, 1985.10.03 to 2011.07.08. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run. More...
  • GLOMR American military store-dump communications satellite. 2 launches, 1985.10.30 (GLOMR; GLOMAR) and 1990.04.05 (USA 55). More...
  • OEX Target American technology satellite. One launch, 1985.11.27. Shuttle autopilot software test target. More...
  • AS 4000 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1985.11.27 (Satcom K2) to 1998.02.04 (Inmarsat 3 F5). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. More...
  • ITV American military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1985.12.13 (USA 13) to (ITV 1 Balloon). Instrumented Target Vehicle - a satellite balloon target for tests of the American F-15 launched ASAT anti-satellite missile. More...
  • AX-5 American space suit, tested 1985. The AX-5 high pressure, zero prebreathe hard suit was developed at NASA Ames Research Center in the 1980s. It achieved mobility through a constant volume, using a hard metal/composite rigid exoskeleton design. More...
  • Dual Keel Space Station - 1985 American manned space station. Study 1985. NASA radically changed its Space Station baseline design in October 1985 following frequent complaints from users and astronauts. More...
  • Lagrangian Interplanetary Shuttle Vehicle American manned Mars expedition. Study 1985. A Lagrangian approach to Mars exploration was proposed in June 1985. This would use the L1 sunward point of equal Earth/Moon/Sun gravity to assemble and refuel a large Interplanetary Shuttle Vehicle spacecraft. More...
  • MK ZPS American space suit, tested 1985. NASA Zero Pre-breathe full pressure Suit developed to preclude the need for denitrogenation prior to EVA. More...
  • NASA-LANL Manned Mars Mission 1985 American manned Mars flyby. Study 1985. Joint Los Alamos/NASA design for a quick Mars flyby mission using hardware planned for development by NASA in the 1990's. More...
  • OTV American space tug. Studied 1985-1989. The Orbital Transfer Vehicle was reusable space tug, powered by Lox/LH2 engines and equipped with an aerobrake allowing it to be returned for refueling and reuse at an orbiting space station. More...
  • SDI American military strategic defense satellite. 18 launches, 1986.09.05 (USA 19) to 1989.03.24 (USA 36). SDIO sensor tests. More...
  • Polar Bear American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.11.14. also known as STP P87-1, a military mission designed to study communications interference caused by solar flares and increased auroral activity. More...
  • NASA ACRV American manned spaceplane. Study 1986. The early Space Station proposals assumed the facility would be equipped with a 'safe haven' where the crew would wait for a rescue Shuttle in case of emergency. More...
  • Pioneering the Space Frontier American manned Mars expedition. Study 1986. In 1984 a National Commission on Space was formed, with ex-NASA Administrator Thomas Paine at its head. More...
  • SEP Tug American space tug. Study 1986. In 1986, Graeme Aston of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory proposed a lunar transportation system based on a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) space tug for ferrying moon base elements and cargo between Earth and lunar orbit. More...
  • Shuttle LES American space suit, operational 1986. After the Challenger disaster, it was decided to provide the crew with pressure suits to be worn during launch and re-entry. More...
  • AHAFS American pressure suit, operational 1987. Advanced High Altitude Flight Suit. High pressure (0.40 bar) full pressure suit developed for the USAF to increase mobility at higher operating pressures. More...
  • Centaur G Prime American space tug. Cancelled 1987. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Centaur for Shuttle payload bay. Cancelled after Challenger disaster on safety grounds. More...
  • DRM 1 Mars Local Rover American manned Mars rover. Study 1987. The local unpressurized rover for the Mars Design Reference Mission was conceptually the same as the Apollo lunar rover. More...
  • Flight Telerobotic Servicer American logistics spacecraft. Study 1987. NASA decided to develop a $288-million Flight Telerobotic Servicer in 1987 after Congress voiced concern about American competitiveness in the field of robotics. More...
  • Outpost on the Moon American manned lunar base. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986. More...
  • OMV American space tug. Cancelled 1987. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) was an important component in NASA's future Space Station plans in the 1980s. More...
  • Ride Report American manned Mars expedition. Study 1987. Former astronaut Sally Ride was asked to head a task force to formulate a new NASA strategic plan in August 1986. More...
  • Zenith Star American military anti-satellite system. Study 1987. In 1987, the Zenith Star prototype space combat satellite prototype, using the Alpha laser, was announced by President Bush. The launch vehicle would be the Barbarian. Zenith Star weighed 39. More...
  • Singleton American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1988.09.05 (USA 32) to 1992.04.25 (USA 81). Signals intelligence satellite; possibly some kind of imaging also done. On-board propulsion boosts spacecraft to 800 km operating orbit. More...
  • Lacrosse American military side-looking radar all-weather surveillance radar satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.12.02. More...
  • ISS Space Telescope American visible astronomy satellite. Study 1988. The Space Station's free-flying unmanned platforms were all deleted in 1987-90 to compensate for the budget cuts. However, some of them may yet be reintroduced in the 21st century. More...
  • Mars Evolution 1988 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988 NASA made four case studies of a rapid response to the threat of a Soviet manned expedition to Mars. More...
  • Mars Expedition 88 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988, in response to a perceived Soviet plan to start a new space race to Mars, NASA made in depth case studies of a rapid US response. More...
  • Phobos Expedition 88 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. Human Expedition to Phobos was one of four in-depth NASA case studies in 1988 in response to a perceived imminent Soviet manned Mars program. More...
  • GPS Block 2 and 2A American navigation satellite. 28 launches, 1989.02.14 (USA 35) to 1997.11.06 (USA 134). The Navstar GPS constellation worked in concert with ground receivers to give precise location information to military and civilian users anywhere in the world. More...
  • HS 393 American communications satellite. 7 launches, 1989.03.06 (JCSAT 1) to 1991.10.29 (Intelsat 6A F-1). Domestic communication. Launching states: Japan, France, USA. At the time, these were the largest commercial spacecraft ever built. More...
  • Magellan American Venus probe. One launch, 1989.05.04. The primary objectives of the Magellan mission were to map the surface of Venus with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and to determine the topographic relief of the planet. More...
  • FS-1300 American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1989.06.05. More...
  • SDS-2 American military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1989.08.08 (USA 40) to 1996.07.03 (USA 125). More...
  • Space Station Freedom American manned space station. Design as of 1988. NASA's first detailed cost assessment for the US space station caused a political uproar in Congress, where many politicians had started to express doubt about the project. More...
  • Galileo American outer planets probe. One launch, 1989.10.18. The Galileo Jupiter orbiter was designed to perform in-depth studies of the giant planet's atmosphere, satellites, and surrounding magnetosphere. More...
  • Galileo Probe American outer planets probe. One launch, 1989.10.18. Jupiter atmospheric probe; deployed from Galileo 7/13/95; entered Jupiter atmosphere 12/7/95. More...
  • COBE American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.11.18. More...
  • 90 Day Study American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. Following the Ride Report, the Bush administration indicated a willingness to support a new manned space initiative after completion of the space station. More...
  • APS American pressure suit, tested 1989. The Advanced Pressure Suit (APS) was a bladder type partial pressure suit designed and developed by Northrop and ILC Dover for the F-23 Advanced Tactical Fighter. More...
  • Centaur G American space tug. 22 launches, (1989) to (1998). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Centaur for Titan 4 More...
  • KE ASAT American military anti-satellite system. Study 1989. In 1989 the US Army began a demonstration/validation program to develop a direct ascent kinetic energy ASAT for US forces. More...
  • Lunar Evolution Base 1989 American manned lunar base. Study 1989. In August 1989 NASA's Office of Exploration completed a two-year, NASA-wide plan for future manned space exploration. More...
  • LOTRAN American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. The LOTRAN (LOcal TRANsportation) two-crew rover was the unpressurized lunar rover intended for local base operations in NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. More...
  • LEV American manned lunar lander. Study 1989. The Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) figured in numerous NASA studies of the 1980's and 1990's. More...
  • Mars Expedition 89 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. The primary objective of the 1989 Mars Expedition case study was to determine how to accomplish a single human expedition to the surface of Mars as early in the 21st century as practical. More...
  • Mars Evolution 1989 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 NASA's Mars Evolution case study examined one approach to develop a permanent, largely self-sufficient Mars outpost with significant scientific research capability. More...
  • MOSAP American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle) was the pressurized lunar rover that was the key to NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. It would greatly extend the range of manned lunar expeditions. More...
  • Mars Cycler American manned Mars flyby. Study 1989. As part of a space infrastructure, it was proposed that four space stations be placed in cyclical orbits. These would allow departures for a six-month journey to Mars every 26 months. More...
  • HS 601 American communications satellite bus. First launch 1990.01.09. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels. More...
  • LACE American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1990.02.14, USA 51. The Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment was part of a dual payload with RME carrying laser defense experiments. More...
  • RME American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1990.02.14, USA 52. The Relay Mirror Experiment (RME) was launched as a dual payload with LACE. More...
  • Misty American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1990.02.28 (USA 53) to 1999.05.22 (USA 144). More...
  • Pegsat American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1990.04.05. Chemical release experiment. More...
  • Stacksat P87-2 American technology satellite. 3 launched, 1990.04.11 (USA 56) to (USA 58). The U. S. military's STACKSAT mission involved the launch of three similar spacecraft, POGS, TEX and SCE. More...
  • HST American visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.04.24. The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to provide a space telescope with an order of magnitude better resolution than ground-based instruments. More...
  • MACSAT American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1990.05.09 (Macsat 1; M-1) and (Macsat 2; M-2). More...
  • NOSS-2 American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 5 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 59) to 1996.05.12 (USA 122). New generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. More...
  • NOSS-2 subsatellite American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 60) to 1991.11.08 (USA 77). More...
  • CRRES American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1990.07.25. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite. Chemical release experiment. More...
  • Blackstar American manned spaceplane. 2006 reports claimed it was flown covertly in the 1990s. More...
  • CRAF American comet probe. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The CRAF spacecraft (Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby) was to have rendezvoused with the Comet Kopff and flown alongside the comet for at least three years. More...
  • Command Control Pressure Suit American space suit. This 1990 concept placed the avionics required for landing open-cockpit lunar landers or operating rovers or other spacecraft within the suit itself. More...
  • Daylight Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. The Daylight Rover was a Boeing concept of 1990, which consisted of two separate pressure vessels. The forward served as the driving station, and the rear served as a storm shelter and EVA airlock. More...
  • Gun-Launched ASAT American military anti-satellite system. Study 1990. One of the applications of the superguns Gerald Bull was designing for Iraq would have been firing of an anti-satellite shell that would have blinded Western spy satellites with a sticky material. More...
  • Ion American space tug. Study 1990. 1970's conceptual design of ion upper stage sized for use in the shuttle. It was nuclear-electric and intended for trans-Jovian planetary missions More...
  • Light Utility Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1990. In 1990, Boeing Advanced Civil Space Systems performed an Advanced Civil Space Systems Piloted Rover Technology Assessment Study, which considered both a large pressurized and a small unpressurized rover. More...
  • Pathfinder American manned spaceplane. Study 2003. Pioneer Rocketplane planned in the late 1990's to produce the Pathfinder aerial propellant transfer spaceplane. More...
  • AS 5000 American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1991.03.02 (Astra 1B) to 1992.06.10 (Intelsat K). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 20 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. More...
  • GRO American gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1991.04.05, Compton Observatory. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the gamma-ray element of NASA's Great Observatories program . More...
  • AFP-675 American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28. US Air Force space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • CRO American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1991.04.28 (CRO-C) to (CRO-A). More...
  • MPEC American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28, USA 70. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • IBSS American satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28. Sensor technology test; retrieved 5/2/91. More...
  • REX American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.29 (REX) and 1996.03.09 (REX-II). The REX satellites were designed to study scintillation effects of the Earth's atmosphere on RF transmissions. More...
  • Losat American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1991.07.07. Test flight of DOD sensors; Low Altitude Satellite Experiment. More...
  • Microsat American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Microsat 1) to (Microsat 7). Satellites used in a DARPA test of an LEO quick-reaction network for global communications. More...
  • Orbcomm American communications technology satellite. 31 launches, 1991.07.17 (Orbcomm-X) to 2008.06.19 (Orbcomm FM36). Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. More...
  • UARS American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1991.09.12. The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite was designed to study the physical and chemical processes occurring in the Earth's upper atmosphere (between 15 and 100 km). More...
  • Centaur II American space tug. 10 launches, (1991) to (1998). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas II. More...
  • Mars Semi-Direct 1991 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. Mars Semi-Direct was a NASA concept bridge between Zubrin's Mars Direct and NASA's Design Reference Mission 1.0. It was essentially a low-cost version of Boeing's STCAEM. More...
  • Mars Direct American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. In 1991 Martin Marietta and NASA Ames (Zubrin, Baker, and Gwynne) proposed 'Mars Direct' - a Mars expedition faster, cheaper, and better than the standard NASA plan. More...
  • Nerva 2/NTR American space tug. Study 2005. Upper stage / space tug - study completed 1991. Late 1980's update of 1960's Nerva design. More...
  • Space Station Fred American manned space station. Design as of 1991. Following the collapse of the Space Station Freedom project, NASA unveiled its new Space Station design in March 1991. More...
  • Star Lite American military anti-satellite system. Study 1991. In 1991 the Star Lite space laser experiment was made public. Star Lite would weigh half that of the previously planned Zenith Star with a launch mass of 16. More...
  • STCAEM Cryogenic AeroBrake American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. The STCAEM cryogenic / aerobrake (CAB) concept was used as the NASA reference vehicle. More...
  • STCAEM SEP American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. The solar electric propulsion (SEP) Mars transfer concept was the only non-nuclear advanced propulsion option in the STCAEM study. More...
  • STCAEM Cryogenic AeroBrake TMIS American space tug. Study 1991. The Trans-Mars Injection Stage (TMIS) consisted of a core unit with four advanced space engines (ASE), avionics and cryogenic propellant tanks, and provision for up to four "strap-on" propellant tank sets. More...
  • STCAEM Cryogenic AeroBrake MTV American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1991. The Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) configuration consisted of a transit habitat sized for four crew, an aerobrake, and a TEl Propulsion system. More...
  • STCAEM MEV American manned Mars lander. Study 1991. The reference Mars Excursion vehicle (MEV) was a manned lander that could transport a crew of four to the surface. More...
  • Synthesis Study American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. On 11 May 1991 President Bush declared that he would support a Space Exploration Initiative program leading to a Mars Landing by 2014. More...
  • Endeavour American manned spaceplane. 25 launches, 1992.05.07 to 2011.05.16. Built as a replacement after the loss of the Challenger; named after the first ship commanded by James Cook. More...
  • EUVE American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1992.06.07. The EUVE Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer mission mapped space in the 70- to 760-angstrom portion of the spectrum and conducted detailed ultraviolet examinations of selected celestial targets. More...
  • SAMPEX American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1992.07.03. More...
  • Topex/Poseidon American earth sea satellite. One launch, 1992.08.10. TOPEX/Poseidon was a co-operative mission between the United States and France designed to provide high-accuracy global sea level measurements. More...
  • Mars Observer American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1992.09.25. Mars Observer was a NASA mission to study the surface, atmosphere, interior and magnetic field of Mars from Martian orbit. More...
  • MSTI American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1992.11.21 (MSTI) to 1996.05.17 (MSTI-3). BMDO technology demonstration; Miniature Seeker Technology Demonstration. More...
  • Improved Crystal American military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1992.11.28. Improved CRYSTAL was an optical reconnaissance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Prime contractor was thought to be Lockheed. More...
  • Centaur IIA American space tug. 48 launches, (1992) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas IIA. More...
  • First Lunar Outpost American manned lunar base. Study 1992. The First Lunar Outpost was a very comprehensive moon base study carried out by NASA's Office of Exploration in 1992. More...
  • HGV American spaceplane. Study 1992. The Hypersonic Glide Vehicle was a USAF project discussed openly in 1987 to 1988, which may have flown as a black project in 1992-1993. More...
  • Mega Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. The Mega Rover was conceived to support a crew of six over thousands of kilometers of traverses. Variants had masses as great as 45 metric tons, exclusive of the descent and landing system. More...
  • NASA Mark III American space suit, tested 1992. The NASA Mark III was an advanced NASA space suit design of the 1990's. More...
  • Pressurized Lunar Rover - Dual Hull American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. An alternate April 1992 USRA study by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University sketched out a design for a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR) using dual hulls. More...
  • PLR American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. A May 1992 USRA study by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University sketched out a design for a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR). More...
  • Rover First American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. Boeing updated their Apollo-era MOLAB pressurized rover concept in 1992. The concept, dubbed "Rover First," was smaller than the traditional pressurized rovers, and did not require a separate landing vehicle. More...
  • CDS American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.02.09, Orbcomm OXP-1. Experimental spacecraft. More...
  • SEDS American tether technology satellite. 4 launches, 1993.03.30 (SEDS 1) to 1994.03.10 (SEDS 2 Deployer). More...
  • ALEXIS American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1993.04.25. ALEXIS was a small spacecraft built for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Its mission was to provide high resolution maps of low-energy astronomical x-ray sources. More...
  • Spacehab American manned space station module. 14 launches, 1993.06.21 (Spacehab SH-01) to 1999.05.27 (Spacehab-DM). Founded by Bob Citron in 1982, Spacehab Inc. was the only entrepreneurial company to successfully develop a commercial manned spaceflight module. More...
  • Radcal American military target satellite. One launch, 1993.06.25. Radar calibration. More...
  • PMG American tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1993.06.26 (PMG) and (PMG). Plasma Motor Generator More...
  • ACTS American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.09.12. NASA experimental communications; Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. More...
  • Landsat 6 American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1993.10.05. Landsat 6 was designed to continue the Landsat program and carried an improved suite of instruments. More...
  • AS 7000 American communications satellite. 13 launches, 1993.12.16 (Telstar 401) to 1998.06.18 (Intelsat 805). 3-axis stabilized. Two large solar panels with 1-axis articulation. More...
  • Black Colt American manned spaceplane. Study 1993. Winged, first stage of a launch vehicle using aerial refueling and existing engines. More...
  • Crew Lander Reference Version 1 American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The first version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander. More...
  • Cargo Lander Reference Version 3 American manned Mars lander. Study 1993. The second version of the NASA Cargo Lander for the design reference mission 3.0 was similar in concept to the first but mass was reduced nearly 30% by a thorough study and scrub of each element. More...
  • Early Lunar Access American manned lunar base. Study 1993. Early Lunar Access (ELA) was a "cheaperfasterbetter" manned lunar mission study, carried out by General Dynamics in 1992-93. More...
  • F-22 PPS American pressure suit, operational 1993. Partial pressure suit development for F-22 Aircraft. Get-me-down partial pressure ensemble combining Mask/Vest/uniform pressure anti-G garment for protection to 18 km. More...
  • ISS MPLM American manned space station reusable supply module. Launched and returned to earth, 2001-2011. When the International Space Station (ISS) was redesigned again in 1993, it was decided to expand the original Mini-Pressurized Logistics Module design. More...
  • ISS EMU American space suit, operational 1993. Upgraded version of the Shuttle EMU with improved sizing and mobility, 25 EVA certification, Hamilton Standard and ILC Dover. More...
  • Lunox American manned lunar base. Study 1993. The NASA/JSC LUNOX proposal of 1993 tried to reduce the cost of maintaining a First Lunar Outpost by producing liquid oxygen propellant for the return to Earth from lunar soil. More...
  • Space Station Options 1993 American manned space station. Study 1993. Following the collapse of Space Station Fred, NASA quickly formed a Space Station redesign team which identified three major redesign options in April 1993.... More...
  • Clementine American lunar orbiter. One launch, 1994.01.25. Clementine was jointly sponsored by BMDO and NASA as the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE). More...
  • ISAS Interstage Adapter Subsystem, consisting of the STAR-37M solid rocket motor, the Interstage Adapter for Clementine, and radiation detectors. It transmitted radiation data on the Van Allen Radiation belts for three months. American military technology satellite. One launch, 1994.01.25. More...
  • ODERACS American military target satellite. 12 launches, 1994.02.03 (ODERACS A) to 1995.02.03 (ODERACS IIF). Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres were small, low-earth orbiting calibration targets for ground based radar and optical systems. More...
  • Milstar American military communications satellite. 6 launches, 1994.02.07 (USA 99) to 2003.04.08 (USA 169). Milstar was a series of advanced US military communications satellites designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for military users. More...
  • DARPASAT American technology satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 102. GPS receiver and data processor technology tests. More...
  • TAOS American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 101. TAOS was a technology demonstration satellite whose purpose was to demonstrate autonomous space navigation systems to reduce satellite ground support needs. More...
  • GOES-Next American earth weather satellite. 3 launches, 1994.04.13 (GOES 8) to 1997.04.25 (GOES 10). Geostationary Environmental Satellite. More...
  • Trumpet American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1994.05.03 (USA 103) to 1997.11.08 (USA 136). More...
  • Eagle American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1994.05.19 (STEP 2 (SIDEX)) to 1997.10.22 (STEP-4). More...
  • Clark American earth atmosphere satellite. Cancelled in 1998 when overruns had reached 20% of original price and no end to development was in sight. More...
  • APEX American technology satellite. One launch, 1994.08.03, P90-6 APEX. More...
  • HS 376W American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1994.08.10 (Brasilsat B1) to 2000.08.17 (Brasilsat B-4). Based on Hughes HS-376, single antenna on despun platform, spin stabilized, hydrazine thrusters, body mounted solar cells provide 982 W BOL. More...
  • Mercury ELINT American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1994.08.27 (USA 105) to 1998.08.12 (Mercury ELINT). Class of heavy signals intelligence satellites introduced at the end of the 1990's. More...
  • Wind American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1994.11.01. Wind was designed to provide continuous measurement of the solar wind, particularly charged particles and magnetic field data. More...
  • Black Horse American manned spaceplane. Study 1994. Winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling and lower performance, non-cryogenic propellants. More...
  • FAISAT American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1995.01.24 (FAISAT) and 1997.09.23 (FAISAT-2V). Store/forward communications. More...
  • Microstar American communications technology satellite. 22 launches, 1995.04.03 (Orbcomm F1) to 2008.10.19 (Formosat 3F). Small satellite bus, specially designed for multiple launch by Pegasus or Taurus family launch vehicles. More...
  • Advanced Orion American military naval signals intelligence and reconnaisance satellite. Highly classified, operational, first launch 1995.05.14. More...
  • STEP American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.06.22 (STEP 3) and 2000.06.07 (TSX 5). More...
  • GemStar American communications satellite. One launch, 1995.08.15. Global Electronic Messaging Satellite. More...
  • WSF American materials science satellite. 2 launches, 1995.09.07 (WSF 2) and 1996.11.19 (WSF). Wake Shield Facility; released and later retrieved by the Shuttle in a single mission; semiconductor materials research. More...
  • Meteor (USA) American earth weather satellite. One launch, 1995.10.23, Meteor RV. Meteor commercial microgravity recoverable spacecraft built by EER Systems. Destroyed in failure of first test flight of Conestoga commercial launch vehicle. More...
  • SURFSAT-1 American technology satellite. One launch, 1995.11.04, SURFSAT. SURFSAT-1 was a small satellite built by undergraduate college students and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to support experiments by NASA's Deep Space Network. More...
  • XTE American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1995.12.30. X-ray Timing Explorer; X-ray astronomy. More...
  • ACES American space suit, operational 1995. The Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) replaced the Launch/Entry Suit (LES) from 1995 on. The ACES fulfilled the same functions as the LES. More...
  • DC-Y American manned spacecraft. Study 1995. The ultimate goal of the Delta Clipper program, a prototype reusable single-stage to orbit, vertical takeoff/vertical landing space truck. The DC-I Delta Clipper would be the full production version. More...
  • HERTF American military anti-satellite system. Study 1995. More...
  • Ratler American earth rover. Tested 1995. Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover demonstrated the use of existing technology for lunar exploration missions. More...
  • OAST-Flyer American technology satellite. One launch, 1996.01.11. GPS receiver, amateur radio tests; examined effect of solar radiation on satellite explosive devices; deployed from STS 72 1/14/96; retrieved 1/16/96. More...
  • NEAR American asteroid probe. One launch, 1996.02.17. NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) was the first spacecraft ever to orbit and then (improvisationally) land on an asteroid. More...
  • Polar American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.02.24. Polar was designed to measure the entry, energization, and transport of plasma into the magnetosphere as part of the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP). More...
  • MSX American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1996.04.24. More...
  • TiPS American tether technology satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.12 (USA 123) to 1998.10.03 (USA 141). The 53 kg satellite consisted of 2 end masses connected by a 4 km tether. NRO (the National Reconnaissance Office) provided funding for the TiPS project. More...
  • IAE American technology satellite. One launch, 1996.05.19. Deployed from Spartan 207 5/20/96; test of inflatable antenna technology. Reentered May 22. More...
  • PAMS American technology satellite. One launch, 1996.05.19. Passive attitude control technology test. Deployed from shuttle STS-77 on 5/22/96; Re-entered Oct 26. More...
  • TOMS-EP American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.07.02. More...
  • FAST American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.08.21. FAST was designed to observe and measure rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields and the flow of electrons and ions above the aurora. More...
  • AS 2100 American communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1996.09.08 (GE 1). Cost per satellite $100 million for the spacecraft including ground support equipment, but not including launch costs. 3-axis stabilized. More...
  • HETE American gamma ray astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1996.11.04 (HETE) and 2000.10.09 (HETE-2). The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was an international mission led by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). More...
  • Mars Global Surveyor American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1996.11.07. Mars Global Surveyor was a polar orbiting spacecraft designed to monitor Martian global weather and provide comprehensive maps of surface topography and the distribution of minerals. More...
  • ORFEUS American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1996.11.19. ORFEUS was a German astronomical satellite. It was deployed by the shuttle remote manipulating system arm and retrieved after six days of free flight. More...
  • Mars Pathfinder American Mars rover. 3 launches, 1996.12.04 (Mars Pathfinder) to (Mars Pathfinder). Mars lander with surface rover. Landed a mini-rover to the Mars surface. Test of airbag and rover technologies. First successful Mars landing mission since Viking. More...
  • Athena American manned Mars flyby. Study 1996. In 1996 Robert Zubrin proposed a new version of a manned Mars flyby mission, dubbed Athena. More...
  • Crew Lander Reference Version 3 American manned Mars lander. Study 1996. The second version of the NASA Crew Lander for the design reference mission would land the crew and a Mars surface habitat on the surface near the previously-landed cargo lander. More...
  • Design Reference Mission 3 American manned Mars expedition. Study 1996. This July 1997 DRM was a subscale version of the original, with a scrub of the original payloads to reduce mass wherever possible. More...
  • Space Laser Demo American military anti-satellite system. Study 1996. By 1996 the Star Lite space laser was replaced by the more refined and slightly heavier SLD (Space Laser Demo), weighing 17.4 metric tons). Two versions of the 20 meter long spacecraft were envisioned. More...
  • Space Based Laser American military anti-satellite system. Study 1996. The Operational SBLOV (Space Based Laser Orbital Vehicle) was the final space based chemical laser system envisioned at the end of the SDI / Star Wars program. More...
  • GPS Block 2R American navigation satellite. 21 launches, 1997.01.17 (USA 132) to 2009-08-17. Launches began in 1997 of 'GPS-IIR' replenishment satellites, produced by General Electric Astrospace (later acquired by Lockheed Missiles & Space). More...
  • CPAC American burial satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21, Celestis. More...
  • Minisat American technology satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21. The Minisat spacecraft were built for the Spanish space Agency by CASA. More...
  • LM 700 American communications satellite. 98 launches, 1997.05.05 (Iridium 8) to 2002.06.20 (Iridium SV98 ). The LM 700 had its first use in the Iridium system, a commercial communications network comprised of a minimum of 66 LEO spacecraft. More...
  • Orbview-2 American civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 1997.08.01. The SeaStar satellite carries the SeaWiFS instrument which was designed to monitor the color of the world's oceans. More...
  • Lewis American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1997.08.23. Lewis was selected in the NASA SSTI (Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative) program, along with Clark, to demonstrate advanced spacecraft technologies. More...
  • ACE American solar satellite. One launch, 1997.08.25. More...
  • FORTE American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.08.29. FORTE - 'Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events' - was a US Los Alamos National Laboratory satellite designed to study natural and artificial radio emissions from the ionosphere. More...
  • Cassini American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1997.10.15 (Cassini) and (Huygens). The Cassini spacecraft was a scientific platform designed to perform an in-depth study of the Saturnian system. More...
  • Falcon Gold American navigation technology satellite. One launch, 1997.10.25. US Air Force Academy experiment to demonstrate use of GPS navigation in geosynchronous orbit. More...
  • Star bus American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 1997.11.12 (Cakrawarta 1). The Orbital Star bus was designed for reliable and robust performance in a variety of LEO and GEO missions. More...
  • AERCam American logistics spacecraft. 2 launches, 1997.11.19 (AERCam/Sprint) and (AERCam/Sprint). Remotely guided maneuvering spacecraft to be released and later retrieved from Shuttle or ISS. Purpose: examination of external surface of space vehicles. More...
  • TRMM American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.11.27. TRMM was an international mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall. More...
  • Early Bird American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.12.24 (Early Bird) and 2000.11.20 (QuickBird 1). Civilian earth resources / intelligence photo-imaging program. More...
  • DRM 1 Mars Rover - Pressurized American manned Mars rover. Study 1997. Hoffman and Kaplan proposed a large pressurized rover for long duration exploration sorties on Mars as a part of the Mars Design Reference Mission study. More...
  • HL-42 American manned spaceplane. Study 1997. The HL-42 was a reusable, lifting body manned spacecraft designed to be placed into low-Earth orbit by an expendable booster. More...
  • LANTR Moon Base American manned lunar base. Study 1997. Liquid oxygen mined from the moon combined with a LOX-Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket earth-to-moon shuttle to achieve dramatic reductions in launch requirements for a lunar base. More...
  • Odyssey American communications satellite network. Operations were planned in 1997 to begin by the end of 1998. However in the event the entire enterprise was cancelled when the dot-com / MEO satellite bubble burst. More...
  • X-43 American spaceplane. Study 1997. NASA's X-43 Hyper-X program demonstrated an integrated hypersonic scramjet engine briefly at Mach 10 on its third and final flight. More...
  • CAPRICORN American military communications satellite. One launch, 1998.01.29, USA 137. There was no firm information on this classified satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office. More...
  • LB-X American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Kelly Space & Technology, San Bernardino, California. More...
  • GFO American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1998.02.10. GFO was a follow-on to the successful GEOSAT program which flew between 1985 and 1990. GFO was to provide real-time ocean topography data to 65 Navy users at sea and on shore. More...
  • Celestis American burial satellite. 4 launches, 1998.02.10 (Celestis-02) to 2008.08.03 (Celestis-4). Celestis offers the loved ones of the space-smitten deceases the opportunity to have (a portion) of their cremains put into orbit. More...
  • Globalstar American communications satellite. 72 launches, 1998.02.14 (Globalstar FM1) to 2007.10.20 (Globalstar D). The Globalstar constellation was a Medium Earth Orbit system for mobile voice and data communications. More...
  • SNOE American technology satellite. One launch, 1998.02.26. More...
  • Teledesic American communications satellite. One launch, 1998.02.26. The Teledesic system was announced in 2004, and was to have provided global communication links via a constellation of 288 LEO spacecraft. More...
  • TRACE American solar satellite. One launch, 1998.04.02. TRACE, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope for studies of the sun. Lockheed was the lead contractor while the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory made the telescope mirrors. More...
  • STEX American tether technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.03. STEX's (Space Technology EXperiments) main equipment was provided by the Naval Research Laboratory. More...
  • Deep Space 1 American asteroid probe. One launch, 1998.10.24. Deep Space 1 (DS1) was a primarily a technology demonstration probe powered by an ion engine, although the spacecraft also flew by asteroid and cometary targets. More...
  • SEDSAT American technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.24. The SEDSAT micro-satellite was built by the Huntsville, Alabama chapter of SEDS (the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space). More...
  • ISS Unity American manned space station. One launch, 1998.10.29, Unity. Unity was the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station. More...
  • SWAS American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1998.12.06. SWAS, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz submillimeter receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer. More...
  • MCO American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1998.12.11, Mars Climate Orbiter. The Mars Climate Orbiter was to have accomplished mapping and weather studies of Mars and served as a relay for data from the Mars Polar Lander. More...
  • Combo Lander Mission American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. During the spring of 1998, NASA conducted a special study to design a human Mars mission that could be accommodated for launch by three heavy-lift launch vehicles. More...
  • Centaur B-X American space tug. Study 2000. Upper stage / space tug - in development 1998, not put into production. More...
  • Centaur C-X American space tug. Study 2001. Upper stage / space tug - in development 1998, not put into production. More...
  • D-1 American space suit, operational 1998. The D-1 (S1035X) space suit assembly was developed to provide a functional all-soft suit technology demonstrator prototype model to be used for mobility system testing and evaluation. More...
  • Design Reference Mission 4 SEP American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. In 1998 NASA Lewis studied a Solar Electric Transfer Vehicle for use in a Mars Expedition. This would never leave earth orbit yet provide most of the delta-V to send a spacecraft toward Mars. More...
  • Design Reference Mission 4 NTR American manned Mars expedition. Study 1998. The design reference mission 4.0 took into account all of the changes in payload masses as a result of further study of individual elements. More...
  • M-Suit American space suit, tested 1998. In the fall of 1998, two soft suit prototypes were delivered to NASA by two companies, ILC Dover and David Clark. ILC Dover's M-Suit operated at a pressure of 0.26 atmospheres and weighed 30 kg. More...
  • Nomad American earth rover. Study 1998. NOMAD was an unmanned rover developed by the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University to evaluate and demonstrate a robot capable of long distance and long duration planetary exploration. More...
  • Transhab Module American manned space station module. Cancelled 1998. Cost overruns soon forced NASA to consider other options for the International Space Station's habitation module. The space agency originally intended to use the same 8. More...
  • Mars Polar Lander American Mars lander. One launch, 1999.01.03. The Mars Polar Lander had the mission of studying Martian volatiles (frozen water and carbon dioxide) and climate history. The Martian polar regions were the best places to conduct these studies. More...
  • Stardust American comet probe. One launch, 1999.02.07. Stardust was scheduled to encounter comet Wild-2 early in 2004 and collect samples of cometary dust and volatiles while flying through the coma at a distance of 100 km on the sunlit side of the nucleus. More...
  • ARGOS American ion engine technology satellite. One launch, 1999.02.23. ARGOS was the USAF Space Test Program P91-1 technology satellite by Boeing/Seal Beach. More...
  • WIRE American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.03.05. WIRE was designed to survey the celestial sky in the infrared bands and build on the results of the IRAS mission. More...
  • Landsat 7 American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1999.04.15. More...
  • Ikonos American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.27 (Ikonos 1) and 1999.09.24 (Ikonos). The first high resolution commercial imaging satellite. More...
  • TERRIERS American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1999.05.18. More...
  • Starshine American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.05.27 (Starshine) and 2001.09.30 (Starshine 3). The small Starshine satellite, built by NRL, was to be observed by students as part of an educational exercise. More...
  • QuikScat American earth sea satellite. One launch, 1999.06.20. Built under a NASA rapid delivery contract. Carried the SeaWinds scatterometer for remote sensing of ocean winds. More...
  • FUSE American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.06.24. FUSE carried four 0.35m far ultraviolet telescopes each with an ultraviolet high resolution spectrograph. More...
  • Chandra American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.07.23. More...
  • DMSP Block 5D-3 American earth weather satellite. 4 launches, 1999.12.12 (USA 147) to 2009-10-18. Military spacecraft similar in design to the civilian NOAA weather satellites. More...
  • Terra American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1999.12.18. NASA's Terra satellite (originally known as Earth Observing System EOS AM-1) was the first spacecraft in the EOS program. More...
  • ACRIMSAT American solar satellite. One launch, 1999.12.21. The NASA ACRIMSAT satellite was managed by JPL, and measured the integrated solar energy output from 0.2 to 2 microns. ACRIMSAT was built by Orbital Sciences. More...
  • HS 702 American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launched 1999.12.22. More...
  • Dual Lander Mission American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. After some discussion within NASA, in the Combo Lander mission was found to be too lean. More...
  • ICAN American space tug. Antimatter-powered nuclear pulse spacecraft designed by Pennsylvania State University. More...
  • Lunar Polar Rover American manned lunar rover. Study 1999. Pressurized rover concept for a hypothetical lunar polar mission. More...
  • Mars Society Mission American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. In 1999 the Mars Society, noting certain defects in NASA's Design Reference Mission, requested California Institute of Technology to develop an alternative scenario to meet these concerns. More...
  • JAWSAT American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. The JAWSAT/FalconSat payloads are being developed as a joint effort between the Air Force Academy and Weber State University. More...
  • JAK American technology satellite, launched, 2000.01.27. Three picosatellites (JAK, Thelma, and Louise), developed by the Artemis team of women undergraduates at Santa Clara University, were deployed from the OPAL satellite. More...
  • STENSAT American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Picosat built by built by the AMSAT-NA (Amateur Satellite, North America) group, and carried an amateur radio transponder. More...
  • ASUSAT American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Arizona State University satellite with an Earth imager and an amateur radio transponder. More...
  • MEMS American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 2000.01.27 (Picosat 1) to (Picosat 2). DARPA/Aerospace Corp. MEMS (Micro Electro-mechanical Systems) were 0. More...
  • OCSE American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Optical Calibration Sphere Experiment, a 3.5m diameter inflatable sphere built by L'Garde Inc. for calibrating the lasers at the AFRL Starfire Optical Range. More...
  • FalconSat American technology satellite. 3 launches, 2000.01.27 (Falconsat) to 2007.03.09 (Falconsat-3). The JAWSAT/FalconSat payloads were developed as a joint effort between the Air Force Academy and Weber State University. More...
  • OPAL American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Stanford University Orbiting Picosat Automated Launcher. More...
  • MTI American military surveillance satellite. One launch, 2000.03.12. The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) was a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U. More...
  • IMAGE American solar satellite. One launch, 2000.03.25. The IMAGE spacecraft imaged remote particle populations in the magnetosphere. More...
  • SA-200 The Spectrum Astro SA-200 satellite bus provided a flexible platform for satellites launched by the Pegasus booster. 4 launches, 2000.07.19 (Mightysat 2.1) to 2009.05.05. More...
  • EO-1 American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2000.11.21. The Earth Orbiter 1 satellite was part of NASA's New Millennium Program. More...
  • SDS-3 American military communications satellite, provided data relay services for optical reconnaissance and other military spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2000.12.06. More...
  • Centaur IIIA American space tug. One launch, , 2000. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Single-engine Centaur for Atlas IIIA. More...
  • Habot American manned lunar rover. Study 2000. The Habot (Habitat Robot) modules would land on six articulated legs, which also provided the locomotion. These walking modules could operate autonomously or in a teleoperation mode. More...
  • Roton American manned spacecraft. Study 2000. The Roton was a piloted commercial space vehicle design intended to provide rapid and routine access to orbit for both its two-person crew and their cargo. More...
  • X-37 American unmanned spaceplane. The Boeing X-37 Space Maneuver Vehicle began as a subscale version of a proposed USAF manned 21st Century spaceplane. The smaller-scale X-40 tested some technologies prior to completion of the X-37A. The X-37B was the operational reusable space vehicle. Operational, first launch 2010.04.22. More...
  • Mars Odyssey American Mars orbiter. One launch, 2001.04.07, 2001 Mars Odyssey. Mars Odyssey had the primary science mission of mapping the amount and distribution of chemical elements and minerals that make up the Martian surface. More...
  • GeoLITE American military communications satellite. One launch, 2001.05.18, USA 158. GeoLITE was a TRW T-310 class satellite with a mass of about 1800 kg, including a solid apogee motor. More...
  • MAP American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.06.30. NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe was placed at the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrangian point 1. More...
  • Genesis American solar satellite. One launch, 2001.08.08. Genesis was part of NASA's Discovery program. Its objective was to fly to the Earth-Sun L1 point and spend two years collecting samples of the solar wind. More...
  • Simplesat American visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.08.20. Simplesat was intended to test methods for building cheap astronomical satellites and controlling them from a inexpensive ground stations. More...
  • Picosat American tether technology satellite. One launch, 2001.09.07. Picosat 7/Picosat 8 were ejected from the Mightysat II.1 satellite. The 0.25 kg satellites were connected by a 30 m tether and were deployed a year after launch. More...
  • NOSS-3 American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Operational, first launch 2001.09.08. More...
  • SBD American technology satellite. One launch, 2001.09.21. SBD, the Orbital Corporation Special Bus Design, was a 73 kg test version of an enlarged Microstar bus. More...
  • Orbview American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 2001.09.21 (Orbview-4) and 2003.06.26 (Orbview 3). More...
  • Sapphire American technology satellite. One launch, 2001.09.30. SAPPHIRE (a US DoD-funded microsatellite) was built by Stanford University students and carried experimental infrared horizon sensors, a voice synthesizer and a digital camera. More...
  • QuickBird American civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 2001.10.18. The QuickBird commercial imaging satellite was owned by DigitalGlobe (formerly EarthWatch) and used a Ball BCP2000 bus with a launch mass of 1028 kg and a dry mass of about 995 kg. More...
  • TIMED American solar satellite. One launch, 2001.12.07. TIMED was the first NASA Solar Terrestrial Probe, operated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab to study the thermosphere, mesosphere and lower ionosphere. More...
  • Bio-Suit American space suit, study of 2001. Novel approach that used biomedical breakthroughs in skin replacement and materials to replace the bulky conventional balloon spacesuit with a second skin approach. More...
  • Centaur V2 American space tug. Study 2001. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Twin engined Centaur for Atlas V, powered by two Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2 turbopump-fed engines burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. More...
  • Delta 4H - 2 American space tug. Study 2001. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Delta 4 second stage with hydrogen tank increased to 5.1 m diameter. More...
  • ISS Quest Joint Airlock American manned space station module. One launch, 2001.07.12. The Quest Joint Airlock was delivered to the ISS by STS-104 and installed onto the Unity module. More...
  • ISS Destiny American manned space station module. Launched 2001. American ISS module, a cylindrical structure that functioned as a science and technology module and the primary control module for the ISS. More...
  • Orion LAS American manned spacecraft module. Orion launch abort system; consists of launch escape tower, adapter cone, and boost protective cover. Provides emergency crew escape during early boost phase of ascent to orbit. More...
  • X-40 American spaceplane. Study 2001. Boeing X-40A Experimental Space Maneuver Vehicle was built to test landing technologies for the later X-37. More...
  • HESSI American solar satellite. One launch, 2002.02.05. HESSI, the sixth Small Explorer, was a Spectrum Astro satellite derived from the SA-200S design. It carried a rotating modulation collimator transform telescope. More...
  • GRACE American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launched, 2002.03.17 (GRACE 1 ) and (GRACE 2 ). The GRACE mission was to accurately map variations in the Earth's gravity field over its 5-year lifetime. More...
  • Aqua American earth sea satellite. One launch, 2002.05.04. Aqua was also designated the EOS-PM Earth Observing System satellite, joining EOS-AM/Terra. The CERES and MODIS instruments aboard Aqua were also carried on the Terra satellite. More...
  • WST American visible astronomy satellite. Study 2002. 6 m deep space telescope slated to replace the Hubble Space Telescope from 2010. More...
  • Black Armadillo American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Armadillo Aerospace, Mesquite, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. More...
  • MEPSI American tether technology satellite. One launch, 2002.11.24. MEPSI (Micro-Electromechanical-based Picosat Satellite Inspection Experiment) consisted of two 1 kg boxes attached to each other by a 15-m tether. More...
  • AprizeSat American civilian store-dump communications satellite. 6 launches, 2002.12.20 (LatinSat 1) to 2009.07.29. Aprize's satellites were miniature spacecraft designed and optimized for data relay with very low power consumption. More...
  • Astroliner American manned rocketplane. Study 2002. The Kelly Space & Technology Astroliner Space Launch System was a two-stage-to-orbit, towed space launch concept. More...
  • Centaur V1 American space tug. One launch, , 2002. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Single engined Centaur for Atlas V, powered by one Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2 turbopump-fed engines burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. More...
  • Centaur IIIB American space tug. One launch, , 2002. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Dual-engine Centaur for Atlas IIIB. More...
  • Delta 4 - 2 American space tug. One launch, , 2002. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Delta 3 second stage with hydrogen tank stretch. More...
  • NEAP American asteroid probe. Study 2002. Near Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP) was SpaceDev's first conceived commercial deep-space mission. The mission was planned as the first deep-space mission defined and executed by a non-governmental entity. More...
  • CHIPSat American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.01.13. NASA's Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) mission used the CHIPSat bus. More...
  • ICESat American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2003.01.13. More...
  • SORCE American solar satellite. One launch, 2003.01.25. More...
  • XSS American rendezvous technology satellite. 2 launches, 2003.01.29 (XSS-10) and 2005.04.11 (USA 165). More...
  • Galex American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.04.28. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) was an orbiting space telescope that was to observe galaxies in ultraviolet wavelengths. More...
  • SpaceShipOne American manned spaceplane. 14 launches, 2003.05.20 to 2004.05.13 . X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Scaled Composites, Mojave, California. More...
  • MER American Mars lander. 2 launches, 2003.06.10 (Spirit (Mars Exploration Rover A, MER-2)) to 2003.07.08 (Opportunity (Mars Exploration Rover B, MER-1)). NASA's rover mission design for the 2003 Mars launch opportunity. More...
  • Mayflower American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital seaplane-spacecraft of Advent Launch Services of Houston, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003. More...
  • Cubesat American low-cost nanosatellite bus. Used in dozens of launches, the first on 2003.06.30. More...
  • SIRTF American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.08.25. The SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) was planned as a 1 meter class, cryogenically cooled space telescope to be operated as an observatory for infrared astronomy. More...
  • Eagle X-Prize American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Vanguard Spacecraft of Bridgewater, Massachusetts. More...
  • Crusader X American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Micro-Space, Inc of Denver, Colorado. More...
  • MoTV American space tug. Study 2003. SpaceDev design for a low-cost, restartable hybrid propulsion space tug or upper stage. More...
  • SpaceDev ILO American radio astronomy satellite. Study 2003. Unmanned lunar radio astronomy observatory concept, designed to be landed on the South Pole. More...
  • Gravity Probe-B American earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 2004.04.20, Gravity Probe B. Gravity Probe B was an experiment developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. More...
  • Amsat Echo American military communications satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29. More...
  • Aura American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2004.07.15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura was a NASA mission to study the Earth's ozone, air quality and climate. More...
  • Messenger American Mercury probe. One launch, 2004.08.03. NASA probe, launched in 2004 with the challenging mission of comprehensively mapping Mercury from orbit between March 2011 and March 2012. More...
  • Swift American gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2004.11.20. Swift was a first-of-its-kind multi-wavelength observatory dedicated to the study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science. More...
  • 3CSat American technology satellite. 2 launched, 2004.12.21. The Three-Corner Sat mission was to obtain stereo images of clouds and test artificial intelligence software. More...
  • Aurora X-Prize American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Fundamental Technology Systems, Orlando, Florida. More...
  • Cosmos Mariner American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Lone Star Space Access, Houston, Texas. More...
  • Kitten American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital rocketplane concept of Kittyhawk of Oroville, Washington. More...
  • Lucky Seven American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Acceleration Engineering, Bath, Michigan. More...
  • Liberator American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of HARC, Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Morphlab American manned lunar rover. Study 2004. Morphlab (Modular Roving Planetary Habitat, Laboratory, and Base) was a lunar exploration system proposed by the University of Maryland. More...
  • Michelle-B American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of TGV Rockets, Bethesda, Maryland. As of 2005, flight testing of the Michelle-B was expected to begin no earlier than 2007. More...
  • Pioneer XP American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Pioneer Rocketplane, Solvang, California. No backing forthcoming. More...
  • Rubicon American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of STC. More...
  • SabreRocket American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Panaero, Fairfax, Virginia. It envisioned conversion of a Sabre-40 business jet to rocket power. More...
  • Solaris X American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Interorbital Systems of Mojave, California. More...
  • The Space Tourist American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital flying saucer concept of Discraft Corporation of Portland, Oregon. More...
  • The Spirit of Liberty American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of American Astronautics Corporation, Oceanside, California. More...
  • Deep Impact American comet probe. One launch, 2005.01.12. Studied interior composition of Comet Tempel 1. The flyby spacecraft carried a smaller impactor which it released, allowing it to study the plume from the collision with the comet on 2005.07.04. More...
  • DART American rendezvous technology satellite. One launch, 2005.04.15. Autonomous Rendezvous Technology mission, planned to guide itself to within a few meters of a US satellite. More...
  • Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter American Mars orbiter. One launch, 2005.08.12. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was the first spacecraft designed from the beginning for aerobraking to place it into the desired orbit around Mars. More...
  • USA 185 American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 2005.09.23. Classified research satellite, said to carry instruments to characterise the space environment in a sun-synchronous orbit. More...
  • Athlete American lunar rover. Study 2005. Athlete was a Habot-inspired mobility system for doing cargo handling, assembly, maintenance, and servicing tasks on the moon. Each of the six limbs had a 6-degree-of-freedom manipulator with a wheel at the end. More...
  • Apex RV American logistics spacecraft. Study 2005. Spacehab's Apex design provided a family of launcher-neutral maneuverable spacecraft that could be used for resupply of the ISS and return of payloads to earth. More...
  • CEV Spacehab American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The final Spacehab CEV concept was a three-module spacecraft using a slightly enlarged Apollo command module for return of the crew to earth. More...
  • CEV Andrews MM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV mission module provided a pressurized cabin for use by the crew while in transit from the moon to the earth. More...
  • CEV Spacehab SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Support Module (SM) could provide 2.3 km/s delta-V, enough for lunar orbit insertion and trans-earth injection. It also was the primary source for electrical power during the mission. More...
  • CEV Andrews RM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV Re-entry Module would be reusable and normally accommodate four crew. Six could be fitted in for the space-station ferry role. More...
  • CEV Spacehab SHM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Stowage/Habitation Module (SHM) provided generous living space for the crew during cislunar transit. More...
  • CEV Spacehab CM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. A 10% enlargement of the Apollo capsule, this re-entry vehicle provided the minimum volume for four crew to make re-entry from lunar distances. More...
  • CEV Andrews American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. The Andrews Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) design adopted NASA's preferred Apollo CM re-entry vehicle shape, but combined it with a mission module crew cabin to minimize the CEV's mass. More...
  • CEV Andrews OTV American manned spacecraft module. Study 2005. The Andrews CEV used a standard Orbital Transfer Vehicle for propulsion in low earth orbit or lunar transfer operations. More...
  • GPS Block 2F American navigation satellite. Study 2005. Block IIF satellites were the planned fourth generation of the Navstar satellite. Launched 2010.05.28, More...
  • Orion American manned spacecraft. In development. NASA's Crew Excursion Vehicle for the 21st Century More...
  • Tier Two American manned spacecraft. Study 2005. After the successful win of the X-Prize for the first suborbital flight by Burt Rutan's Tier One / SpaceShipOne, the designer hinted a follow-on orbital spacecraft was being designed. More...
  • New Horizons American outer planets probe. One launch, 2006.01.19. New Horizons was the first spacecraft targeted on Pluto, the last unvisited body of the nine original planets known at the beginning of the space age. Pluto Flyby. More...
  • ST5 American technology satellite. 3 launched, 2006.03.22 (ST5-A) to (ST5-C). More...
  • Cloudsat American earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.04.28. More...
  • Calipso American earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.04.28. More...
  • Mitex American military anti-satellite system. 3 launched, 2006.06.21 (USA 187) to (USA 189). More...
  • Jumpseat-2 American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 2 launches, 2006.06.25 (USA 200) to 2008.03.13 (USA 200). More...
  • Genesis Pathfinder American technology satellite. 2 launches, 2006.07.12 (Genesis 1) to 2007.06.28 (Genesis 2). One third scale version of the Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module. More...
  • Stereo American solar satellite. 2 launched, 2006.10.26 (Stereo Ahead) and (Stereo Behind). More...
  • New Shepard American manned spacecraft. Flight tests begun 2006. Vertical takeoff/vertical landing suborbital tourist spacecraft being developed by Blue Origin and scheduled to begin commercial operation in 2010. More...
  • USA 193 American military technology satellite. One launch, 2006.12.14, US shoots down failed USA 193 satellite.. Classifed NRO mission of uncertain objectives, possibly military observation with a mixed payload. More...
  • Genesat American biology satellite. One launch, 2006.12.16. Genesat was a NASA Ames nanosatellite launched as a secondary payload. More...
  • CEV SM American manned spacecraft module. Study 2006. The Service Module of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle provided basic consumables, control systems, and sufficient delta-V for return of the CEV from lunar orbit to the earth. More...
  • CEV American manned spacecraft. Study 2006. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was NASA's planned manned spacecraft intended to carry human crews from Earth into space and back again from 2012 on. More...
  • Guardian American technology satellite. Cancelled 2006. 45% scale version of the Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module, designed to prove the ECS system. More...
  • Venturestar American manned spaceplane. Study 2006. Production reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle using technology developed in X-33 testbed. More...
  • Themis American earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launched, 2007.02.17. More...
  • Midstar American technology satellite. One launch, 2007.03.09. More...
  • RS-300 American technology satellite bus, first launched 2007.03.09. Ball Aerospace's RS-300 was a small, low-cost spacecraft aimed at cost-capped principle investigator led missions for Earth or space science. More...
  • STPSat American technology satellite. Operational, first launch 2007.03.09. More...
  • Orbital Express Astro American rendezvous technology satellite. One launch, 2007.03.09, Astro. The active satellite of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Orbital Express program. More...
  • Phoenix American Mars lander. One launch, 2007.08.04. Mars lander based on surplus hardware from the cancelled Mars Surveyor 2001 and the failed Mars Polar Lander (whence the Phoenix designation). More...
  • WorldView American civilian surveillance satellite. First launch 2007.09.18. DigitalGlobe's WorldView satellite provided highly detailed imagery for precise map creation, change detection and in-depth image analysis. More...
  • Dawn American asteroid probe. One launch, 2007.09.27. Asteroid belt unmanned probe designed to first orbit and survey the asteroid Vesta, and then fly on to the largest asteroid, Ceres. Orbit asteroids Ceres and Vesta. More...
  • C/NOFS American earth seismology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.16. The C/NOFS (Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite flew the US Defence Department's Space Test Program P00-3 space weather forecasting mission. More...
  • GLAST American gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2008.06.11, Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope; renamed Fermi GST after launch. More...
  • PreSat American technology satellite. Launched 2008.08.03, More...
  • 20.20 American communications satellite. Design of 2008, provided greater digital communications capacity by integrating next-generation technologies with the proven reliability of traditional concepts and products of the FS 1300 series. More...
  • Galaxy American technology satellite. Study 2008. The Galaxy subscale module was scheduled to fly in 2008. It would be twice as large as its Genesis predecessors and represent a 50% scale model of the Sundancer manned inflatable space station. More...
  • Quad American manned lunar lander. Study 2009. Prototype lunar lander developed by Armadillo Aerospace with private funds. Quad was the only entry in the 2006 competition for the X-Prize Cup Lunar Lander challenge. More...
  • SpaceShipTwo American manned spaceplane. Study 2009. Development of the much larger SpaceShipTwo suborbital commercial manned spacecraft was announced in July 2005. More...
  • GPS Block 3 American navigation satellite. Study 2010. GPS III, as planned in 2003, would be the fifth generation of Navstar satellites. They would continue to deliver the new civil signals and improved military codes initiated on the GPS IIR-M and IIF programs. More...
  • MSL American Mars rover. Heavy, radioisotope-powered robotic Mars rover planned for an October 2010 arrival at Mars. It would carry instruments to definitively search for life in the soil. More...
  • Sundancer American manned space station. Study 2010. The Sundancer inflatable space station had provisions for three crew. It was to be launched by 2010 aboard a Falcon 9, Zenit-2, or Atlas V booster. More...
  • CEV SAIC American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. SAIC's notional CEV was a Soyuz-shaped aeroshell, enclosing a common pressurized module, and accommodating a crew of four. More...
  • CEV Lockheed American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. The Crew Exploration Vehicle first proposed by Lockheed was a lifting body with a total mass of 18 metric tons and a crew of four. More...
  • CEV Boeing American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Boeing's CEV consisted of a four-crew Apollo-type capsule, a service module, and a pressurized mission module. More...
  • CEV Orbital American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Orbital's nominal CEV was an Apollo-derived capsule. The CEV's service module would take the capsule from low earth orbit, to lunar orbit, and back to earth. More...
  • CEV Raytheon American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Raytheon's CEV was a low L/D capsule, designed for three crew, sized so that an existing EELV Heavy could send it towards L1. More...
  • CEV Northrop American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Northrop Grumman kept its CEV final proposal very secret, citing competitive concerns. More...
  • CEV Schafer American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Schafer proposed a lightweight 11 metric ton integral CEV, staged from L1. More...
  • CEV Draper MIT American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. The Draper-MIT CEV proposal was an 8-metric ton integral ballistic capsule. More...
  • CXV American manned spacecraft. Study 2012. Crew Transfer Vehicle proposed by `t/Space and Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle requirement. More...
  • Dragon American manned spacecraft. Commercial space capsule developed by SpaceX as a shuttle to take cargo and crews to the International Space Station and the Bigelow Commercial Station from 2011 on. First launched in 2010. More...
  • Kistler OV American space tug. Study 2012. The Kistler reusable launch vehicle concept included a reusable, recoverable second stage, dubbed the 'Orbital Vehicle', with an integral cargo module. More...
  • Nautilus American manned space station module. Study 2013. Inflatable pressurized habitat module for use in manned space stations, lunar, or interplanetary spacecraft or bases. Developed by Bigelow Aerospace using private funds. More...
  • CSS Skywalker American manned space station. Study 2015. Commercial Space Station Skywalker was hotel entrepreneur Bigelow's concept for the first space hotel. More...
  • MDPB American manned space station module. Study 2015. Propulsion module for space stations based on Bigelow Nautilus inflatable habitats. More...
  • Rocketplane XP American manned spaceplane. Study 2015. The Rocketplane XP Vehicle was a proposed suborbital manned spaceplane with accommodations for four crew. More...
  • Xerus American manned spaceplane. Study 2016. Suborbital vehicle that XCOR planned to design and build on a commercial basis. Rocket powered, it would take off from a runway, and be capable of high altitude, high speed flight. More...
  • LSAM American manned lunar lander. Study 2018. Lunar lander proposed by NASA in 2005 for their planned return to the moon by 2018. More...
  • Neptune American manned space station. Study 2018. A unique aspect of the Neptune stage-and-a-half commercial launch vehicle concept was that the main rocket structure, once in orbit, could act as a small space station. More...
  • Orion SA American manned spacecraft module. Orion spacecraft adapter. Transition section between Service Module and Ares booster. More...
  • Altairis American manned spacecraft. Study 2026. Rocket utilizing liquid oxygen / kerosene propulsion, launched vertically and with the planned capability of sending seven tourists on a suborbital space trip. More...
  • Gaia American earth resources satellite. need summary - see links More...
  • Lunex US Air Force manned lunar base. Studied 1958-1961. The final lunar expedition plan of 1961 was for a 21-airman underground Air Force base on the moon by 1968 at a total cost of $ 7.5 billion. More...
  • Lunex US Air Force manned lunar base. Studied 1958-1961. The final lunar expedition plan of 1961 was for a 21-airman underground Air Force base on the moon by 1968 at a total cost of $ 7.5 billion. More...
  • MOBEV American manned lunar rover. need summary - see links More...
  • Orion SM American manned spacecraft module. Orion service module. Masses estimated based on delta-V released by NASA. More...

Associated Engines
  • 16 in gun US Navy gun for launch of rocket-boosted projectile. 1,470,981 kN. Development ended 1966. The proposed Martlet gun-launched small satellite launcher used a converted 16 inch naval gun to propell the rocket sabot. Isp=43s. More...
  • 2.5KS18000 Multiple-source solid rocket engine. 80 kN. Typical ideal dV=259 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 25 m/s. More...
  • 200 inch solid segment x 4 Notional solid rocket engine. 11,120 kN. Study 1960. Isp=285s. 4 used as first stage of NASA all-solid Nova design. Extended high-expansion nozzles. More...
  • 21AL-2600 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Nike Ajax. Launch thrust 11.7 kN. Development begun January 1946. Regeneratively cooled. Development and production First flight 1953. More...
  • 25AL-1000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. A-20 ATO. Launch thrust 4.41 kN. Development begun May 1942. Production version of GALCIT unit. First flight 1944. More...
  • 25XALD-1000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. JATO, Droppable for P-38, B-24, and B-25J. Thrust 4.41 kN. Development begun May 1942. Droppable version of XLR1, packaged compactly with parachute. First flight 1944. More...
  • 280 inch solid Notional solid rocket engine. 46,208 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been February 1973 Isp=265s. Used on Nova MM 14B launch vehicle. More...
  • 300 inch solid Notional solid rocket engine. 63,595 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been April 1973 Isp=263s. Used on Nova MM 14A launch vehicle. More...
  • 300LR-200 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. XP-79 Launch thrust .882 kN. Development begun January 1943. Planned successor to XCALT-6000, developed under 'Project X' for the Northrop XP-79 Flying Wing rocket fighter. First flight 1945. More...
  • 30AL-1000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. GAPA. Launch thrust 4.41 kN. Development begun March 1947. Boeing surface-to-air missile, which would evolve into Bomarc and reach IOC in 1959. More...
  • 325 in solid Notional solid rocket engine in GD Nova studies. 69,047 kN. Study 1963. Isp=263s. Recoverable motors; separation at 1,972 m/s at 53,000 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 3 61 m diameter parachutes 610 km downrange. More...
  • 38ALDW-1500 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. ATO Seaplanes. Launch thrust 6.66 kN. Development begun July 1943. Regeneratively cooled. Also a few 45ALDW-1500 were built. Droppable version. First flight 1945. More...
  • 40ALD-3000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. B-29 droppable ATO. Launch thrust 13.33 kN. Development begun October 1943. Droppable version, pressure fed, regeneratively cooled, supplied with 331 kg of propellant. First flight 1945. More...
  • 40XAL-4000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. PB2Y-3 ATO. Launch thrust 17.6 kN. Development begun July 1943. Gasoline engine driven pumps. Also 40ALD-6000 and 60ALD-8000 versions First flight 1945. More...
  • 45AL-2600 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Aerobee B. Launch thrust 11.7 kN. Development begun June 1948. Manufacture of complete Aerobee systems First flight 1955. More...
  • 45LR-35000 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Bomarc. Out of Production. Launch thrust 159.583 kN. Development begun 1953. Pressure-fed, uncooled, ceramic-lined engine. First flight 1959. More...
  • 5 mlbf Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 41,361 kN. OOST, ROOST studies 1963. Isp=410s. First flight 1977. More...
  • 5 mlbf RP-4 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 24,459 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle. Isp=299s. Used on Nova-1 DAC launch vehicle. More...
  • A-6 Rocketdyne Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 414.3 kN. Out of production. Isp=265s. Used on Redstone launch vehicle. First flight 1953. Developed from the XLR43-NA-1, an American version of the V-2 single-chamber engine tested in 1945. More...
  • A-7 Rocketdyne Lox/Hydyne rocket engine. 416.2 kN. Out of Production. Version of Redstone engine for Jupiter-C test vehicle, with Hydyne fuel and 140 seconds burn time. Flew 1956-1959. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust 370 kN at sea level. Isp=265s. More...
  • A1P-1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. More...
  • A1P-2 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 2. More...
  • A2P-1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. More...
  • A3P-1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1. More...
  • AABS Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 17.779 kN. Aerospike Annular Booster and Sustainer. Pressure-fed. Booster thrust 3000 to 4000 lb vac; sustainer 1500-2000 lb vac, 257 sec specific impulse. Isp=285s. More...
  • AEC Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 66.695 kN. Advanced Expander Cycle Engine. Expander regenerator, pump-fed. Isp=481s. More...
  • Aerobee Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Aerobee. Development begun December 1947. Research with high altitude vehicle as carriers of scientific information. More...
  • Aerojet 2 Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 2 N. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Isp=265s. More...
  • Aerojet 21 Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.021 kN. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.60. Isp=285s. More...
  • Aerojet 445 Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.445 kN. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Isp=309s. More...
  • Aerojet 50kW Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. Effort 2001-2003 developed a 50 kW Hall thruster in parallel to NASA's in-house development of the NASA-457M thruster. More...
  • Aerojet 62 Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.062 kN. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Isp=287s. More...
  • Aerojet SRB Aerojet solid rocket engine. 1270 kN. In production. Isp=275s. First flight 2002. More...
  • Aerospike Annular Booster Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1111.662 kN. Aerospike Typical Annular Booster . Pressure-fed. Thrust from 50,000 to 250,000 lbs at altitude. Isp=450s. More...
  • AirLaunch Propane Engine Air Launch Lox/Propane rocket engine. 106.8 kN. Flow calibration, ignition and initial short duration tests completed in 2005 of this upper stage rocket engine with application to future small spacecraft launchers. More...
  • AJ-260X Aerojet solid rocket engine. 35,390.7 kN. Study 1967. Full length version of 260 inch motor tested in 1960's. Proposed for use in various Saturn and Nova configurations. Isp=263s. More...
  • AJ-260X 1/3 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 11,143 kN. Design concept 1960's. Isp=263s. More...
  • AJ-260-1/3 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 10,105 kN. Design concept 1960's. Isp=275s. Used on Saturn INT-05B launch vehicle. More...
  • AJ-260-2 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 17,695.3 kN. Study 1965. Isp=263s. 260 inch solid rocket booster half length. The version tested and also proposed for use as a first stage with the Saturn IVB. More...
  • AJ-60C Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 280 kN. Design 2000. Isp=470s. Design announced on 3 October 2000 for a new cryogenic upper-stage engine aimed at the very large commercial spacecraft market. More...
  • AJ10-118F Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 41.4 kN. Isp=306s. Used on Delta upper stage for Delta 0100, Delta 1000, N-2 boosters. First flight 1972. More...
  • AJ10-40 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 34.690 kN. Isp=270s. Minor modification of the Vanguard aluminum tube thrust chamber to meet the Able requirements. accomplished in the record time of only three months. More...
  • AJ10-33 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 509 kN. SMART Sled. Development begun early 1950s. 114,000 Ibf thrust, uncooled, ceramic lined, 3 chamber system More...
  • AJ10-28 Aerojet Nitric acid/JP-X rocket engine. 156 kN. SNORT Sled. Development begun early 1950s. 35,000 Ibf thrust, 2-10 second duration. JP-X was a jet fuel / hydrazine mixture. More...
  • AJ10-196 Aerojet rocket engine. 40.1 kN. Liquid Throttling Engine. Liquid Throttling Engine More...
  • AJ10-138 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 35.6 kN. Out of production. Originally developed for Vanguard and Able. Two used, thrust uprated from 3540 kgf to 3628 kgf, with higher specific impulse, in Transtage. Isp=311s. Flown 1964-1980. More...
  • AJ10-137 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 97.5 kN. Apollo SPS. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as Apollo SM engine. Isp=312s. More...
  • AJ10-131 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Subscale Apollo SPS. Subscale Apollo SPS More...
  • AJ10-118K Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 43.4 kN. Isp=321s. Pressure-fed engine, optimized for altitude operation, used in Delta K stage from 1989. Not regeneratively cooled; used a rubber modified silica phenolic ablative at the combustion flame front. More...
  • AJ10-118G Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 43.414 kN. Delta G. Isp=314s. More...
  • AJ10-51 Aerojet rocket engine. 666 kN. Sled. Thrust variable to 33% indicated. More...
  • AJ10-118E Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 35.1 kN. Isp=278s. Used on Delta E, Delta G, Delta J, Delta L, Delta M, Delta N upper stages. First flight 1965. More...
  • AJ10-118D Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 33.7 kN. Isp=278s. Used on Delta B, Delta C, Delta D upper stages. First flight 1962. More...
  • AJ10-118 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 33.8 kN. Out of Production. Isp=271s. Engine originally developed for the Vanguard launch vehicle, and then for use on the Able and Delta upper stages and as the Apollo Service module engine. Flown 1957-1962. More...
  • AJ10-104 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 35.1 kN. Isp=278s. Stainless steel version of the basic Able engine, uprated to increase thrust 34.7 kN to 37.0 kN and to increase the duration 2-1/2 times First flight 1960. More...
  • AJ10-101 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 34.3 kN. Isp=270s. Derivative of Vanguard second stage for use with Thor IRBM to produce satellite launch vehicle. First tests February 21, 1958. Flown through 1960. More...
  • AJ10-118H Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 43.414 kN. Delta H. Isp=319s. More...
  • AJ11-6 Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. 17.8 kN. Typical ideal dV=3839 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 1012 m/s. More...
  • AJ23-144 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 3020 kN. Booster (Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 4000 psi). Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 272 atm More...
  • AJ23-145 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 3020 kN. Booster (Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 4000 psi, LOX/RJ-5 or LH2, Single Stage). Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 272 atm, LOX/RJ-5 or LH2, Single Stage More...
  • AJ23-147 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 994.3 kN. Booster. Gas generator cycle, 55 atm More...
  • AJ23-142 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 424.6 kN. Booster. ARES - Staged Combustion More...
  • AJ23-141 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 222.410 kN. Upper Stage. MIST - Staged Combustion. More...
  • AJ23-127 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1010 kN. Booster. The AJ23 was a series of high-performance staged combusion engine designs. None ever made it to production. The -127 featured a gas generator cycle, 56 atm More...
  • AJ23-143 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2213.850 kN. Booster. Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 204 atm More...
  • AJ60-91 Aerojet rocket engine. 72.324 kN. Aerobee 350. Aerobee motor. Four Chambers More...
  • Alcor Aerojet solid rocket engine. Originally developed for the Air Force as a third Stage for the Athena sounding rocket; in some applications known as Zebra. One of its main attractions was a very high mass fraction First flight 1960. More...
  • Algol 2 CSD solid rocket engine. 564.2 kN. Isp=255s. Used on Scout A, Scout B, Scout X-3, Scout X-4; proposed as strap-on for Titan 3BAS2. First flight 1962. More...
  • Algol 3 CSD solid rocket engine. 471.9 kN. Isp=284s. Used on Advanced Scout, Scout D, Scout F, Scout G. First flight 1972. More...
  • Algol 1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 470.9 kN. Isp=236s. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. First flight 1960. More...
  • Algol 3A CSD solid rocket engine. 464.7 kN. In Production. Isp=259s. More...
  • AMPS-1 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 80.032 kN. Advanced Maneuvering Propulsion System Booster. Pressure-fed. Isp=468s. More...
  • AR1 Rocketdyne h2o2/kerosene rocket engine. 22.260 kN. Engine for FJ-4F naval interceptor. More...
  • AR2-3 Rocketdyne h2o2/kerosene rocket engine. 29.341 kN. Future-X Demonstrator Engine. Gas generator, pump-fed. Heritage technology in evaluation for current applications. X-37 Reusable Upper Stage Vehicle. Isp=245s. More...
  • Ares Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 440 kN. SSTO ICBM. Development 1968. Isp=370s. Advanced Rocket Engine System - single shaft turbopump, integrated single pressure vessel in a staged combustion cycle configuration. More...
  • ASE Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 88.926 kN. Advanced Space Engine. Staged combusion, pump-fed. Isp=473s. More...
  • ATE Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 20 kN. Developed 1990's. Advance technology engine for maneuvering stages. Isp=347s. More...
  • ATS 8 cm EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. 4.5 mN. Flown in 1974. Isp=6700s.Thruster for the ATS-6 test; consisted of two electron bombardment engines using cesium propellant. The thruster anode diameter was 8 cm, and a cesiated tungsten neutralizer was used. More...
  • ATS 5 cm EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. 0.089 mN. Flown in 1968-1969. Isp=6700s. Thruster for the ATS-4 and ATS-5 tests; consisted of two contact ionization engines using cesium propellant. More...
  • B-2C Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Atlas A. Launch thrust 1374 kN. Atlas Booster. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1958. More...
  • BA-3200 Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. 14,100 kN. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 70% of initial value before shutdown. Isp=259s. More...
  • BA-44 Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. 196 kN. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed restartable engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value before shutdown. Isp=300s. More...
  • BA-810 Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. 3600 kN. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value before shutdown. Isp=282s. More...
  • Bell 8048 Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 68.9 kN. Out of production. Isp=276s. Used on Agena A, derived from Rascal engine. Regeneratively cooled; used drilled holes to create the same effect as more costly stacked spaghetti rubes. First flight 1959. More...
  • Bell 8081 Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 71.2 kN. Out of production. Isp=285s. Used on Agena B stage atop Thor and Atlas. First flight 1960. More...
  • Bell 8096 Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 71.2 kN. Out of production. Isp=292s. Used in Agena stage on top of Thor, Atlas, and Titan launch vehicles. First flight 1963. More...
  • Bell 8247 Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 71.2 kN. Out of Production. Isp=291s. Version of Agena engine for the Gemini-Agena Target Vehicle. Minimum capability of five restarts and a demonstrated capability of fifteen restarts. First flight 1963. More...
  • BPT-4000 Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. 270 mN. In Production. Hall effect thruster. Nominal power input 4500 W at 350 V. Isp=1950s. More...
  • BPT-600k Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. 0.030 kN. In Development, 2005-2006. Isp=1800s. Began as 1995 contract for 600kWe Hall thruster electric propulsion system designed for future interplanetary manned spacecraft. More...
  • BPT-2000 Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. 120 mN. In Production. Hall effect thruster. Nominal power input 2200 W at 350 V. Isp=1765s. More...
  • Castor 120 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 1650 kN. Isp=280s. Motor similar in size to the Peacekeeper missile stage 1 motor; filled the gap between Castor 4A and the large segmented motors. First flight 1989. More...
  • Castor 4 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 407.2 kN. Series of motors used as Delta strap-on boosters and as first and upper stages for low-cost all-solid-propellant designs. Isp=261s. First flight 1975. More...
  • Castor 4A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 478.3 kN. Out of production. Isp=266s. Castor 4A improved Delta performance by 11% by replacing the old fuel with HTPB propellant. Used in Delta 6900; Atlas IIAS; Castor 4A. First flight 1982. More...
  • Castor 4AXL Thiokol solid rocket engine. 599.8 kN. In production. Isp=269s. Strap-on booster version, first tested May 1992. Its 30% performance increase would improve performance of Atlas and other vehicles. First flight 2001. More...
  • Castor 4B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 430.6 kN. Out of production. The Castor 4B, which incorporated thrust vector control in the series for the first time, was developed for ESA's Maxus (first flown in 1991). Isp=281s. First flight 1982. More...
  • Castor 4BXL Thiokol solid rocket engine. 429 kN. In Production. Isp=267s. ORBEX version, combined the 4XL motor with 4B's TVC system (6 degree). More...
  • CD Module Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 7361 kN. Study 1969. Isp=420s. CD Modules - conceptual engines of various thrusts, according to design - were clustered in Martin Marietta Nova designs More...
  • Centrojet Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. R&D. Launch thrust 2.25 kN. Work begun June 1943. Torque to rotate the main shaft of the propellant pumps was developed by the canted engine nozzles themselves at the aft end of the shaft. Abandoned 1945. More...
  • Chamber/single nozzle Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 13,231 kN. Study 1963. Isp=455s. Before moving to favored plug nozzle designs, Bono at Douglas considered having multiple combustion chambers exhaust into a single large nozzle to obtained Improved Specific Impulse. More...
  • Chariot Bell exotic LF2/Hydrazine rocket engine. 155.9 kN. Titan 3 upper stage. Developed 1960's. Engine developed for high-energy replacement of Titan 3 transtage in late 1950's / early 1960's. Not flown due to toxicity of propellants. More...
  • Cobra Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 4500 kN. Design 2003. Proposed as a long-life, moderate-to high-thrust, reusable booster engine that incorporated a safe, low-cost, low-risk, LH2/LOX single burner, using a fuel-rich, staged combustion cycle. More...
  • Cold Gas Thruster Module Parker Bertea nitrogen cold gas thruster. 0.111 kN. In Production. Isp=68s. Designed to provide triaxial attitude control for small launch vehicles. The module comprised three cold gas thrusters operated by integral independent solenoid valves. More...
  • Corporal Firestone Nitric acid/Aniline-Furfuyrl alcohol rocket engine. 89 kN. More...
  • Corporal E Douglas/JPL Nitric acid/Aniline-Furfuyrl alcohol rocket engine. 89 kN. More...
  • Dual Mode-Liquid Apogee Engine TRW MON/Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.454 kN. In Production. Isp=314s. First Flight: April 1991. Burn Time 24,000 sec total, with a 3600 sec maximum single burn. Hypergolic ignition via 28 V current to an on/off bi-propellant torque motor valve. More...
  • E-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1885 kN. Study 1957. Developed by USAF in late 1950's. Cancelled and decision to go direct to 1,500,000 lbf F-1 as next step. Booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=290s. More...
  • End Hall Thruster UM-NASA electric/lh2 rocket engine. 1 kW arcjet, ran on H2, N2, or a mixture, at about 12A, 1 kW, peak around 600s Isp, (20-30% efficiency). Isp=600s. More...
  • ESEX Arcjet Redmond electric/ammonia rocket engine. 2 N. In Production. Isp=800s. Electric Propulsion Space Experiment) program begun 1989 under the then Air Force Astronautics Lab. Flew once in 1999 on board the ARGOS satellite. More...
  • Expansion-Deflection 10k Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Launch thrust 44.463 kN. Expansion-Deflection Booster (10,000 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • Expansion-Deflection 50k Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Launch thrust 222.326 kN. Expansion-Deflection Booster (50,000 Ib thrust). Pressure-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • F-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7740.5 kN. Isp=304s. Largest liquid rocket engine ever developed and flown. Severe combustion stability problems were solved during development and it never failed in flight. First flight 1967. More...
  • F-1A Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 9189.6 kN. Study 1968. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=310s. More...
  • F100-100 Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. 63.9 kN. In Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=1552s. More...
  • F101 Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. 75.6 kN. In Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=1980s. More...
  • Falcon SLV-2 Michoud hybrid rocket Lox/Solid engine. 133 kN. Upper stages. Study 2005. Part of the USAF FALCON program to assess hybrid propulsion applications for a responsive small launch vehicle. More...
  • Falcon SLV-1 Michoud Lox/Solid hybrid rocket engine. 1400 kN. First stage. Study 2005. Part of the USAF FALCON program to assess hybrid propulsion applications for a responsive small launch vehicle. More...
  • FastTrack Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 44.1 kN. Design concept. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center prototype experimental engine that led to Fastrac low-cost engine for X-34. Isp=348s. More...
  • Fastrac Huntsville Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 269 kN. Development ended 1996. Isp=310s. Used on X-34A launch vehicle. Intended to demonstrate lower cost in a reusable simple turbopump rocket engine. More...
  • FFAR Multiple-source American solid rocket engine. 3.6 kN. More...
  • FLEXEM Rocketdyne exotic ClF3/Hydrazine rocket engine. 48.905 kN. Flexible Energy Management. Pressure-fed. Sustainer 267-4000 lb thrust vacuum, specific impulse 260 seconds. Isp=275s. More...
  • FW-4D Thiokol solid rocket engine. 25 kN. Isp=287s. Kick stage motor for Delta E, Delta L. First flight 1965. More...
  • FW-4S TEM640 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27.4 kN. Isp=280s. Used on Advanced Scout, Scout B, Scout D, Scout F, Scout G. First flight 1965. More...
  • G-1 Rocketdyne exotic LF2/Hydrazine rocket engine. 53.5 kN. Atlas upper stage. Developed 1960's. Engine developed for replacement of Agena upper stage in late 1950's. Not flown due to toxicity of propellants. NOMAD Upper Stage System. Pressure-fed. Isp=357s. More...
  • Garvey Aerospike Garvey Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. Development ended 2005. Launch thrust .044 kN. Single-chamber, liquid-propellant, annular aerospike engine. More...
  • GCRC GCR solid rocket engine. 11.6 kN. Isp=230s. Used on Vanguard launch vehicle. First flight 1957. More...
  • GEM 40 Hercules solid rocket engine. 499.2 kN. Air-ignited versions have nozzle ratio of 16:1, specific impulse of 283.4 sec. Isp=274s. Used on Delta 7925 launch vehicle. First flight 1990. More...
  • GEM 46 Hercules solid rocket engine. 608.1 kN. Air-ignited versions have nozzle ratio of 24.8:1, specific impulse of 284 sec. Isp=274s. First flight 1998. More...
  • GEM 60 Hercules solid rocket engine. 851.5 kN. In production. Isp=275s. Used as strap-on boosters for Delta 3 , Delta IV Medium. First flight 2002. More...
  • H-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 947.7 kN. Saturn l/lB. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=289s. First flight 1961. More...
  • H-1b Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1030.2 kN. Isp=296s. First flight 1966. More...
  • H-1c Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1130 kN. Study Saturn IB-A, Saturn IB-B, 1965. Isp=296s. More...
  • H1500 Notional Lox/Solid hybrid rocket engine. 931.3 kN. Design 1988. Isp=284s. Used on Industrial Launch Vehicle launch vehicle. More...
  • Helios Stage 1 Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1667 kN. Study 1960. Engines for booster stage with Lox tanks only to take nuclear second stage to stratosphere. Isp=400s. Helios A, B, C studies. More...
  • Hercules Hercules solid rocket engine. 15,565.8 kN. In development. Isp=286s. Planned replacement for shuttle solid rocket boosters after Challenger disaster. A billion dollars spent in development, but contract terminated. NASA decided to stay with Thiokol RSRM. More...
  • HG-3 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1400.7 kN. Study 1967. Isp=451s. High-performance high-pressure chamber engine developed from J-2. Considered for upgrades to Saturn V launch vehicle upper stages. Technology led to Space Shuttle Main Engines. More...
  • HG-3-SL Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1387 kN. Study 1966. Isp=450s. High-performance high-pressure chamber engine developed from the J-2, fitted with lower-expansion nozzle for sea level use on Saturn INT-17. Technology led to Space Shuttle Main Engines. More...
  • HiPAT Redmond N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.445 kN. In Production. High performance liquid apogee thruster. Isp=323s. More...
  • HIVHAC NASA Cleveland electric/xenon rocket engine. 430 mN. Isp=2800s. HIVHAC offered mission benefits compared to the 4000s NEXT engine for deep space missions. More...
  • HP-1 Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 6536 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been December 1974. Isp=451s. Used in Martin Nova studies MM 24G, MM 33. More...
  • HTR Nammo Lox/Solid hybrid rocket engine. 30 kN. More...
  • Hustler APU Aerojet isopropylnitrate monopropellant rocket engine. B-58. Development begun 1953. APU for the Hustler 'controlled bomb pod', which was really a long range air to surface strategic missile More...
  • HYSR LMSS Lox/Solid hybrid rocket engine. 270 kN. More...
  • IAPS Hughes electric/mercury rocket engine. Isp=2500s. Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System work took place in the 1974-1983. Flight ready article prepared, but not flown due to budget cuts. More...
  • Ion Notional electric/mercury rocket engine. 0.275 kN. Study 1981. Conceptual ion engine design of the 1970's for a shuttle-sized upper stage. Isp=5300s. More...
  • IPD Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1100 kN. Development ended 2006. Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator, end goal was flight-rated, full-flow, hydrogen-fueled, staged combustion rocket engine in the 1.1-million-newton thrust class. More...
  • J-2 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1033.1 kN. Study 1961. Isp=421s. Used in Saturn IVB stage in Saturn IB and Saturn V, and Saturn II stage in Saturn V. Gas generator, pump-fed. First flight 1966. More...
  • J-2-SL Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 996.7 kN. Study 1966. Sea level version of J-2 with reduced expansion ratio proposed for Saturn II first stage use. Isp=390s. More...
  • J-2S Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1138.5 kN. Developed 1965-1969. Isp=436s. J-2 version proposed for Saturn follow-on vehicles, using results of the J-2X technology program. The engine was simplified while offering improved performance. More...
  • J-2T-200K Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 889.3 kN. Study 1965. Proposed for later versions of Saturn V. Toroidal aerospike plug nozzle version of J-2. Isp=435s. More...
  • J-2T-250K Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1111.6 kN. Study 1967. Proposed for later versions of Saturn V. Toroidal aerospike plug nozzle version of J-2. Isp=441s. More...
  • J-2X Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1310 kN. Ares I launch vehicle second stage. In development 2006-2016. Isp=448s. Began as an update to the J-2 engine of the 1960s, but final design was all-new, 20% more thrust, but double the weight. More...
  • J57-19 Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. 53.8 kN. Out of production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=5142s. Used on B-52 launch aircraft for X-15A. First flight 1959. More...
  • J57-8 Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. 45.4 kN. Out of production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=1414s. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • J58 Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=2084s. More...
  • J75-17 Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. 71.6 kN. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=1800s. More...
  • J79- 5 GE turbojet engine. 45.8 kN. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=2020s. More...
  • J79-17 GE turbojet engine. 52.8 kN. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=2020s. More...
  • J85-GE-5 GE turbojet engine. 34.3 kN. Carries SpaceShipOne to release point 65 km from Mohave Airport base, then releases it at 15 km altitude at 215 kph. Wing area 43.5 sq m. Isp=2000s. More...
  • J93-3 GE turbojet engine. 86.7 kN. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=2084s. More...
  • JIC Aerojet rocket engine. 10.680 kN. JIC. Classified application More...
  • JP-5/H2O2 Notional H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. 63 kN. Study 1993. Isp=335s. Engine for Black Horse winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling. More...
  • JT9D-3A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine. 208.8 kN. Out of Production. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=10939s. More...
  • Kestrel SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 30.7 kN. Upper stages. Hardware. Isp=320s. Pintle architecture, designed to be a high efficiency, low pressure vacuum engine. Fed only by tank pressure, ablatively cooled First flight 2006. More...
  • KEW-1 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.029 kN. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (7 Ib thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense. Isp=266s. More...
  • KEW-2 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.215 kN. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (50 Ib thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense. Isp=275s. More...
  • KEW-3 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (100 Ib thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense. Isp=283s. More...
  • KEW-4 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 2.216 kN. Kinetic Energy Propulsion (500 Ib thrust). Pressure-fed. ASAT Strap-down test, XSS / DICE Microsatellite, GBI Ground-Based Interceptor, THAAD Theater High Altitude Area Defense. Isp=235s. More...
  • L-1 Linear Aerospike Booster Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Launch thrust 889.36 kN. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • L-2 Linear Aerospike Booster Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Launch thrust 444.63 kN. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • L-5.00H Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 30,684 kN. Study 1963. Isp=428s. Used on Nova GD-H launch vehicle. More...
  • L-5.25H Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 27,350 kN. Study 1963. Isp=410s. Engines for recoverable booster engine package 'half stage' of a 1 1/2 stage arrangement. Used on Nova GD-H launch vehicle. More...
  • L-6.55 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 31,010 kN. Study 1963. Engines used in recoverable stage of ballistic shape; separation at 3,420 m/s at 93,900 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 parachutes 1340 km downrange. Isp=330s. More...
  • L-7.70 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 37,007 kN. Study 1963. Engines used in recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Isp=335s. More...
  • L6H Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 122,748 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been June 1976. Used in booster stage (engines only). Isp=439s. Used on Nova MM 34 launch vehicle. More...
  • LGIT UM electric rocket engine. 20 mN. Isp=1400s. Linear Gridless Ion Thruster, a two-stage device designed to incorporate the efficient ionization process of gridded ion thrusters and the high thrust density of Hall thrusters. More...
  • LH2-80k Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 355.7 kN. Study 1959. Isp=425s. Used on Nova 4L launch vehicle. More...
  • Liberty Liberty Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1994-2006. Pressure-fed engine. Price $ 12,000 in 1995. Used on Scorpius launch vehicle. More...
  • Liberty-1 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Development ended 1988. Pressure-fed engine. Isp=270s. Used on Liberty launch vehicle. More...
  • Liberty-2 Notional N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 17.8 kN. Development ended 1988. Pressure-fed engine. Isp=300s. Used on Liberty launch vehicle. More...
  • LR105-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 386.4 kN. Atlas E, F. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Separate turbopumps for each booster engine. Isp=316s. First flight 1960. More...
  • LR109 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR105-7 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 386.4 kN. Atlas space launchers. Out of production. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Evolved from MA-2 ICBM system. Isp=316s. First flight 1963. More...
  • LR105-3 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 375 kN. Out of Production. Early version of Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=308s. More...
  • LR103 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR101-NA-7 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 5.148 kN. Upper Stage Target Engine Systems. Pressure-fed. Derived from Atlas vernier. Isp=251s. More...
  • LR101-11 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 5.3 kN. In Production. Isp=246s. Verniers for RS-27 powerplant, used on Delta boosters 1974-1992. More...
  • LR10 Reaction Motors rocket engine. Viking RTV-N-12. More...
  • LR111 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR117 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR12 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR129 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. Engine developed for boost/glide aerospace craft; later modified into unsuccessful competitor for Space Shuttle main engine. More...
  • LR127 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR125 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR123 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR14 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR17 Curtiss-Wright Lox/Gasoline rocket engine. RATO rocket for XB-45. Launch thrust 17.6 kN. Assisted take-off power. Single thrust chamber, both regeneratively cooled and film-cooled with water, spark plug ignition, turbine-pump fed. More...
  • LR18 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR19 Curtiss-Wright Lox/Gasoline rocket engine. Launch thrust 44.1 kN. Experimental unit for either missiles or piloted aircraft. Single thrust chamber, regnenerativey cooled and film cooled with water-alcohol mixture. More...
  • LR2 Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. More...
  • LR21 Curtiss-Wright Lox/Gasoline rocket engine. Launch thrust 266.83 kN. Turbine pump-fed, single thrust chamber unit intended for cancelled missile application. Engine designed to fit into the envelope dimensions of the German V-2! More...
  • LR27 Curtiss-Wright liquid rocket engine. planned for XF-91; cancelled. More...
  • LR28 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR29 Curtiss-Wright liquid rocket engine. cancelled project. More...
  • LR30 Reaction Motors Lox/Ammonia rocket engine. 222.6 kN. D-558-3. Capable rocket engine planned for use in D-558-3 and X-15. Cancelled in favour of XLR-99. More...
  • LR31 Kellogg liquid rocket engine. cancelled project. More...
  • LR32 Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. XH-15 blade-tip engine . More...
  • LR33 Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. cancelled project. Engine development halted, component work continued. More...
  • LR34 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR35 Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. Hiroc RTV-A-2. Engine development halted, component work continued. More...
  • LR36 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR37 Curtiss-Wright Lox/Gasoline rocket engine. 0.225 kN. Small experimental engine for ram-rocket tests. Single thrust chamber, regneratively cooled with gasoline, film cooling also used, spark plug ignition. Test article only built. More...
  • LR38 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR39 Reaction Motors Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 0.225 kN. Small experimental engine. Single thrust chamber, water cooled, equipped only with spark plug igntion system and propellant flow valves. Test article only built. More...
  • LR4 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR40 Reaction Motors H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. 35.690 kN. F8U-1 supercruise engine, 1957. Engine exploded during an early ground test, killing two company mechanics. This accident caused Reaction Motors to pull out of the project. More...
  • LR44 Thiokol liquid rocket engine. Sparrow AAM-N-6, White Lance GAM-79. More...
  • LR46 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR47 Kellogg liquid rocket engine. RATO rocket planned for cancelled B-47C (B-56). More...
  • LR54 Rocketdyne H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. 26.4 kN. After the failure of the Reaction Motors XLR-40 for use in the F8U-1 fighter, Vought elected to continue the project using the XLR-54 . Project never reached flight status More...
  • LR55 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR56 Aerojet storable liquid engine. F8U-3F. Aerojet was considered as the supplier for a liquid rocket superperformance engine for the F8U-3. It is not known to have reached test stage. More...
  • LR57 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR58 Thiokol liquid rocket engine. Bullpup AGM-12B, Bulldog AGM-83. More...
  • LR6 Reaction Motors liquid rocket engine. Lark SAM-N-2, CTV-N-9. More...
  • LR60 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR61 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR62 Thiokol liquid rocket engine. Bullpup AGM-12C/E. More...
  • LR65 Bell rocket engine for the X-9 Shrike, an experimental prototype of the Rascal air-to-ground missile. More...
  • LR67 Bell rocket engine. Rascal GAM-63. Harry Meyers made a major contribution to the development of Bell's Rascal engines. The engine was made of aluminum, using the "spaghetti tube" concept of brazed tubes for thrust chamber cooling. More...
  • LR69 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR75 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR77 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR79-7 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=282s. First flight 1957. More...
  • LR8-RM-5 Reaction Motors Lox/Alcohol rocket engine for rocketplanes. Out of Production. Launch thrust 26.67 kN. Advanced version of the LR-11, 4 chambers. Engine in the X-1E was modified in 1958 to increase chamber pressure to 20 atm and burn Hydyne fuel. More...
  • LR83-NA-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 683 kN. Development ended 1958. Isp=282s. Planned production version of the engine for the booster of the Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile. More...
  • LR85 American liquid rocket engine. Buck Duck GAM-71. More...
  • LR87-5 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 1096.8 kN. Out of Production. Isp=297s. Used on Titan 2 launch vehicle. Engines refurbished for space launcher versions from decommissioned missiles between 1974-1982. More...
  • LR87 Alumizine Aerojet N2O4/Alumizine rocket engine. 1960's USAF development effort for a Titan storable engine using a metallized fuel (for greater impulse density) and gelled propellants (to facilitate in-space starts after a period of coasting). More...
  • LR87-9 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Launch thrust 956.1 kN. Variant of LR-87 used on early versions of Titan III B,C First flight 1966. More...
  • LR87-7 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 1086.1 kN. Study 1961. Version of LR-87-5 used on Gemini Titan 2 launch vehicle. Isp=296s. Proposed for unflown Titan 3L2, Titan 3L4 boosters. First flight 1962. More...
  • LR87-3 Aerojet Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 733.9 kN. Study 1957. Titan 1 booster engine. Surplus Flight Engines were available for various uses in the 1960's. Isp=290s. First flight 1959. More...
  • LR87-11 AJ23-138 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Launch thrust 1008.31 kN. Version of LR-87-11 tuned for launch pad ignition when used on Titan 3B. First flight 1966. More...
  • LR87-11 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 1218.8 kN. Out of production. Isp=302s. Powered Titan 3 and 4 first stages. Replaced the -9 model, first flown 1968. First flight 1964. More...
  • LR87 LH2 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 667 kN. Development ended 1961. Version of the Titan engine, and first large Lox/LH2 engine fired in the world. 52 static tests. But NASA selected Rocketdyne instead to develop the J-2 engine for Saturn from scratch. More...
  • LR87+ Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 1634.4 kN. Study 1965. Nominal improved LR87 in booster studies. Isp=293s. Used on Martin Astrorocket launch vehicle. More...
  • LR89-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 822.5 kN. Atlas E, F. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Separate turbopumps for each booster engine. Isp=290s. First flight 1960. More...
  • LR89-7 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 948 kN. Atlas space launchers. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Evolved from MA-2 ICBM system. Isp=294s. First flight 1963. More...
  • LR91-11 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 467 kN. Out of production. Isp=316s. Second stage engine for Titan 3 and 4. First flight 1968. More...
  • LR91-9 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 448.605 kN. Titan III B, C, D. Out of Production. Version used in earlier versions of Titan 3 upper stages. Isp=316s. First flight 1965. More...
  • LR91-7 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 444.8 kN. Study 1961. Version used on Stage 2 of Gemini Titan 2 Launch Vehicle. Isp=316s. Proposed for unflown Titan 3L2, Titan 3L4 boosters. First flight 1962. More...
  • LR91-5 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 444.8 kN. Titan 2 ICBM Stage 2. Out of Production. Isp=315s. Scaled down version of stage 1 engine featuring fixed single chamber. Gas generator cycle. First flight 1962. More...
  • LR91-3 Aerojet Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 355.9 kN. Development begun 1957. Titan 1 Stage 2 major production version. Isp=308s. Proposed for second stage of Juno V-A, Super-Jupiter in 1959. Flown 1959-1965. More...
  • LR93 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR95 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • LR97 American liquid rocket engine. Designation allocated, but no information available. More...
  • M-1 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 5335.9 kN. Study 1961. Isp=428s. Engine developed 1962-1966 for Uprated Saturn and Nova million-pound payload boosters to support manned Mars missions. Reached component test stage before cancellation. More...
  • M-6 Hercules solid rocket engine. 365 kN. Taurus rocket motor originally developed for the Army Honest John tactical missile. In sounding rocket applications the interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Taurus. More...
  • M33-20-4 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 286 kN. Isp=247s. Used as apogee kick motor on Delta D, LT Thor Agena D, Scout X-1, Scout X-2, Scout X-3, Scout X-4, TA Thor Agena B, TA Thor Agena D. First flight 1960. More...
  • M55/TX-55/Tu-122 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 792 kN. In production. Isp=262s. Proposed as strap-on booster for Saturn IB-C, Saturn INT-14, Saturn INT-15, Saturn INT-19 variants. First flight 2000. More...
  • M56A-1 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 228.5 kN. Out of Production. Used in Aries. Isp=297s. More...
  • M5E1 Hercules solid rocket engine. 195.6 kN. Nike booster motor. The interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Nike in sounding rocket applications and lip-fit into the second stage nozzle. More...
  • MA-5A Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2100 kN. Out of Production. Isp=296s. Atlas Engine System, an updated version of the MA-5, included replacments with selected RS-27 components for sea-level Isp increase of 4 secs. First flight 1991. More...
  • MB-3-3 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 866.7 kN. Out of Production. License built in Japan for H-1. Isp=290s. First flight 1964. More...
  • MB-3-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 760.6 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=285s. Boosted Delta A, B, C, Thor Able-Star. First flight 1960. More...
  • MB-3 Press Mod Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 755.1 kN. Test 1962. Isp=285s. Used on Sea Horse launch vehicle. More...
  • MB-3-J Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Launch thrust 755.89 kN. N Booster . Gas generator, pump-fed. Joint MHI (Japan) / Rocketdyne project, evolved from MB-3. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1975. More...
  • Merlin 1A SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 378.040 kN. First stages. Hardware. Isp=300s. Completed development in early 2005. Pintle injector concept. Replaced by Merlin 1C. First flight 2006. More...
  • Merlin 1C SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 614.7 kN. First stages. Hardware. Isp=304s. Regeneratively cooled; turbo-pump also provided high pressure kerosene for the hydraulic actuators. Actuated turbine exhaust nozzle provided roll control. First flight 2008. More...
  • Merlin 1V SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 411.4 kN. Hardware. Isp=342s. Upper stage version of the Merlin developed for the Falcon 9 second stage. Based on the Merlin 1C and using a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber. First flight 2009. More...
  • Microcosm 22N Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 22.250 kN. First stages. Hardware. Pressure-fed, ablatively cooled engine using liquid oxygen and jet fuel as propellants. Flown 1999/2001. More...
  • Microcosm 356N Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 356 kN. First stages. Hardware. Funded under AFRL SBIR Phase 1 contract of 2006. Ablative chamber, LOX/Jet A propellant engines designed for very low-cost, robust design margins. More...
  • Microcosm 89N Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 89 kN. First stages. Hardware. In 2005 tests were conducted of this low-cost ablative composite rocket engine for responsive launch vehicle applications. More...
  • Mk7 Multiple-source solid rocket engine. 9.8 kN. More...
  • MPD UM-NASA electric rocket engine. 1.35 kW Hall thruster More...
  • MR-103 Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 1.12 N. Attitude control thruster for Voyager, GPS, Intelsat 5, MMAS 3000, 4000,. 5000, and 7000, Mars Observer, ACTS, and Magellan. In Production. Isp=227s. First flight 1974. More...
  • MR-104 Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Attitude control and velocity corrections, Voyager, Magellan, DMSP, Tiros N, Landsat. In Production. Isp=239s. First flight 1977. More...
  • MR-106 Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.027 kN. Spacecraft and upper stage attitude control and velocity corrections, PAM A/S,. Radarsat, GPS Block 2R, HAS/Peace Courage, Titan Centaur, Atlas Centaur. In Production. Isp=232s. More...
  • MR-107 Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.257 kN. Spacecraft and upper stage attitude control and dV corrections, Delta 2, Titan 2, PAM D, SICBM, HAS/Peace Courage, Atlas roll control module, STEP, Pegasus. Isp=236s. First flight 1990. More...
  • MR-111 Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 4.4 N. Attitude control, Intelsat 5, ERBS, ACTS, Radarsat, MMAS 4000, 5000, and. 7000, Wind/Polar Landsat, and Mars Observer. In Production. Isp=229s. First flight 1980. More...
  • MR-120 Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.090 kN. Small ICBM. In Production. Developed as an attitude control thruster for the small ICBM. Isp=229s. More...
  • MR-502 Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 500 mN. Communications satellite N-S stationkeeping, MMAS 5000. In Production. Isp=304s. First flight 1991. More...
  • MR-512 Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 254 mN. In Production. Low-voltage bus arcjet system. Input power 1780 W at 35 V DC. Isp=502s. More...
  • MR-510 Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 254 mN. In Production. Arcjet system. Isp=600s. More...
  • MR-509 Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 254 mN. In Production. Low-power arcjet system. Input power 1800 W at 65 V DC. Isp=502s. More...
  • MR-501B Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 369 mN. BSAT-2 communications satellite. In Production. Electrothermal hydrazine thruster (EHT). 493 W input power at 24 V DC. Isp=303s. More...
  • MR-50 Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.022 kN. Attitude control for SMS, Viking, Metosat, GOES, Voyager, GPS, Intelsat 5,. Scatha, MMAS 5000, Delta Star, Magellan, Wind/Polar. In Production. Isp=228s. First flight 1974. More...
  • MR-508 Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 230 mN. Communications satellite N-S stationkeeping, MMAS 7000. In Production. Isp=502s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MRE-15/OMV TRW hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.089 kN. In Production. Isp=225s. Mono-propellant Hydrazine Thrusters. More...
  • MRM-103 Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.22 N. In Production. Steady-state thrust 0.22 N. Isp=224s. More...
  • MRM-106 Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.027 kN. In Production. Steady-state thrust 9 N. Isp=231s. More...
  • MRM-122 Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.142 kN. In Production. Steady-state thrust 51 N. Isp=228s. More...
  • MTV Motor SpaceDev N2O/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Upper stages. Small hybrid rocket motor designed for use in the Maneuver and Transfer Vehicle, an upper stage orbital transfer motor. Tested 2001. More...
  • MUT Rocketdyne MON/UDMH rocket engine. 5.635 kN. Satellite maneuvering motor. Developed 2005. Isp=292s. New technology motor with improved thrust/weight ratio and use of mixed oxides of nitrogen oxidiser with a much lower freezing point than N2O4. More...
  • NASA-457M NASA Cleveland electric/xenon rocket engine. Isp=2326s. 50 kW Hall thruster developed 2001-on. More...
  • NASA-173GT NASA Cleveland electric rocket engine. Two-Stage Hybrid Hall/Ion Thruster More...
  • NASA-400M NASA Cleveland electric/krypton rocket engine. 1 N. Isp=4000s. Developed to investigate high-power, high specific impulse Hall thruster operation in 2004. More...
  • Nerva NTR DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 333.4 kN. Study 1991. Late 1980's update of 1960's Nerva design. Isp=925s. More...
  • Nerva DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 266 kN. Study 1968. Early version of Nerva engine proposed for use in Saturn and RIFT configurations in 1961. Isp=800s. More...
  • Nerva Gamma DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 81 kN. Study 1972. Isp=975s. The final Nerva Gamma flight engine was an improved version of the Alpha, a small engine that could be launched together with its stage and a payload in a single space shuttle launch. More...
  • Nerva Alpha DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 71.7 kN. Study 1972. The final Nerva Alpha flight engine reference configuration as documented at the end of its development. Isp=860s. More...
  • Nerva 2 DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 867.4 kN. Developed 1950-74. Isp=825s. More...
  • NERVA 1mlbf Notional nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 8963 kN. DAC Helios, DAC Helios ISI studies 1963. Isp=850s. More...
  • Nerva 12 GW Notional nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. Study 1959. Used on Hyperion launch vehicle. More...
  • NEXT UM-NASA electric/xenon rocket engine. 237 mN. Isp=4100s. NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster, 40 cm diameter ion engine, double the beam extraction area of the NSTAR engine. Developed 1998-2003. More...
  • NOTS-3 NOTS solid rocket engine. 2.260 kN. Out of production. Isp=250s. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • NOTS-1 NOTS solid rocket engine. 53.4 kN. Out of production. Isp=204s. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • NOTS-4 NOTS solid rocket engine. 0.700 kN. Out of production. Isp=250s. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • NOTS 100A NOTS solid rocket engine. Used on Blue Scout Junior launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • NPS-2 Rocketdyne nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. Nuclear Deep Space. Nuclear. Liquid hydrogen turbopumps, feed systems, and nozzles developed for KIWI-A, KIWI-B, Nerva, Pheobus IA, MFS-1, MFS-2, MFS-3, and Rover nuclear development systems. More...
  • NSTAR NASA Cleveland electric/xenon rocket engine. 92 mN. Isp=3100s. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program developed this 2.3 kW ion engine as primary propulsion for the Deep Space 1 comet and asteroid rendezvous probe, flew 1998. More...
  • Nuclear 12 Gw Notional nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 2892 kN. Helios A, Helios C study 1960. Nuclear second stage. Isp=830s. More...
  • Nuclear 14 Gw Notional nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 3334 kN. Study 1960. Nuclear second stage Isp=830s. Used on Helios B launch vehicle. More...
  • OME Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 26.7 kN. Study 1972. Isp=316s. Engine used in Shuttle Orbiter Orbital Maneuvering System pods, for orbit insertion, maneuvering, and re-entry initiation. First flight 1981. More...
  • OPI Methane Engine Orion Propulsion Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 0.445 kN. Reaction control thruster for future manned spacecraft. Developed from 2001; tested 2005. More...
  • Orbitec Methane Engine Orbital Technologies Corporation Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 0.133 kN. Reaction control thruster. Tested 2005. Used vortex-cooled combustion process to eliminate combustion chamber heating. More...
  • Orion Aerojet solid rocket engine. 13 kN. Improved Orion motor was a bi-phase propellant system with thrust levels of 84.5 kN during the first four seconds of motor burn, trailing off to 13.3 kN at burnout at 25 seconds. More...
  • P-7 Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Launch thrust 222.31 kN. Aspen Booster. Pressure-fed. Thrust from 12,000 lb to 50,000 lb at sea level. More...
  • P320 Rocketdyne, Friedrichshafen lox/lh2 rocket engine. Development. Launch thrust 129 kN. BORD 1/P320 BOELKOW (Germany)/Rocketdyne Technology. Pressure-fed. More...
  • P4-1 Booster Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2.441 kN. AQM-37. Target System Booster. Pressure-fed. Isp=232s. First flight 1963. More...
  • P4-1 Sustainer Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 0.470 kN. AQM-37. Target System Sustainer. Pressure-fed. Isp=262s. First flight 1963. More...
  • P5 Hall thruster UM-USAF electric/xenon rocket engine. 246 mN. Isp=2326s. 5 kW Hall thruster for research purposes. More...
  • P78-2 Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 0.14 mN. Flown in 1979. Isp=350s. The thruster for the Scatha experiment consisted of one electron bombardment engines using xenon propellant. More...
  • P8E-9 Rocketdyne Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Lance. Launch thrust 205.44 kN. Lance Booster and Sustainer System. Pressure-fed. Sustainer 4400 -14,400 lbf, 227 sec Isp. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1972. More...
  • Peacekeeper 1 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 2204.5 kN. In Production. MX Stage 1. Used as first stage of Taurus launch vehicle for initial test. Isp=282s. More...
  • Pegasus XL-1 Hercules solid rocket engine. 589 kN. Isp=293s. Used on Pegasus XL launch vehicle. First flight 1994. More...
  • Pegasus XL-2 Hercules solid rocket engine. 153.5 kN. Isp=290s. Used on Pegasus XL launch vehicle. First flight 1994. More...
  • Pegasus-1 Hercules solid rocket engine. 484.9 kN. Isp=285s. Used on Pegasus, Taurus. First flight 1989. More...
  • Pegasus-2 Hercules solid rocket engine. 118.2 kN. Isp=290s. Used on Pegasus, Taurus. First flight 1989. More...
  • Pegasus-3 Hercules solid rocket engine. 34.6 kN. Isp=287s. Upper stage engine for Pegasus, Pegasus XL, Taurus. First flight 1989. More...
  • PEPL-70 UM-JPL electric rocket engine. 1 kW Hall thruster, SPT type More...
  • PF N204/UDMH-2912k Notional N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 28,552 kN. Study 1967. Isp=267s. Used on Saturn LCB-Storable-140 launch vehicle. More...
  • PF N204/Alumizine-1925k Notional N2O4/Alumizine rocket engine. 18,873 kN. Study 1967. Isp=280s. Used on Saturn LCB-Alumizine-250 launch vehicle. More...
  • PF N204/Alumizine-2300k Notional N2O4/Alumizine rocket engine. 22,562 kN. Study 1967. Isp=280s. Used on Saturn LCB-Alumizine-140 launch vehicle. More...
  • PF N204/UDMH-2165k Notional N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 21,232 kN. Study 1967. Isp=267s. Used on Saturn LCB-Storable-250 launch vehicle. More...
  • PF RP-1 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 20,306 kN. Study 1967. Isp=275s. Used on Saturn LCB-Lox/RP-1 launch vehicle. More...
  • Plug-Nozzle Pegasus Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 23,928 kN. Study 1966. Isp=459s. Used on Pegasus VTOVL launch vehicle. More...
  • Plug-Nozzle SERV Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 31,980.2 kN. Study 1971. Isp=455s. Used on Shuttle SERV launch vehicle. More...
  • Plug-Nozzle SSME Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 3728.7 kN. Study 1978. Isp=485s. Used on VTOVL launch vehicle. More...
  • Plug-Nozzle J-2 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 6864.6 kN. Study 1993. Plug nozzle version of J-2 proposed for certain Saturn V upgrades in late 1960's. Isp=425s. Used on DC-I launch vehicle. More...
  • Press Fed TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 17.8 kN. Design concept 1960's. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=300s. More...
  • Press Fed 1000k TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 9793 kN. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=300s. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. More...
  • Press Fed 200k TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 2028 kN. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=306s. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. More...
  • Press Fed 25k TRW Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Design concept 1960's. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=270s. More...
  • Press Fed 5748k TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 56,368 kN. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=267s. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. More...
  • Program 661 EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. 8.9 mN. Flew 1962-1964. Isp=7400s. Cesium contact ion propulsion system used on three sub-orbital flight tests aboard Blue Scout Junior launch vehicles. More...
  • PRS-101 Redmond electric/teflon rocket engine. 1.24 mN. In Production. Pulsed plasma thruster system. Completely solid state propulsion. Up to 100 W input power at 28 V DC, thrust to power ratio 12.4 microN/W. Isp=1350s. More...
  • PW 1000000 lb LH2 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 4457 kN. Study 1988. Part of launch vehicle proposed by Martin as alternative to NLS. All figures estimated based on 1,000,000 lb thrust single engine. Isp=425s. More...
  • R-1E Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.110 kN. In Production from 1981. Isp=280s. Thruster developed as the Space Shuttle Orbiter's vernier attitude control and orbit adjust thruster. There were six employed in conjunction with the 38 R-40 thrusters. More...
  • R-40A Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 3.870 kN. In Production. Isp=306s. Thruster developed for Shuttle Orbiter orbit control. The orbiter had 38 long scarf, short scarf, or no scarf configurations, depending on the location. More...
  • R-40B Redmond N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 4 kN. In Production. Isp=293s. More...
  • R-42 Redmond N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.890 kN. In Production. Isp=303s. More...
  • R-4D Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.490 kN. Isp=312s. Developed as attitude control thruster for the Apollo Service and Lunar Modules in 1960s. In production for numerous satellites for apogee / perigee maneuvers, orbit adjustment, and attitude control. More...
  • R-6C Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.033 kN. In Production. Isp=290s.Derivative of Advent communications satellite thruster for Insat 1, Arbasat 1, and Olympus and HS-393 satellites. More...
  • RBCC Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. Launch thrust 111.158 kN. Isp>400s. Rocket Based Combined-Cycle A5 Development Engine; integrated rocket, air-augmented rocket, ramjet, and sramjet propulsion elements into a single flowpath. More...
  • RD-180 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 4152 kN. Atlas III, Atlas V stage 1. In production. Isp=337s. First flight 2000. Two-thrust-chamber derivative of the four-chamber RD-170 used on Zenit. More...
  • REA 22-16 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.130 kN. In Production. More...
  • REA 39-2 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 2.22 N. In Production. More...
  • REA 22-5 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.050 kN. In Production. More...
  • REA 22-17 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.178 kN. In Production. More...
  • REA 17-6 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 2.22 N. In Production. More...
  • REA 17-12 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 4.45 N. In Production. More...
  • REA 16 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.020 kN. In Production. More...
  • REA 10 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 890 mN. In Production. More...
  • REA 22-2 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.090 kN. In Production. More...
  • REA 20-4 Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.556 kN. In Production. More...
  • Redesigned SRM Thiokol solid rocket engine. 11,520 kN. In Production. Isp=268s. Replacement shuttle solid rocket booster with redesigned field joints to prevent failure that caused the Challenger disaster. More...
  • RESA-2 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.215 kN. Pitch Control Propulsion Module. Pressure-fed. More...
  • RESA-5 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 7.109 kN. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Isp=280s. More...
  • RJ47 Wright ramjet engine. 44.6 kN. Development ended 1958. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Isp=1200s. Used on Navaho G-38 launch vehicle. More...
  • RL-10A-5 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 64.7 kN. Isp=373s. Throttleable to 30% of thrust, sea level version of RL10. Four engines were built and were used on the DC-X and the upgraded DC-XA VTOVL SSTO launch vehicle demonstrators. First flight 1993. More...
  • RL-10C Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 155.7 kN. In Production. Used in Delta 3 - 2. Isp=450s. First flight 1998. More...
  • RL-10B-X Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 93.4 kN. Design concept 1994. Isp=470s. More...
  • RL-10B-2 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 110 kN. In production. Isp=462s. Used on Delta 3 , Delta IV launch vehicles. First flight 1998. Extendable exit cone for increased specific impulse; electromechanical actuators replace hydraulic systems. More...
  • RL-10A-3A Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 73.4 kN. Isp=444s. Used on Centaur stage atop Atlas G, Atlas I, Atlas II, Titan 4. First flight 1984. More...
  • RL-10A-5KA Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 100.488 kN. Kistler proposal. Design 1992. Isp=398s. Throttleable to 30% of thrust, sea level version of RL10 with extendable nozzle for high altitude operation. More...
  • RL-10C-X Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 110.8 kN. Design concept 1994. Isp=450s. More...
  • RL-10A-4 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 92.5 kN. Out of production. Isp=449s. Centaur stage for Atlas IIA, Atlas IIAS. First flight 1992. More...
  • RL-10A-3 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 65.6 kN. Study 1968. Isp=444s. First flight 1967. More...
  • RL-10A-1 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 66.7 kN. Isp=425s. Version used on Atlas Centaur LV-3C, and proposed for various early Saturn launch vehicle designs. First flight 1961. More...
  • RL-10 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 66.7 kN. Isp=410s. Early version as proposed for Nova A, Nova B, Saturn B-1, Saturn C-2, Saturn C-3, Saturn I. First flight 1961. More...
  • RL-10A-4-1 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 99.1 kN. Out of production. Isp=451s. Used on Atlas IIIA launch vehicle. First flight 2000. Version with one of engines removed; remaining engine re-positioned to center-mount; new electro-mechanical gimbals. More...
  • RL-10A-4-2 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 99.1 kN. In production. Isp=451s. Used on Atlas IIIB launch vehicle. First flight 2002. Two engines; electro-mechanical thrust vector control actuators replaced earlier hydraulically actuated system. More...
  • RL-50 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 290 kN. Development. Isp=472s. Advanced, high-performance upper-stage rocket engine proposed by Pratt & Whitney for both domestic and international launch vehicles. More...
  • RL-60 Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 289.1 kN. Design. Isp=470s. Upper stage engine to have been developed by Pratt and Whitney with several international partners. Same dimensions as the RL-10, but over twice the thrust. More...
  • RM-01 Rocketdyne hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 44 mN. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Isp=91s. More...
  • RM-05 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.020 kN. Satellite Reaction Control System. Pressure-fed. Isp=238s. More...
  • RM-100T Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Lunar Flyer. Pressure-fed. Isp=296s. More...
  • RM-1500H Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 6.660 kN. Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Propulsion. Pressure-fed. Isp=400s. More...
  • RM-1-2 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 4.4 N. Satellite Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Isp=238s. More...
  • RM-1-1 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 4.4 N. Satellite Reaction Control System. Pressure-fed. Isp=245s. More...
  • RM-100B Rocketdyne Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Satellite Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Isp=283s. More...
  • RM-100A Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Isp=301s. More...
  • RM-25 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.107 kN. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Isp=286s. More...
  • RM-25-1 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.107 kN. Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Isp=300s. More...
  • RM-900 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 4.001 kN. Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Isp=309s. More...
  • RN-6 Rocketdyne nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. Nuclear Deep Space. Nuclear. More...
  • Rotary Rocket XCOR Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 22.250 kN. First stages. Developed in 1990's. Developed and tested by Rotary Rocket for their launcher before its cancellation. More...
  • RS-1402 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.098 kN. Minuteman Pitch, Yaw & Roll Control. Pressure-fed. Technology engine, developed, but not produced. Led to RS-14 prodution engines. Isp=259s. More...
  • RS-19 Rocketdyne exotic ClF3/Hydrazine rocket engine. Launch thrust 3.108 kN. Condor Development Booster Air-to-Ground Missile. Pressure-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • RS-14 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 1.392 kN. Minuteman Postboost Velocity Control. Pressure-fed. Isp=315s. First flight 1970. More...
  • RS-1403 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.078 kN. Minuteman Pitch, Yaw & Roll Control. Pressure-fed. Technology engine, developed, but not produced. Led to RS-14 prodution engines. Isp=230s. More...
  • RS-18 Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 15.563 kN. Apollo Lunar Ascent Module Engine. Pressure-fed. Isp=310s. More...
  • RS-2100 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. Launch thrust 2047.6 kN. Next Generation Launch Vehicle Booster. Full flow staged combustion, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • RS-2101A Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 1.333 kN. Mars Mariner. Pressure-fed. Derivtive of RS-14 Minuteman engine. Isp=287s. First flight 1971. More...
  • RS-2101C Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 1.333 kN. Viking. Pressure-fed. Derivtive of RS-14 Minuteman engine. Isp=294s. First flight 1975. More...
  • RS-2200 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2201 kN. Development cancelled 1999. Isp=455s. Linear Aerospike Engine developed for use on the Lockheed Reusable Launch Vehicle, the production follow-on to the X-33. More...
  • RS-23 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 26.670 kN. Space Shuttle Orbiter Orbit Maneuvering System. Pressure-fed. Isp=313s. First flight 1981. More...
  • RS-27 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1023 kN. Out of production. Isp=295s. Consisted of RS2701A/B main engine, and twin LR101-NA-11 verniers. Introduced in 1974 on the McDonnell Douglas' Delta 2000 series launcher; replaced the MB-3. First flight 1972. More...
  • RS-27A Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1054.2 kN. . Isp=302s. Replaced the RS-27 as the main system for the Delta and in the MA- 5A for the Atlas. RS2701B main engine, and twin LR101-NA-11 verniers. First flight 1989. More...
  • RS-27C Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine for Delta 7000. 1054.2 kN. Isp=302s. First flight 1990. More...
  • RS-28 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 2.667 kN. Space Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Isp=220s. More...
  • RS-32 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 1.392 kN. Upper Stage Target Engine Systems. Pressure-fed. Derived from Minuteman RS-14. Isp=288s. More...
  • RS-36 Sustainer Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 9.210 kN. HOE Homing Overlay Experiment Upper Stage Axial Propulsion System. Pressure-fed. Derivative of Lance propulsioon system. Isp=262s. First flight 1983. More...
  • RS-36 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 55.6 kN. HOE Homing Overlay Experiment Upper Stage Axial Propulsion System. Pressure-fed. Derivative of Lance propulsioon system. Isp=281s. First flight 1983. More...
  • RS-34 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 11.7 kN. Peacekeeper Postboost Axial Thrust. Pressure-fed. 1 main axial thruster per postboost propulsion system. Isp=308s. First flight 1983. More...
  • RS-34 Attitude Control Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 0.304 kN. Peacekeeper Postboost Attitude Control. Pressure-fed. 8 attitude thrusters in each postboost propulsion system. Isp=255s. First flight 1983. More...
  • RS-41 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 11.960 kN. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Isp=320s. More...
  • RS-42 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Isp=305s. More...
  • RS-43 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.020 kN. Attitude Control. Pressure-fed. Isp=284s. More...
  • RS-45 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 4.4 N. Satellite Attitude Control and Stationkeeping. Pressure-fed. Isp=300s. More...
  • RS-51 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 11.552 kN. Axial Spacecraft. Pressure-fed. Isp=315s. More...
  • RS-52 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 0.107 kN. Oxygen/Hydrogen Space Station Thruster. Pressure-fed. Technology was developed with 0.1 lb thrust resistojet by using electrically heated waste for space station propulsion. Isp=405s. More...
  • RS-56-OBA Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1046.8 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=299s. Booster engine for Atlas II, IIA, IIAS. First flight 1991. More...
  • RS-56-OSA Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 386.4 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=316s. Sustainer engine for Atlas II, IIA, IIAS. First flight 1991. More...
  • RS-68 Regen Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. Design concept -2004. Upgrade to basic RS-68 for Delta IV Heavy growth versions. Would use a regeneratively-cooled expansion nozzle, allowing it to run hotter, with higher thrust and specific impulse. More...
  • RS-68 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 3312 kN. In production. Isp=420s. First new large liquid-fueled rocket engine developed in America in more than 25 years. Powered the Delta IV booster. First flight 2002. More...
  • RS-68B Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. Design concept -2004. Upgrade (details not specificed) to basic RS-68 for Delta IV Heavy growth versions. More...
  • RS-71 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 31.126 kN. Development ended 1999. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment. Pressure-fed. Isp=430s. More...
  • RS-72 Rocketdyne, Ottobrunn N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 55.4 kN. Isp=340s. Aestus engine enhanced with the addition of a Boeing-Rocketdyne XLR 32 turbo-pump. More...
  • RS-74 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. Launch thrust 1112 kN. Next Generation Launch Vehicle Booster. Full flow staged combustion, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • RS-76 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Launch thrust 4002 kN. Space Shuttle Reusable First Stage. Ox-Rich staged combustion, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • RS-77 Rocketdyne solar/lh2 rocket engine. 0.176 kN. Solar Thermal Engine. Pressure-fed. SOTV Solar Orbit Transver Vehicle. Isp=870s. More...
  • RS-88 Rocketdyne rocket engine designed and built by Rocketdyne for use on Lockheed's Pad Abort Demonstration vehicle. In 2003, NASA tested the RS-88 in a series of 14 hot-fire tests, resulting in 55 seconds of successful engine operation. More...
  • RS-800 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 4110 kN. Design concept -2004. New high-thrust cryogenic engine for Delta IV Heavy growth versions. More...
  • RS-82 Rocketdyne H2O2/kerosene rocket engine. 44.463 kN. Next Generation Non-Toxic Upper Stage. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=320s. More...
  • RS-84 Rocketdyne lox/kerosene rocket engine. 5159 kN. Booster stages. Development ended 2005. Isp=335s. Design for NASA's Space Launch Initiative; borrowed extensively from Russian technology developed in the forty years since the USA abandoned the F-1. More...
  • RS-XXX Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 8230 kN. Design concept -2004. New high-thrust cryogenic engine concept for Next Generation Delta with 7 m diameter modules. More...
  • RS-X Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1890 kN. Design concept -1997. Employed existing Delta and Atlas MA and RS engine hardware with a new thrust chamber assembly to generate a thrust of 1890 kN for ELV applications. More...
  • RSRM Thiokol solid rocket engine. 11,520 kN. Study 1996. After the Challenger disaster the redesigned solid rocket motors had a slight reduction in performance due to reliability improvements. Isp=267s. More...
  • S-3 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Juno II, Saturn A-2 studies of 1959. Isp=282s. First flight 1958. More...
  • S-3D Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Launch thrust 600.1 kN. Jupiter Booster. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust later 150,000 lbs. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1957. More...
  • S-4 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 412.8 kN. Design ca. 1957. Version of Atlas sustainer tailored to Redstone Arsenal upper-stage requirements. Paper study only. Used on Super Jupiter launch vehicle. More...
  • SBIR Hybrid SpaceDev N2O/Solid hybrid rocket engine. 1100 kN. First stage. Upper-stage hybrid propulsion system, part of 2004 Phase 2 of SBIR contract from AFRL for a hybrid rocket motor-based small launch vehicle project. More...
  • Scramjet Scramjet engine for X-30 SSTO. 1372.9 kN. Development ended 1992. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is average during ascent. Isp=1550s. Propellant Slush LH2. More...
  • SE-10 Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 46.670 kN. Lunar Module Descent. Pressure-fed. Thrust throttleable 1050-10,500 lbs vac. Isp=305s. First flight 1968. More...
  • SE-1, 1-1, -2, and -4 Series Rocketdyne N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. SE-1, 1-1, -2, and -4 Series. Spacecraft Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Multiple thrust levels. First flight 1959. More...
  • SE-5-2/-3 Rocketdyne N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.205 kN. SE-5-2/-3. Agena Auxiliary. Pressure-fed. SE-5-2 four engines in satellite system. SE-5-3 two engines for Agena auxiliary propuslion. Isp=272s. First flight 1963. More...
  • SE-6 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.107 kN. Gemini Re-entry Control System. Pressure-fed. Isp=277s. First flight 1964. More...
  • SE-7-1 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.313 kN. S-IVB Stage APS Ullage Control Engine (propellant settling). Pressure-fed. Isp=274s. First flight 1966. More...
  • SE-7-100 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (100 Ib thrust). Pressure-fed. Isp=296s. First flight 1964. More...
  • SE-7-25 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.107 kN. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (25 Ib thrust). Pressure-fed. Isp=277s. First flight 1964. More...
  • SE-7-85 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.372 kN. Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (85 Ib thrust). Pressure-fed. Isp=295s. First flight 1964. More...
  • SE-8 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.411 kN. Apollo Command Module Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Isp=274s. First flight 1966. More...
  • SE-9-3 Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 0.107 kN. Titan III Transtage. Pressure-fed. System included two modules of three engines plus two additional SE-9-5 separate engines, tanks, and a pressuirzation system. Isp=295s. First flight 1964. More...
  • SE-9-5 Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 0.196 kN. Titan III Transtage. Pressure-fed. System included two modules of three engines plus two additional SE-9-5 separate engines, tanks, and a pressuirzation system. Isp=300s. First flight 1964. More...
  • Sea Dragon-2 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 62,270 kN. Design, 1962. Truax pressure fed design. Diameter of extended nozzle 30 m. Specific impulse estimated from booster performance figures. Isp=320s. More...
  • Sea Dragon-1 Aerojet Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 356,9 kN. Design, 1962. Isp=290s. Truax pressure fed design. Thrust, chamber pressure varied during ascent. More...
  • SEPS Hughes, TRW, NASA Cleveland electric/mercury rocket engine. 128 mN Isp=3000s. Solar Electric Propulsion Stage program, started in the early 1970s, a goal to provide a primary ion propulsion system operating at a fixed power for Earth orbital applications. More...
  • SEPST JPL, Hughes, TRW electric/mercury rocket engine. 88 mN. Isp=3600s. The Solar Electric Propulsion System Technology program of 1960-1980 demonstrated a complete breadboard ion propulsion system that would be applicable to an interplanetary spacecraft. More...
  • Sergeant Multiple-source solid rocket engine. 6.660 kN. Out of Production. Used in Jupiter C, Juno 2. Isp=235s. First flight 1956. More...
  • Sert II NASA Cleveland electric/mercury rocket engine. 28 mN. Flown in 1970. Isp=4200s. The thruster for the Sert-II test consisted of two electron bombardment engines using mercury propellant. More...
  • Sert-I Cesium Hughes electric/cesium rocket engine. 5.6 naN. In Development, 1962-1964. Isp=8050s. 8 cm diameter cesium contact ion engine was designed to operate at 0.6 kW. More...
  • Sert-I Mercury NASA Cleveland electric/mercury rocket engine. 28 mN. Developed 1962-1964. Isp=4900s. 10 cm diameter mercury electron bombardment ion engine used on the first successful flight test of ion propulsion on a Scout X-4 launch vehicle. More...
  • SIT- 5 Hughes electric/mercury rocket engine. 2.1 mN. Isp=3000s. 5 cm diameter mercury ion engine, developed 1970 for attitude control and north-south stationkeeping of geosynchronous satellites. More...
  • Sled Technology Rocketdyne Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 666 kN. Pressure-fed. From 35,000 to 150,000 lbf. Cook Sled, Air Force Sleds 1 and 2, RS-2 Sled, operated at Edwards and Holloman Air Force Bases. More...
  • Snapshot EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. 8.5 mN. In Development, 1962-1964. Isp=5100s. Launched on Blue Scout Junior launch vehicle on Snapshot test; a contact ionization engine; thruster anode diameter was 5 cm. More...
  • SpaceDev Hybrid SpaceDev N2O/Solid hybrid rocket engine. 73.5 kN. Rocketplane boost. Out of production. Isp=250s. Used on Tier One launch vehicle. First flight 2002. More...
  • SPW-2000 SNECMA, Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine. 230.4 kN. Design 2000. New upper-stage cryogenic engine for the upgraded Ariane-5, the Atlas-5, and other new vehicles. More...
  • SR-19 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 267.7 kN. Minuteman 2 2nd stage. In production. Second stage of Minuteman 2. Surplus motors used as second stage of Minotaur launch vehicle and various SDI targets in 1980's. Isp=287s. First flight 2000. More...
  • SR105 Aerojet solid rocket engine. 12.75" Improved FFAR . More...
  • SR109 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Maverick AGM-65. More...
  • SR115 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Maverick AGM-65. More...
  • SR116 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Sidewinder AIM-9J/P. More...
  • SR110 Aerodyne solid rocket engine. Super Loki PWN-10, PWN-11, PWN-12. More...
  • SR11 Hercules solid rocket engine. LGM-30 Retro Motor . Used on Minuteman 1 launch vehicle. More...
  • SR114 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Maverick AGM-65. More...
  • SR121 Naval Propellant Plant solid rocket engine. Streaker MQM-107 Booster. More...
  • SR122 Rocketdyne solid rocket engine. Also designated WPU-9/B1 (AGM-130). More...
  • SR45 Atlantic Research solid rocket engine. Kitty PWN-6, Rooster PWN-7. More...
  • SR49 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Genie AIR-2. More...
  • SR51 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Titan 2 LGM-25C Retro Motor. More...
  • SR55 United Technology Center solid rocket engine. Titan 2 LGM-25C Staging Motor. More...
  • SR59 Atlantic Research solid rocket engine. Minuteman 1 LGM-30 Pitch Motor. More...
  • SR61 Atlantic Research solid rocket engine. Minuteman 1 LGM-30 Spin Motor. More...
  • SR71 Aerodyne solid rocket engine. Loki PWN-8. More...
  • SR73 Aerojet solid rocket engine. Minuteman 1 LGM-30 3rd stage. More...
  • SR75 Lockheed solid rocket engine. SRAM AGM-69, ASAT ASM-135. More...
  • SRB Thiokol solid rocket engine. 11,520 kN. Isp=269s. Segmented solid rocket boosters for the compromised space shuttle design. Field joint design led to Challenger shuttle disaster. Production 1981-1985, after which superseded by RSRM's. More...
  • SRM-1 CSD solid rocket engine. 181.5 kN. Used in TOS; IUS-1 on Shuttle, Titan 34D. Known by manufacturer as Orbus 21. Propellant: 86% solids made up of HTPB UTP-19360A. Shape: cylindrical. Isp=296s. First flight 1982. More...
  • SRM-2 CSD solid rocket engine. 78.4 kN. Used in Shuttle, Titan 34D; IUS-2. Known by manufacturer as Orbus 6. Isp=304s. First flight 1982. More...
  • SSME Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2278 kN. In production. Isp=453s. Space Shuttle Main Engines; only high-pressure closed-cycle reusable cryogenic rocket engine ever flown. . Three mounted in the base of the American space shuttle. First flight 1981. More...
  • SSME Plus Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 3728.7 kN. VTOHL studies, 1978. Isp=467s. More...
  • SSUS-A Motor Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. A slightly modified stage 3 Minuteman 3 with TVC and roll control systems removed, provided propulsion for the Douglas Spinning Solid Upper Stage for use with Space Shuttle payloads. More...
  • Star 37G Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 304,620 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Isp=289s. More...
  • Star 48 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 67.2 kN. Used in Delta 3900; Conesotga; PAM-S; PAM-D. Total flown included in total for Star-48-8. Total impulse 575,682 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.946. Isp=286s. First flight 1982. More...
  • Star 40 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 200,882 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Isp=207s. More...
  • Star 37Y Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 317,856 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.93. Isp=297s. More...
  • Star 37XFP Thiokol solid rocket engine. 31.5 kN. In Production. Isp=290s. Orbit insertion motor qualified for Global Positioning Satellite. Used as a replacement for the discontinued STAR 37F. Propellant: 884 kg of AP/HTPB/Al in 6Al-4V titanium case. More...
  • Star 37XF 8 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 238,809 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.924. Isp=291s. More...
  • Star 37XF Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-37XF-8. Total impulse 259,123 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.929. Isp=290s. More...
  • Star 37X Thiokol solid rocket engine. 51.1 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 310,668 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.928. Isp=295s. More...
  • Star 37N Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 162,102 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.898. Isp=290s. More...
  • Star 48A s Thiokol solid rocket engine. 77.109 kN. In Production. Isp=283s. Short nozzle upper-stage motor designed to fit within the dimensional envelope of the long nozzle. More...
  • Star 37FM Thiokol solid rocket engine. 47.9 kN. In Production. Isp=289s. Apogee kick motor for the FLTSTACOM satellite. The motor case contained the same volume as the discontinued STAR 37E. More...
  • Star 37F Thiokol solid rocket engine. 55.5 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 249,177 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.928. Isp=286s. More...
  • Star 37E Thiokol solid rocket engine. 68 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 296,635 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.926. Isp=283s. More...
  • Star 37D Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 189,489 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Isp=266s. More...
  • Star 37C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 275,959 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Isp=285s. More...
  • Star 37B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 189,489 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Isp=291s. More...
  • Star 37S Thiokol solid rocket engine. 45 kN. Out of Production. Total impulse 190,590 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.925. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 5C/CB Thiokol solid rocket engine. 1.951 kN. In Production. Isp=266s. Titan Retro designed to separate the second stage from the transtage on the Titan II missile and Titan launch vehicle. The motor was also adapted for other uses. More...
  • Star 75 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 242.8 kN. In Production. Isp=288s. A demonstration motor tested as a first step in the development of a perigee kick motor in the 4080-7940 kg propellant range. More...
  • Star 6B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 2.510 kN. In Production. Isp=273s. Delta-V reentry motor developed as a spin-up and propulsion motor for reentry vehicles. The design incorporated an aluminum case and a plastic nozzle assembly. More...
  • Star 6A Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 935 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.723. Isp=285s. More...
  • Star 63F Thiokol solid rocket engine. 104.627 kN. In Production. Isp=297s. Provided perigee kick for the McDonnell PAM-D2 system. Another version was the Star 63D (TU-936). More...
  • Star 63D Thiokol solid rocket engine. 84.739 kN. In Production. Isp=283s. Perigee motor with a range of propellant loads, yielding GTO payloads from 3,080 to 4,588 pounds at a constant velocity of 8,012 feet per second. More...
  • Star 63 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 107.2 kN. Used in Shuttle,Titan 34D. Isp=282s. Used on Delta 7925 launch vehicle. First flight 1990. More...
  • Star 62 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 725,491 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.94. Isp=294s. More...
  • Star 48 8 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 587,784 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.945. Isp=292s. More...
  • Star 5CB Thiokol solid rocket engine. 2 kN. In Production. Reduced Al HTPB propellant (2.1 kg) minimizes contamination when Used in a Titan 4 stage separation motor. Diameter: 121 mm. Length: 341 mm. Mass: 4.5 kg. Itotal: 5.5 kNs. Burn Time: 2.77 sec. More...
  • Star 48A l Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total impulse 709,062 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.941. Isp=289s. More...
  • Star 5C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 2.039 kN. Out of Production. Titan Retro designed to separate the second stage from the upper stage of the Titan IV launch vehicle. More...
  • Star 5A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 0.166 kN. In Production. Isp=249s. Space Gnat was designed to provide a minimum acceleration, extended burn delta-V impulse, for small payload replacement or spin-up applications. More...
  • Star 5 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 405 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.87. Isp=189s. More...
  • Star 48V Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Developed for Conestoga's upper stage, providing some 4 degrees capability at 30 degree/sec using the same loaded casing as the 48B. First Flight: 1994. More...
  • Star 48B s Thiokol solid rocket engine. 77.109 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Short nozzle upper-stage motor qualified for the McDonnell Douglas Payload Assist Module (PAM) Space Transportation System (STS). More...
  • Star 48B l Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Isp=292s. Lengthened version of Star 48B to provide increased payload capability. The design incorporates a longer cylindrical section in the motor case. More...
  • Star 48B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 66 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Long nozzle upper-stage motor qualified for the McDonnell Payload Assist Module (PAM) Delta. More...
  • Star 30E Thiokol solid rocket engine. 35.4 kN. Koreasat. In Production. Isp=290s. Apogee motor used for the BAe Skynet 4 satellite, Koreasat and by the ORBEX small orbital launcher. More...
  • Star 6 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-6A. Total impulse 1,395 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.795. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 13D Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 7,799 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.81. Isp=223s. More...
  • Star 20B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 24.467 kN. In Production. Isp=289s. Modified version of the STAR 20 with increased case structural capability over the. A filament-wound, fiberglass-epoxy case contained the CTPB propellant grain. More...
  • Star 37 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 43.5 kN. Total impulse 161,512 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.899. Isp=260s. First flight 1963. More...
  • Star 20 Spherical Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 30,198 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.934. Isp=234s. More...
  • Star 20 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27.135 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Altair III was developed as the propulsion unit for the fourth stage of the Scout launch vehicle. A filament-wound, fiberglass-epoxy case contained the CTPB propellant grain. More...
  • Star 17A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 16.014 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Apogee kick motor, modified with 175 mm straight section added to the Star 17. The 17A was used to circularize orbits for the Skynet 1, NATO 1, and IMP-H & J satellites. More...
  • Star 17 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 10.9 kN. Skynet 1, NATO 1, and IMP-H & J. Out of production. Isp=286s. Used on Atlas LV-3A / Agena D launch vehicle. First flight 1963. More...
  • Star 15 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 11,109 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.926. Isp=228s. More...
  • Star 31 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 80 kN. In Production. Isp=293s. Antares III, third-generation third stage for Scout launch vehicle. Propellant: AP/HTPB/Al propellant in a filament wound Kevlar case. More...
  • Star 13E Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 6,438 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.822. Isp=211s. More...
  • Star 24 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 20 kN. Skynet 2. In Production. Isp=282s. Apogee boost motor was qualified and flown for the Skynet II, later apogee boost motor for NRL and SAMSO. More...
  • Star 13C Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 8,252 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.795. Isp=218s. More...
  • Star 13B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 7.6 kN. Out of Production. Isp=285s. Orbit insertion motor incorporated the lightweight case developed for the STAR 13 with the propellant and nozzle design of the earlier TE-M-516 apogee motor. More...
  • Star 13A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 5.874 kN. In Production. Isp=286s. Orbit insertion motor incorporated the lightweight titanium case developed for the STAR 13 with the propellant and nozzle design of the earlier TE-M-444 apogee motor. More...
  • Star 13 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 3.8 kN. Out of Production. Isp=273s. A braking motor used by NASA for the Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform program. More...
  • Star 12A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 7.247 kN. In Production. Isp=270s. Super SARV Retro was a longer, higher impulse version of the STAR 12, used as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. More...
  • Star 12 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 5.560 kN. In Production. Isp=252s. SARV Retro, MK IV and V was a 60-pound motor using 40 pounds of propellant. It was designed for use as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. More...
  • Star 10 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 3.353 kN. In Production. Isp=251s. SARV Retro MK I was a small, high-performance motor designed for use as a retrograde rocket for an unmanned satellite vehicle. More...
  • Star 13F Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 9,608 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.83. Isp=240s. More...
  • Star 27B Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 92,296 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Isp=288s. More...
  • Star 30C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 32.6 kN. AS 3000. In Production. Isp=286s. Apogee motor used for the RCA G-STAR and Martin Marietta series 3000 telecom satelllites. More...
  • Star 30BP Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27 kN. In Production. Isp=292s. Apogee motor used for the HS 376 satellite bus. Incorporated an 89-percent-solids HTPB propellant in a 6AI-4V titanium case insulated with silica-filled EPDM rubber. More...
  • Star 30B Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 148,816 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.941. Isp=293s. More...
  • Star 30A Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 137,095 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.942. Isp=294s. More...
  • Star 30 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-30A. Total impulse 136,455 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.943. Isp=293s. More...
  • Star 27E Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total impulse 88,301 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 20A Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 83,839 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.91. Isp=291s. More...
  • Star 27C Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 88,555 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.918. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 24A Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-24C. Total impulse 50,965 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.903. Isp=282s. More...
  • Star 27A Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 89,684 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.919. Isp=287s. More...
  • Star 27 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 27 kN. Apogee motor used on CTS, GMS, BS, GPS, GOES satellites. In Production. Isp=288s. More...
  • Star 26C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 35 kN. In Production. Isp=272s. Upper stage motor used the titanium alloy case and nozzle attachment ring of the STAR 26B design to provide high propellant mass fraction and was insulated for high-spin-rate applications. More...
  • Star 26B Thiokol solid rocket engine. 34.627 kN. In Production. Isp=271s. Upper stage motor flown on the Burner IIA spacecraft for Boeing and the U.S. Air Force. More...
  • Star 26 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 39.1 kN. In Production. Upper stage motor used in the Sandia Strypi IV vehicle. Total flown included in total for Star-26C. Total impulse 62,800 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.86. Isp=271s. First flight 1965. More...
  • Star 25 Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total impulse 61,086 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.917. Isp=240s. More...
  • Star 24C Thiokol solid rocket engine. 21.466 kN. In Production. Isp=282s. Apogee motor designed and qualified for the NASA International Ultraviolet Experiment satellite. More...
  • Star 24B Thiokol solid rocket engine. Out of Production. Total flown included in total for Star-24C. Total impulse 57,236 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.915. Isp=282s. More...
  • Star 27D Thiokol solid rocket engine. In Production. Total flown included in total for Star-27E. Total impulse 88,668 kgf-sec. Motor propellant mass fraction 0.921. Isp=287s. More...
  • STME Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2890 kN. Cancelled 1984. Isp=430s. Space Transportation Main Engine. Rocketdyne was teamed with Aerojet and Pratt & Whitney on the STME, which was to have powered the next generation of large launch vehicles. More...
  • T-140 Pratt and Whitney electric rocket engine. 3 kW Hall thruster More...
  • T-220 Pratt and Whitney / Keldysh Research Center electric rocket engine. Development began in 1997 of this 10 kW Hall thruster Program concluded in 2000 following a 1000 hour erosion characterization. More...
  • Talos Mk 11 Mod 2 Hercules solid rocket engine. 516 kN. Talos motor fitted with a conical adapter for mating to the second stage. More...
  • Terrier Mk12 Mod 0 Naval Prop Plant solid rocket engine. 257.5 kN. The Terrier MK 12 Mod 1 rocket motor was typically equipped with four 0.22 square meter fin panels arranged in a cruciform configuration. More...
  • Thiokol 156 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 14,746.1 kN. Developed to 1966. Isp=263s. More...
  • Timberwind 250 DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 2451.6 kN. Development ended 1992. Isp=1000s. Used on Timberwind launch vehicle. More...
  • Timberwind 45 DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 441.3 kN. Development ended 1992. Isp=1000s. Used on Timberwind Centaur launch vehicle. More...
  • Timberwind 75 DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 735.5 kN. Development ended 1992. Isp=1000s. Used on Timberwind Titan launch vehicle. More...
  • TIROC Kayser N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 1 N. Satellite orientation. Isp=303s. Tangential Injection and Rotational Combustion, the world's smallest thruster burning monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. More...
  • Toroid FD Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 20,015 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been December 1976. Engines for recoverable stage. Isp=455s. Used on Nova MM T10RR-2 launch vehicle. More...
  • Toroidal 400k Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1778 kN. Study 1967. Isp=447s. Used on Saturn V-3B launch vehicle. More...
  • TR-106 TRW lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2892 kN. Development. Innovative TRW 650K Low Cost Pintle Engine, test fired at NASA's test center in October 2000. More...
  • TR-107 TRW lox/kerosene rocket engine. 4900 kN. Booster stages. TRW design for NASA's Space Launch Initiative. The engine used duct-cooling of the main combustion chamber and materials that would not interact with kerosene to minimise coking. More...
  • TR-201 TRW N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 41.9 kN. Apollo lunar module ascent stage engines. Surplus engines used on Delta P stage. Isp=301s. First flight 1972. More...
  • Transtar Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 16.7 kN. Development completed 1987. Isp=328s. Upper stage engine using injectors, chamber, and nozzle derived from the Shuttle OMS system, but pump-fed for increased chamber pressure and Isp. Tested; no production. More...
  • Truax LH2 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 147.1 kN. Test 1962. Used in Sea Horse-2. Isp=425s. More...
  • TX-354-3 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 258.9 kN. Used in Scout A; Delta E; H-1-0; Castor 2. License built in Japan for H-1. Isp=262s. First flight 1960. More...
  • UA-156 CSD solid rocket engine. 8924.3 kN. Tested 1968. Isp=263s. Proposed as strap-on booster for Saturn INT-27, Saturn V-25(S)B, Saturn V-25(S)U. More...
  • UA1207 CSD solid rocket engine. 7116.9 kN. Isp=272s. First flight 1989. More...
  • UA1206 CSD solid rocket engine. 6226.9 kN. Isp=265s. Used on Titan 34D launch vehicle. First flight 1982. More...
  • UA1205 CSD solid rocket engine. 5849.3 kN. Out of production. Isp=263s. Strap-on boosters for Titan 3C, 3D, 3E. Proposed for advanced Saturn IB versions. First flight 1965. More...
  • USRM Hercules solid rocket engine. 7560.5 kN. Isp=286s.Strap-on booster for Titan 4B. First flight 1997. More...
  • Viper-20 Multiple-source American solid rocket engine. 20 kN. Viper More...
  • WAC JPL/Douglas Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. 6.7 kN. More...
  • X-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 880.440 kN. Booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust from 165,000 to 198,000 lbs. More...
  • X-248A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 13.8 kN. Isp=255s. Used on Scout X-1, Scout X-2, Scout X-3. First flight 1960. More...
  • X-248 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 12.4 kN. Isp=256s. Used on Atlas Able, Blue Scout 2, Caleb, Delta, Delta A, Delta B, Delta C. First flight 1959. More...
  • X-254 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 60.5 kN. Isp=256s. Used on Blue Scout 1, Blue Scout 2, Blue Scout Junior, Scout X-1. First flight 1960. More...
  • X-258 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 22.2 kN. Isp=266s. Kick stage motor for Delta D, Scout A, Scout X-4. First flight 1963. More...
  • X-259 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 93.1 kN. Isp=293s. Used on Scout A, Scout B, Scout D, Scout F, Scout X-2, Scout X-3, Scout X-4. First flight 1962. More...
  • X-259A Thiokol solid rocket engine. 80.8 kN. Out of production. Isp=295s. Used on Scout G launch vehicle. First flight 1979. More...
  • X-405 GE Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 134.8 kN. Vanguard 1st stage. Isp=270s. First flight 1957. More...
  • X-430 GE exoticLF2/LH2 rocket engine. 334 kN. Developed 1960's. Very high energy engine developed in early 1960's for future large upper stages. Not flown due to toxicity of propellants. More...
  • X-8 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. Launch thrust 400.1 kN. Booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. More...
  • X35AL-6000 Aerojet rocket engine. PB2Y-3 ATO. Launch thrust 26.77 kN. Development begun November 1942. More...
  • X4-AL-1000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Brake rocket for G-4A. Launch thrust 4.41 kN. Braking rocket for glider. Single uncooled chamber, pressure fed, 13 kg of propellant. More...
  • X45ALD-4000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. B-29 ATO. Launch thrust 17.6 kN. Development begun June 1948. Regenerative cooling, nitrogen pressure-fed, droppable but no recoverable. Early version using XLR-13-AJ-1 thrust chamber assembly. More...
  • X60AL-1300 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. P-51 superperformance. Launch thrust 5.78 kN. Development begun January 1945. Superperformance More...
  • X60ALD-4000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. ATO for XB-45, B-45A. Launch thrust 17.6 kN. Development begun May 1946. Pressurising tank surrounded propellant tanks. Regeneratively cooled. Parachute for dropping and recovery after takeoff. More...
  • X90ALT-60000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Launch thrust 264 kN. Development begun April 1947. Unspecified Application, 20,000 Ibf subscale tested, new vertical test facility More...
  • XASR-1 Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. 11.6 kN. More...
  • XCALT-6000 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Thrust 26.67 kN. Conservative alternate to Aerotojet for XP-79 flying wing rocket fighter. Successfully tested in August 1945, but project cancelled. Regeneratively cooled, 4 thrust chambers, pump-fed. More...
  • XCALR-2000A-1 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine for XP-79 Northrop Flying Wing. Thrust 9.12 kN. Aerotojet, a pair of canted 130 kgf thrust chambers mounted longitudinally on a drive shaft, which drove the turbopumps. Developed 1943-1945; blew up on first test. More...
  • XCNLT-1500 Aerojet isopropylnitrate monopropellant rocket engine. Lark. Launch thrust 6.66 kN. Development begun March 1945. Turborocket; turbine-pump fed monopropellant, single uncooled thrust chamber. Development unsuccessful, all work terminated. More...
  • XIPS-13 0.44 kW Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 17.8 mN. In Production. Isp=2585s. HS 702 operational communications satellites each employed four of these 0.44 kW xenon ion thrusters. More...
  • XIPS-25 1.3 kW Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 63 mN. Isp=2800s. XIPS-25 program, conducted by Hughes, developed thrusters, BBPPUs, and a feed system pressure regulator for stationkeeping of 2500 kg class communication satellites. More...
  • XIPS-25 4.2 kW Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 165 mN. Isp=3800s. 25 cm diameter xenon engine system for orbital circularization, station-keeping, attitude control, and momentum dumping for its HS 702 spacecraft. More...
  • XJ40-WE-1 Wright turbojet engine. 48.5 kN. Out of production. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Isp=1800s. Used on Navaho X-10 launch vehicle. First flight 1955. More...
  • XLR11 Reaction Motors, Thiokol Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. Out of Production. Launch thrust 26.67 kN. Rocket engine developed for X-1 in 1940s to break the sound barrier and used twenty years later to power experimental lifting bodies. Four combustion chambers. More...
  • XLR13-AJ-7 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Launch thrust 17.6 kN. Modification of -AJ-1. Regeneratively cooled by fuel, droppable. More...
  • XLR132 Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 16.7 kN. Out of Production. Isp=340s. Pump-fed high performance upper stage engine for perigee/apogee stages. as well as transfer vehicles and lunar and Martian missions. Tested extensively but no production. More...
  • XLR105-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 363.2 kN. Atlas D. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Isp=309s. First flight 1958. More...
  • XLR13-AJ-5 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. B-29 ATO. Launch thrust 17.6 kN. Development begun June 1948. Ceramic chamber and nozzle, nitrogen pressure-fed, droppable but no recoverable. More...
  • XLR20AJ-2 Aerojet Nitric acid/Gasoline rocket engine. Lark. Launch thrust 6.66 kN. Development begun January 1946. Blast turbine, three levels of thrust (600/1000/7500 lbf). Replaced NM Lark. More...
  • XLR24AJ-2 Aerojet Nitric acid/Gasoline rocket engine. Lark. Launch thrust 10.7 kN. Development begun January 1946. Blast turbine, 2500 Ibf fixed thrust (both were part of overall R&D contract) More...
  • XLR25-CW-1 Curtiss-Wright Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 66.880 kN. Out of Production. First flight 1954. Two chamber engine built for X-2 rocketplane. Engine could be throttled continuously from 1140 kgf to 6820 kgf. More...
  • XLR43-NA-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 333 kN. Development completed 1951. Mark III American version of single-chamber V-2 engine tested in WW2, but with half mass and 34% more thrust. Starting point for all later Rocketdyne engines. More...
  • XLR53AJ-1 Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. F-80. Out of Production. Launch thrust 4.41 kN. Development begun 1949. Superperformance, wing tip mounted, regenerative cooling, pressure fed, 240 sec duration, 1000 Ibf thrust each. More...
  • XLR71-NA-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. Development cancelled 1955. Launch thrust 533.7 kN. Planned engine for the booster of the Navaho II test vehicle. Gas generator, pump-fed. More...
  • XLR89-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Atlas D. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Isp=282s. First flight 1958. More...
  • XLR89-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Atlas A, B, C. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Isp=282s. First flight 1957. More...
  • XLR83-NA-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 602 kN. Out of production. Isp=273s. Experimental version of the engine for the booster of the Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile. Flown in the Navaho G-26 booster prototypes. First flight 1956. More...
  • XLR99 Thiokol Lox/Ammonia rocket engine. 262.4 kN. Out of production. Isp=276s. The first large, man-rated, throttleable, restartable liquid propellant rocket engine, boosted the X-15A. First flight 1959. More...
  • XR2P1 XCOR Nitrous oxide/Alcohol rocket engine. 0.067 kN. First stages. Hardware. Engine was run on oxygen and nitrous oxide oxidizers, with propane, ethane, kerosene, turpentine, and a variety of alcohols. More...
  • XR3A2 XCOR Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 0.700 kN. First stages. Hardware. The XR3A2 700-newton engine was the first XCOR LOX/alcohol engine, accumulating 61 brief runs in the course of injector concept development, which led to later engines. More...
  • XR3B4 XCOR Nitrous oxide/Alcohol rocket engine. 0.220 kN. First stages. Hardware. Regeneratively cooled engine using nitrous oxide and isopropyl alcohol as propellants. More...
  • XR3M9 XCOR Lox/CH4 rocket engine. 0.223 kN. First stages. Hardware. Methane-fueled engine allowing long-term on-orbit storage, higher density than hydrogen engines. Intended for use in reaction control systems and satellite maneuvering systems More...
  • XR4A3 XCOR Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 1.780 kN. First stages. Fully operational pressure-fed, regeneratively cooled engine. Flown on the EZ-Rocket, a modified Long-EZ aircraft fitted with two engines. First flight 2001. More...
  • XR4K14 XCOR Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 6.670 kN. First stages. Hardware. Built for the Rocket Racing League's first X-Racer. The rocket engine was sized for the best compromise between acceleration and endurance. More...
  • XR4K5 XCOR Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 8 kN. First stages. Hardware. Pump-fed, regeneratively cooled with fuel. Engine could be used to power the prototype Xerus suborbital manned vehicle for initial flight testing. More...
  • XR5M12 XCOR Lox/CH4 rocket engine. 22.3 kN. First stages. Conceptual lox/methane rocket engine developed for a DARPA program through layout design phase, but never built. More...
  • XR5M15 XCOR Lox/CH4 rocket engine. 33.360 kN. First stages. Hardware. Prototype LOX/methane rocket engine developed as a stepping stone to NASA's original Orion manned spacecraft and return to the moon and manned mission to Mars plans. More...
  • XRJ47-W-5 Wright ramjet engine. 33.4 kN. Out of production. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Isp=1200s. Used on Navaho G-26 launch vehicle. First flight 1956. More...
  • XRS-2200 Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1192 kN. Development ended 1999. Isp=439s. Linear aerospike engine for X-33 SSTO technology demonstrator. Based on J-2S engine developed for improved Saturn launch vehicles in the 1960's. More...
  • YLR45AJ-3 Aerojet Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. F-84 ATO. Out of Production. Development begun 1948. Bleed air drive, droppable acid tanks, ceramic chamber with oval throat, 60 second duration, reusable 50 times More...
  • YLR45-AJ-1 Aerojet Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. B-47C ATO. Out of Production. Development begun August 1948. Turbojet engine bleed air drive for turbopump. Fixed internal acid tanks, regenerative cooling. More...
  • YLR63AJ-3 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. F-86. Out of Production. Development begun 1953. Superperformance, modification of YLR45AJ-3 with gas generator turbine drive, 6 restarts. More...

Associated Flights
  • Mercury MA-6 Crew: Glenn. First US manned orbital mission, three orbits. False landing bag deploy light led to reentry being started with retropack left in place. It turned out the indicator light was false, but a spectacular reentry ensued. Backup crew: Carpenter. More...
  • Mercury MA-7 Crew: Carpenter. Second US manned orbital mission. Excessive fuel use and pilot error led to late re-entry, and landing 300 km past the intended point. Capsule ran out of orientation fuel during re-entry. Backup crew: Schirra. More...
  • Mercury MA-8 Crew: Schirra. Most successful American manned space flight to that date, six orbits, returning to earth precisely, with astronaut aboard recovery ship 40 minutes after landing. Speed record (7,850 m/s). Backup crew: Cooper. More...
  • Mercury MA-9 Crew: Cooper. Final Mercury mission, After 22 orbits, virtually all capsule systems failed. Nevertheless the astronaut was able to manually guide the spacecraft to a pinpoint landing. Backup crew: Shepard. More...
  • Gemini 3 Crew: Grissom, Young. First spacecraft to maneuver in orbit. First manned flight of Gemini spacecraft. First American to fly twice into space. Manual reentry, splashed down 97 km from carrier. Backup crew: Schirra, Stafford. More...
  • Gemini 4 Crew: McDivitt, White. First American space walk. First American long-duration spaceflight. Astronaut could barely get back into capsule after spacewalk. Failure of spacecraft computer resulted in high-G ballistic re-entry. Backup crew: Borman, Lovell. More...
  • Gemini 5 Crew: Conrad, Cooper. First American flight to seize duration record from Soviet Union. Mission plan curtailed due to fuel cell problems; mission incredibly boring, spacecraft just drifting to conserve fuel most of the time. Splashed down 145 km from aim point. Backup crew: Armstrong, See. More...
  • Apollo SA-11 From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB. More...
  • Gemini 7 Crew: Borman, Lovell. Record flight duration (14 days) to that date. Incredibly boring mission, made more uncomfortable by the extensive biosensors. Monotony was broken just near the end by the rendezvous with Gemini 6. Backup crew: Collins, White. More...
  • Gemini 6 Crew: Schirra, Stafford. First rendezvous of two spacecraft. Originally was to dock with an Agena target, but this blew up on way to orbit. Decision to rendezvous with upcoming Gemini 7 instead. Mission almost lost when booster ignited, then shut down on pad. Backup crew: Grissom, Young. More...
  • Apollo SA-12 From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB. More...
  • Gemini 8 Crew: Armstrong, Scott. First docking of two spacecraft. After docking with Agena target, a stuck thruster aboard Gemini resulted in the crew nearly blacking out before the resulting spin could be stopped. An emergency landing in the mid-Pacific Ocean followed. Backup crew: Conrad, Gordon. More...
  • Apollo SA-13 From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB. More...
  • Gemini 9 Crew: Cernan, Stafford. Third rendezvous mission of Gemini program. Agena target blew up on way to orbit; substitute target's shroud hung up, docking impossible. EVA almost ended in disaster when astronaut's face plate fogged over; barely able to return to spacecraft. Backup crew: Aldrin, Lovell. More...
  • Dynasoar 3 Crew: Wood. Dynasoar first manned single-orbit flight. Project cancelled December 1963. More...
  • Gemini 10 Crew: Collins, Young. First free space walk from one spacecraft to another. First rendezvous with two different spacecraft in one flight. Altitude (763 km) record. Exciting mission with successful docking with Agena, flight up to parking orbit where Gemini 8 Agena wa stored. Backup crew: Bean, Williams Clifton. More...
  • Apollo SA-14 From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB. More...
  • Gemini 11 Crew: Conrad, Gordon. Speed (8,003 m/s) and altitude (1,372 km) records. First docking with another spacecraft on first orbit after launch. First test of tethered spacecraft. Backup crew: Anders, Armstrong. More...
  • Dynasoar 4 Planned second manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Project cancelled in December 1963 More...
  • Gemini 12 Crew: Aldrin, Lovell. First completely successful space walk. Final Gemini flight. Docked and redocked with Agena, demonstrating various Apollo scenarios including manual rendezvous and docking. Successful EVA without overloading suit by use of suitable restraints. Backup crew: Cernan, Cooper. More...
  • Apollo 204 Crew: Chaffee, Grissom, White. The first manned flight of the Apollo CSM, the Apollo C category mission. Crew killed in a fire while testing their capsule on the pad on 27 January 1967, still weeks away from launch. Set back Apollo program by 18 months. Backup crew: McDivitt, Scott, Schweickart, Schirra, Eisele, Cunningham. More...
  • Dynasoar 5 Third manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight; would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and systems evaluation. Project cancelled in December 1963. More...
  • Apollo 205 Crew: Cunningham, Eisele, Schirra. Planned second solo flight test of the Block I Apollo CSM on a Saturn IB. Cancelled after the Apollo 204 fire. Backup crew: Borman, Collins, Stafford. More...
  • Dynasoar 6 Fourth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight; would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and systems evaluation. Project cancelled in December 1963. More...
  • Dynasoar 7 Fifth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Would demonstrate reuse of a minimally-refurbished spacecraft flown on an earlier mission. Project cancelled in December 1963 More...
  • Apollo 207 Crew: McDivitt, Schweickart, Scott. Planned Apollo D mission. Two Saturn IB launches would put Apollo CSM and LM into orbit. CSM crew would dock with LM, test it in earth orbit. Cancelled after Apollo 204 fire. Backup crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young. More...
  • Dynasoar 8 Sixth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963 More...
  • Dynasoar 9 Planned first multi-orbit flight and seventh manned flight of Dynasoar would have the objectives to demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963 More...
  • Apollo 503 Crew: Borman, Collins, Anders. Cancelled Apollo E mission - test of the Apollo lunar module in high earth orbit. Lunar module was not ready. Instead mission flown only with CSM into lunar orbit only as Apollo 8. Backup crew: Conrad, Williams Clifton, Gordon. More...
  • Dynasoar 10 Planned eighth manned flight, second multi-orbit flight, and final flight of the Dynasoar program would have the objectives to demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963 More...
  • Apollo 7 Crew: Cunningham, Eisele, Schirra. First manned test of the Apollo spacecraft. Although the systems worked well, the crew became grumpy with head colds and talked back to the ground. As a result, NASA management determined that none of them would fly again. Backup crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young. More...
  • Apollo 8 Crew: Anders, Borman, Lovell. First manned flight to lunar orbit. Speed (10,807 m/s) and altitude (378,504 km) records. Mission resulted from audacious decision to send crew around moon to beat Soviets on only second manned Apollo CSM mission and third Saturn V launch. Backup crew: Aldrin, Armstrong, Haise. More...
  • Apollo 9 Crew: McDivitt, Schweickart, Scott. First manned test of the Lunar Module. First test of the Apollo space suits. First manned flight of a spacecraft incapable of returning to earth. If rendezvous of the Lunar Module with the Apollo CSM had failed, crew would have been stranded in orbit. Backup crew: Bean, Conrad, Gordon. More...
  • Apollo 10 Crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young. Speed record (11,107 m/s). Final dress rehearsal in lunar orbit for landing on moon. LM separated and descended to 10 km from surface of moon but did not land. Backup crew: Cooper, Eisele, Mitchell. More...
  • Apollo 11 Crew: Aldrin, Armstrong, Collins. First manned lunar landing. The end of the moon race and public support for large space programs. The many changes made after the Apollo 204 fire paid off; all went according to plan, virtually no problems. Backup crew: Anders, Haise, Lovell. More...
  • Apollo 12 Crew: Bean, Conrad, Gordon. Second manned lunar landing. Precision landing near Surveyor 3 that landed in 1967. Lightning struck the booster twice during ascent. Decision was made to press on to moon, despite possibility landing pyrotechnics damaged. Backup crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. More...
  • Apollo 13 Crew: Haise, Lovell, Swigert. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Fuel cell tank exploded en route to the moon, resulting in loss of all power and oxygen. Only through use of the still-attached LM as a lifeboat could the crew survive to return to earth. Backup crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young.Support crew: Brand, Lousma, Kerwin. More...
  • Apollo 14 Crew: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with the lunar module failed for no apparent reason - mission saved when sixth was successful. Hike to Cone Crater frustrating; rim not reached. Backup crew: Cernan, Engle, Evans.Support crew: Chapman, McCandless, Pogue. More...
  • Apollo 15 Crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. First use of lunar rover on moon. Beautiful images of crew prospecting at edge of Hadley Rille. One of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but survivable splashdown. Backup crew: Brand, Gordon, Schmitt. More...
  • Apollo 16 Crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young. Second Apollo mission with lunar rover. CSM main engine failure detected in lunar orbit. Landing almost aborted. Backup crew: Haise, Mitchell, Roosa. More...
  • Apollo 17 Crew: Cernan, Evans, Schmitt. Final Apollo lunar landing mission. First geologist to walk on the moon. Backup crew: Duke, Roosa, Young. More...
  • Skylab 2 Crew: Conrad, Kerwin, Weitz. Record flight duration. Crew had to conduct major repairs to get damaged station in operation. Astronaut flung into space during release of solar wing. High temperatures in station brought down by deployment of sunshade. Backup crew: McCandless, Musgrave, Schweickart. More...
  • Apollo 18 Crew: Gordon, Brand, Schmitt. Apollo 18 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in the moon's Schroter's Valley, a riverlike channel-way. The original February 1972 landing date was extended when NASA cancelled the Apollo 20 mission in January 1970.Support crew: Allen, Henize, Parker. More...
  • Skylab 3 Crew: Bean, Garriott, Lousma. Installed twinpole solar shield on EVA; performed major inflight maintenance; doubled record for length of time in space. Leaks in Apollo CSM thrusters led to preparation of a rescue mission. Decided to make landing with faulty thrusters instead. Backup crew: Brand, Lenoir, Lind. More...
  • Skylab 4 Crew: Carr, Gibson Edward, Pogue. Record flight duration. Final Skylab mission; included observation and photography of Comet Kohoutek among numerous experiments. Rebellion by crew against NASA Ground Control overtasking led to none of the crew ever flying again. Backup crew: Brand, Lenoir, Lind. More...
  • Apollo 19 Crew: Haise, Pogue, Carr. Apollo 19 was originally planned to land in the Hyginus Rille region, which would allow study of lunar linear rilles and craters.The original July 1972 landing date was extended when NASA cancelled the Apollo 20 mission in January 1970.Support crew: England, Hartsfield, Peterson. More...
  • Apollo 20 Crew: Roosa, Lind, Lousma. Apollo 20 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in Crater Copernicus, a spectacular large crater impact area. Later Copernicus was assigned to Apollo 19, and the preferred landing site for Apollo 20 was the Marius Hills or Tycho. More...
  • Apollo (ASTP) Crew: Brand, Slayton, Stafford. First international joint manned space mission; first docking between two spacecraft launched from different countries. Crew nearly killed by toxic propellant vapours dumped into the cabin air supply during re-entry. Backup crew: Bean, Evans, Lousma. More...
  • STS-1 Crew: Crippen, Young. First rocketplane flight to orbit. First flight of space shuttle. The only time a new spacecraft was launched manned on its first flight. Many thought it would be a disaster. More...
  • STS-2 Crew: Engle, Truly. First reuse of a manned space vehicle. First use of a remote manipulator in space. Second shuttle test flight. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right SRM aft field joint, the worst until the loss of the space shuttle Challenger. More...
  • STS-3 Crew: Fullerton, Lousma. First and only landing by a shuttle at White Sands, New Mexico, after weather at Edwards did not permit landing there. More...
  • STS-4 Crew: Hartsfield, Mattingly. First Getaway Specials flown. Manned two crew. Fourth space shuttle test flight. More...
  • STS-5 Crew: Allen, Brand, Lenoir, Overmyer. First operational STS mission, first commercial communications satellites deployed, firstfour-person spacecraft crew. EVA cancelled because one astronaut was vomiting so severely due to space sickness. More...
  • STS-6 Crew: Bobko, Musgrave, Peterson, Weitz. First flight of space shuttle Challenger. First space walk of Shuttle program Manned four crew. Deployed Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. More...
  • STS-7 Crew: Crippen, Fabian, Hauck, Ride, Thagard. First US woman in space. Record 5 crew aboard a single spacecraft to date. Thagard flew as physician to study space sickness, which had severely impacted STS-5 operations. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform. More...
  • STS-8 Crew: Bluford, Brandenstein, Gardner, Thornton Bill, Truly. First African-American in space. First shuttle night launch and night landing. First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B. More...
  • STS-9 Crew: Garriott, Lichtenberg, Merbold, Parker, Shaw, Young. First West German to fly in space. First Spacelab mission. Record six crew size in a single spacecraft. Suspect exhaust nozzle on right solid rocket booster. Landing delayed when two computers failed. Landed on fire when hydraulic pump leaked. More...
  • STS-41-B Crew: Brand, Gibson, McCandless, McNair, Stewart. First untethered space walk. First shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center. Manned five crew. Deployed Westar 6, Palapa B2; tested Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). O-ring erosion in both the right hand nozzle joint and the left SRB forward field joint. More...
  • STS-41-C Crew: Crippen, Hart, Nelson, Scobee, van Hoften. Manned five crew. First repair on orbit of a satellite, Solar Maximum Mission, snared by astronaut using MMU. Deployed LDEF. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right-hand nozzle joint. More...
  • STS-41-D Crew: Coats, Hartsfield, Hawley, Mullane, Resnik, Walker. First flight of shuttle Discovery. Manned six crew. First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. First launch aborted at T-3 seconds after SSMEs ignited, Toilet failed. First occurrence of blow-by in SRB field joints. More...
  • STS-41-G Crew: Crippen, Garneau, Leestma, McBride, Ride, Scully-Power, Sullivan. First spaceflight to include two women. First American woman to walk in space. First Canadian astronaut. Record crew size aboard a single spacecraft. Manned seven crew. Deployed Earth Radiation Budget Satellite; performed high resolution Earth imagery. More...
  • STS-51-A Crew: Allen, Fisher, Gardner, Hauck, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. First retrieval of two satellites (Palapa B-2 and Westar Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2. More...
  • STS-51-C Crew: Buchli, Mattingly, Onizuka, Payton, Shriver. First shuttle military mission. Manned five crew. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Experienced blow-by in both nozzle joints and erosion and blow-by in two case joints. More...
  • STS-51-D Crew: Bobko, Garn, Griggs, Hoffman, Seddon, Walker, Williams Donald. First politician in space. Deployed Telesat-I (successful) and Syncom IV-3 (motor failed). Inboard right-side brake locked on landing, resulting in severe damage. Senator aboard resented, and had one of the worst cases of space sickness ever recorded. More...
  • STS-51-B Crew: Gregory, Lind, Overmyer, Thagard, Thornton Bill, van den Berg, Wang. Manned seven crew. Deployed Nusat; carried Spacelab 3, conducted materials processing, environmental, life science, astrophysics,and technology experiments. Suffered the worst O-ring erosion experienced prior to the loss of Challenger More...
  • STS-51-G Crew: Al-Saud, Baudry, Brandenstein, Creighton, Fabian, Lucid, Nagel. First Saudi astronaut. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D. Experienced blow-by and erosion in both nozzle joints. More...
  • STS-51-F Crew: Acton, Bartoe, Bridges, England, Fullerton, Henize, Musgrave. Manned seven crew. Number one engine shut down prematurely during ascent; abort to orbit declared. Mission continued. Launched PDP; carried Spacelab 2. Primary O-ring was affected by heat. More...
  • STS-51-I Crew: Covey, Engle, Fisher William, Lounge, van Hoften. First retrieval, repair, and relaunch of a satellite in orbit (Leasat 3). Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4. Suffered primary O-ring erosion in two locations on the left-hand SRM nozzle joint. More...
  • STS-51-J Crew: Bobko, Grabe, Hilmers, Pailes, Stewart. First flight of shuttle Atlantis. Military mission, manned five crew. Deployed USA-11, USA-12. More...
  • STS-61-A Crew: Bluford, Buchli, Dunbar, Furrer, Hartsfield, Messerschmid, Nagel, Ockels. Record crew size aboard a single spacecraft. First Dutch astronaut. Manned eight crew. Launched GLOMR; carried Spacelab D1. Six of the eight crew members were divided into a blue and red team working 12-hour shifts. Experienced O-ring erosion. More...
  • STS-61-B Crew: Cleave, Neri Vela, O Connor, Ross, Shaw, Spring, Walker. Manned seven crew. Deployed Morelos 2, Aussat 2, Satcom K2, OEX. Experienced primary O-ring erosion in both nozzle joints More...
  • STS-61-C Crew: Bolden, Cenker, Chang-Diaz, Gibson, Hawley, Nelson, Nelson Bill. Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Second politician in space; he bumped Jarvis to later launch on which he was killed. Launch scrub saved crew from death due to undetected jammed SSME valve. Experienced nozzle joint O-ring erosion. More...
  • STS-51-L Crew: Jarvis, McAuliffe, McNair, Onizuka, Resnik, Scobee, Smith. First shuttle launch from pad LC-39B. An O-ring failure in a solid rocket booster led to leaking of hot gases against the external tank; exploded 73 seconds after launch, all seven crew, with no means of escape, were killed when crew cabin hit the ocean. More...
  • STS-26 Crew: Covey, Hauck, Hilmers, Lounge, Nelson. Manned five crew. First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3. More...
  • STS-27 Crew: Gardner Guy, Gibson, Mullane, Ross, Shepherd. Manned military mission, five crew. Robot arm used to deploy a classified satellite. At T+85 seconds a large piece of SRB nose cone struck the shuttle. The orbiter took 707 hits; one tile was knocked off. The crew was unsure if they would survive reentry. More...
  • STS-29 Crew: Bagian, Blaha, Buchli, Coats, Springer. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 4. More...
  • STS-30 Crew: Cleave, Grabe, Lee, Thagard, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. Deployed Magellan Venus probe. One of five General Purpose Computers failed and had to be replaced with a sixth onboard hardware spare. First time a GPC was switched on orbit. More...
  • STS-28 Crew: Adamson, Brown Mark, Leestma, Richards, Shaw. Manned five crew. Deployed two classified satellites. More...
  • STS-34 Crew: Baker, Chang-Diaz, Lucid, McCulley, Williams Donald. Manned five crew. Deployed Galileo Jupiter probe. More...
  • STS-33 Crew: Blaha, Carter, Gregory, Musgrave, Thornton. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. More...
  • STS-32 Crew: Brandenstein, Dunbar, Ivins, Low, Wetherbee. Manned five crew. Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Second bipod ramp foam loss. More...
  • STS-36 Crew: Casper, Creighton, Hilmers, Mullane, Thuot. Classified mission in 62 degree orbit, the highest inclination orbit ever flown by an American mission. Launch delayed due to illness of crew members. More...
  • STS-31 Crew: Bolden, Hawley, McCandless, Shriver, Sullivan. Deployed HST (Hubble Space Telescope). More...
  • STS-41 Crew: Akers, Cabana, Melnick, Richards, Shepherd. Manned five crew. Deployed Ulysses spacecraft. More...
  • STS-38 Crew: Covey, Culbertson, Gemar, Meade, Springer. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Launch delayed from July 1990 for series of technical problems. First post-Challenger landing at KSC after mission extended one day due to unacceptable crosswinds at original planned landing site, Edwards. More...
  • STS-35 Crew: Brand, Durrance, Gardner Guy, Hoffman, Lounge, Parise, Parker. Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Launch scrubbed several times due to hydrogen leaks. More...
  • STS-37 Crew: Apt, Cameron, Godwin, Nagel, Ross. Manned five crew. Unscheduled EVA to manually deploy the Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna, which failed to deploy upon ground command. More...
  • STS-39 Crew: Bluford, Coats, Hammond, Harbaugh, Hieb, McMonagle, Veach. Manned seven crew. Deployed USA-70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved Infrared Background Signature Survey . More...
  • STS-40 Crew: Bagian, Gaffney, Gutierrez, Hughes-Fulford, Jernigan, O Connor, Seddon. Carried Spacelab life sciences module. More...
  • STS-43 Crew: Adamson, Baker Mike, Blaha, Low, Lucid. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 5 satellite. More...
  • STS-48 Crew: Brown Mark, Buchli, Creighton, Gemar, Reightler. Manned five crew. Deployed UARS; conducted materials and biological research. More...
  • STS-44 Crew: Gregory, Hennen, Henricks, Musgrave, Runco, Voss. Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite. More...
  • STS-42 Crew: Bondar, Grabe, Hilmers, Merbold, Oswald, Readdy, Thagard. Manned seven crew. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-1. More...
  • STS-45 Crew: Bolden, Duffy, Foale, Frimout, Leestma, Lichtenberg, Sullivan. First Belgian astronaut. Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. More...
  • STS-49 Crew: Akers, Brandenstein, Chilton, Hieb, Melnick, Thornton, Thuot. First flight of shuttle Endeavour. First three-person spacewalk. First active dual rendezvous of two orbiting spacecraft (Endeavour and Intelsat-6). Retrieved Intelsat 6 and attached new SRM. First deployment of a drag chute on the orbiter fleet. More...
  • STS-50 Crew: Baker, Bowersox, DeLucas, Dunbar, Meade, Richards, Trinh. First extended-duration shuttle mission. Carried United States Microgravity Laboratory. More...
  • STS-46 Crew: Allen Andy, Chang-Diaz, Hoffman, Ivins, Malerba, Nicollier, Shriver. First Italian astronaut. First Swiss astronaut. Manned seven crew. Deployed Eureca-1; failed to deploy Italian tether probe TSS-1. More...
  • STS-47 Crew: Apt, Brown, Davis, Gibson, Jemison, Lee, Mohri. First on-time Shuttle launch since November 1985. First Japanese astronaut aboard shuttle. First African-American woman to fly in space. First married couple to fly on the same space mission Carried Spacelab-J with microgravity and biology experiments. More...
  • STS-52 Crew: Baker Mike, Jernigan, MacLean, Shepherd, Veach, Wetherbee. Deployed Lageos 2, CTA. External tank lost a 10 x 20 cm corner of the left bipod ramp; orbiter took a higher-than-average 290 hits on upper and lower tiles. More...
  • STS-53 Crew: Bluford, Cabana, Clifford, Voss, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. Deployed classified military satellite USA-89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction. More...
  • STS-54 Crew: Casper, Harbaugh, Helms, McMonagle, Runco. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRSS 6. More...
  • STS-56 Crew: Cameron, Cockrell, Foale, Ochoa, Oswald. First radio contact between Shuttle and Mir space station. Manned five crew. Carried Atlas-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201. More...
  • STS-55 Crew: Harris, Henricks, Nagel, Precourt, Ross, Schlegel, Walter. Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2. More...
  • STS-57 Crew: Currie, Duffy, Grabe, Low, Voss Janice, Wisoff. First flight of Spacehab module. Manned six crew. Retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft. More...
  • STS-51 Crew: Bursch, Culbertson, Newman, Readdy, Walz. First shuttle night landing in Florida. Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance. More...
  • STS-58 Crew: Blaha, Fettman, Lucid, McArthur, Searfoss, Seddon, Wolf. Biological, microgravity experiments aboard Spacelab 2. More...
  • STS-61 Crew: Akers, Bowersox, Covey, Hoffman, Musgrave, Nicollier, Thornton. Manned seven crew. Hubble repair mission. Conducted the most EVAs on a Space Shuttle Flight to that date. More...
  • STS-60 Crew: Bolden, Chang-Diaz, Davis, Krikalyov, Reightler, Sega. First flight of a Russian cosmonaut aboard an American spacecraft. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Backup crew: Titov Vladimir. More...
  • STS-62 Crew: Allen Andy, Casper, Gemar, Ivins, Thuot. Carried USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG experiments. The external tank lost a 2.4 x 7 cm piece of foamin the rear face of the left bipod ramp. More...
  • STS-59 Crew: Apt, Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Gutierrez, Jones. Carried SRL-1 / SIR-C SAR radar. The Space Radar Laboratory obtained radar high-resolution images of approximately 25 percent of the planet's land surfaces. More...
  • STS-65 Crew: Cabana, Chiao, Halsell, Hieb, Mukai, Thomas, Walz. First Japanese woman to fly in space. Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments. Backup crew: Favier. More...
  • STS-64 Crew: Hammond, Helms, Lee, Linenger, Meade, Richards. Flew Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II experiments. More...
  • STS-68 Crew: Baker Mike, Bursch, Jones, Smith Steven, Wilcutt, Wisoff. Carried SIR-C SAR. Continued high-resolution radar mapping of the earth begun on STS-59. More...
  • STS-66 Crew: Brown, Clervoy, McMonagle, Ochoa, Parazynski, Tanner. Carried Atlas-3 laboratory; deployed and retrieved CRISTA-SPAS. More...
  • STS-63 Crew: Collins Eileen, Foale, Harris, Titov Vladimir, Voss Janice, Wetherbee. First African-American to walk in space. First female shuttle pilot. First rendezvous of a shuttle with the Mir space station. Deployed ODERACS 2A-2E; deployed and retrieved Spartan 204. Backup crew: Krikalyov. More...
  • STS-67 Crew: Durrance, Gregory William, Grunsfeld, Jernigan, Lawrence, Oswald, Parise. First shuttle mission connected to the Internet. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes. More...
  • STS-71 Crew: Baker, Dunbar, Gibson, Harbaugh, Precourt. First docking of a US spacecraft with the Mir space station. More...
  • STS-70 Crew: Currie, Henricks, Kregel, Thomas, Weber. Deployed TDRS 7. More...
  • STS-69 Crew: Cockrell, Gernhardt, Newman, Voss, Walker Dave. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, Wake Shield Facility 2. More...
  • STS-73 Crew: Bowersox, Coleman, Leslie, Lopez-Alegria, Rominger, Sacco, Thornton. Carried USML-2 for microgravity experiments (attached to Columbia). More...
  • STS-74 Crew: Cameron, Hadfield, Halsell, McArthur, Ross. Docked with Mir space station. Delivered the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module to Mir. More...
  • STS-72 Crew: Barry, Chiao, Duffy, Jett, Scott Winston, Wakata. Deployed and retrieved OAST Flyer; retrieved SFU Space Flyer Unit. Beside the two satellite retrievals, the mission included two spacewalks. More...
  • STS-75 Crew: Allen Andy, Chang-Diaz, Cheli, Guidoni, Hoffman, Horowitz, Nicollier. Carried TSS-1R tether satellite; satellite tether broke during deployment, making TSS-1R an unintentional free flyer. More...
  • STS-76 Crew: Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Searfoss, Sega. Shuttle-Mir Mission 3. First American EVA on Mir space station. More...
  • STS-77 Crew: Brown, Bursch, Casper, Garneau, Runco, Thomas Andrew. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 2; deployed PAMS-STU; carried Spacehab module. More...
  • STS-78 Crew: Brady, Favier, Helms, Henricks, Kregel, Linnehan, Thirsk. Carried Life and Microgravity Spacelab; human biological and microgravity experiments. More...
  • STS-79 Crew: Akers, Apt, Readdy, Walz, Wilcutt. Carried Spacehab Double Module, containing supplies for the Mir. More...
  • STS-80 Crew: Cockrell, Jernigan, Jones, Musgrave, Rominger. Carried the Orfeus astronomy satellite, Wake Shield Facility. The shuttle's exit hatch would not open and NASA cancelled the planned spacewalks of the mission. More...
  • STS-81 Crew: Baker Mike, Grunsfeld, Ivins, Jett, Wisoff. Transferred 2,715 kg of equipment to and from Mir. More...
  • STS-82 Crew: Bowersox, Harbaugh, Hawley, Horowitz, Lee, Smith Steven, Tanner. Hubble repair mission; five spacewalks. More...
  • STS-83 Crew: Crouch, Gernhardt, Halsell, Kilrain, Linteris, Thomas, Voss Janice. First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission. Orbiter recalled to earth after three days of flight when one of three fuel cells failed. Mission reflown as STS-94. Backup crew: Coleman. More...
  • STS-84 Crew: Clervoy, Collins Eileen, Kondakova, Lu, Noriega, Precourt. Delivered to Mir and returned to earth 2500 kg of payload. More...
  • STS-94 Crew: Crouch, Gernhardt, Halsell, Kilrain, Linteris, Thomas, Voss Janice. First shuttle mission reflight (same vehicle, crew, and payload as curtailed STS-83 mission). MSL-1 Microgravity Science Laboratory. More...
  • STS-85 Crew: Brown, Curbeam, Davis, Robinson, Rominger, Tryggvason. Deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS-2 (the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2) designed to study Earth's middle atmosphere. More...
  • STS-86 Crew: Bloomfield, Chretien, Lawrence, Parazynski, Titov Vladimir, Wetherbee. Flyaround focused on the damaged Spektr Module to determine the location of the puncture in its hull. More...
  • STS-87 Crew: Chawla, Doi, Kadenyuk, Kregel, Lindsey, Scott Winston. Microgravity science mission. Spartan 201 was released, but had to be recaptured by hand during EVA. Loss of external tank intertank foam results in over 100 hits on orbiter heat shield. More...
  • STS-89 Crew: Anderson, Dunbar, Edwards, Reilly, Sharipov, Wilcutt. First Uzbek astronaut. First flight of Block IIA SSME engines. Penultimate Shuttle mission to Mir. More...
  • STS-90 Crew: Altman, Buckey, Hire, Linnehan, Pawelczyk, Searfoss, Williams Dave. Spacelab Long Module / Neurolab mission. Backup crew: Mukai, Dunlap. More...
  • STS-91 Crew: Chang-Diaz, Gorie, Kavandi, Lawrence, Precourt, Ryumin. First shuttle flight with super light-weight external tank. Final shuttle-Mir mission. Recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from Mir and took Russian space chief Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour. More...
  • STS-95 Crew: Brown, Duque, Glenn, Lindsey, Mukai, Parazynski, Robinson. First Spanish astronaut. Oldest man in space, longest gap between two flights for an astronaut. The flight of STS-95 provoked more publicity for NASA than any other flight in years. Spartan 201 satellite released and retrieved. More...
  • STS-88 Crew: Cabana, Currie, Krikalyov, Newman, Ross, Sturckow. First ISS assembly mission. Delivered Unity space station node to orbit. More...
  • STS-96 Crew: Barry, Husband, Jernigan, Ochoa, Payette, Rominger, Tokarev. First docking with the ISS. Transferred equipment from the Spacehab Logistics Double Module to the interior of the station. More...
  • STS-93 Crew: Ashby, Coleman, Collins Eileen, Hawley, Tognini. Delivered Chandra spacecraft. Hydrogen fuel leaked out during ascent, resulting in shuttle running out of propellant and ending up in an orbit 11 km lower than planned. More...
  • STS-103 Crew: Brown, Clervoy, Foale, Grunsfeld, Kelly Scott, Nicollier, Smith Steven. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission SM-3A, More...
  • STS-99 Crew: Gorie, Kavandi, Kregel, Mohri, Thiele, Voss Janice. Deployed the 61 metre long STRM mast, a side-looking radar that digitally mapped the entire land surface of the Earth between latitudes 60 deg N and 54 deg S. More...
  • STS-101 Crew: Halsell, Helms, Horowitz, Usachyov, Voss, Weber, Williams Jeffrey. First flight with new 'glass cockpit'. ISS Logistics flight. Repair, resupply and construction tasks aboard the international space station. More...
  • STS-106 Crew: Altman, Burbank, Lu, Malenchenko, Mastracchio, Morukov, Wilcutt. Docked with ISS. Outfitted the new Zvezda module for the arrival of the first permanent EO-1 crew. More...
  • STS-92 Crew: Chiao, Duffy, Lopez-Alegria, McArthur, Melroy, Wakata, Wisoff. 100th shuttle mission + 100th US spacewalk. ISS Logistics flight. 100th shuttle flight. Brought the Z-1 Truss , Control Moment Gyros, and Pressurised Mating Adapter-3 to the ISS. More...
  • STS-97 Crew: Jett, Bloomfield, Tanner, Garneau, Noriega. Installed a 72 m x 11.4 m, 65 kW double-wing solar panel on the Unity module of the ISS. More...
  • STS-98 Crew: Cockrell, Curbeam, Ivins, Jones, Polansky. ISS Assembly flight. Delivered Destiny module and PMA-2 modules. After this mission the ISS was heavier than Mir. More...
  • STS-102 Crew: Kelly, Richards Paul, Thomas Andrew, Wetherbee. STS 102 was an American shuttle spacecraft that carried a crew of seven astronauts (six American and one Russian). The primary mission was to deliver a multi-rack Italian container (Leonardo MultiPurpose Logistics Module, LMPLM) to the Destiny Module of t More...
  • STS-100 Crew: Ashby, Guidoni, Hadfield, Lonchakov, Parazynski, Phillips, Rominger. ISS Assembly flight. Continued the outfitting of the Station. Installed the 18 meter, 1,700 kg Canadarm-2 robotic arm and 4,500 kg of supplies aboard the Italian cargo container Raffaello. More...
  • STS-104 Crew: Gernhardt, Hobaugh, Kavandi, Lindsey, Reilly. ISS Assembly flight. Delivered Quest Airlock. More...
  • STS-105 Crew: Barry, Forrester, Horowitz, Sturckow. ISS Assembly flight. Delivered five tonnes of supplies, hardware, and a bedroom suite to accommodate a third astronaut in the Destiny module. Installed two science experiment racks delivered in the Leonardo module. More...
  • STS-108 Crew: Godwin, Gorie, Kelly Mark, Tani. ISS Logistics flight. Brought supplies to the Station aboard the Raffaello module, More...
  • STS-109 Crew: Altman, Carey, Currie, Grunsfeld, Linnehan, Massimino, Newman. Hubble Servicing Mission 3B. More...
  • STS-110 Crew: Bloomfield, Frick, Morin, Ochoa, Ross, Smith Steven, Walheim. ISS Assembly flight. Carried the S0 truss segment to the ISS, the first segment of the main backbone of the station to which the solar arrays would be attached. More...
  • STS-111 Crew: Chang-Diaz, Cockrell, Lockhart, Perrin. ISS Logistics flight. Delivered the MBS Mobile Base System and some interior experiment racks. More...
  • STS-112 Crew: Ashby, Melroy, Wolf, Sellers, Magnus, Yurchikhin. ISS Assembly flight. Extended the truss of the exterior rail line with a 14-m, 13-ton girder. At liftoff primary hold-down bolt initiators failed; backups functioned. At T+33s, a piece of the bipod ramp separated, hitting booster-tank attachment. More...
  • STS-113 Crew: Herrington, Lockhart, Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee. ISS assembly mission. Delivered 13.7-m, 12.5 ton truss to ISS. Four attempts to land on consecutive days, called because of bad weather. More...
  • STS-107 Crew: Anderson, Brown David, Chawla, Clark, Husband, McCool, Ramon. First Israeli astronaut. Conducted experiments in Double Spacehab module. Crew perished when shuttle broke up during re-entry. Cause was damage to a leading-edge RCC from foam breaking off of external tank bipod strut. More...
  • STS-114 Crew: Collins Eileen, Kelly, Noguchi, Robinson, Thomas Andrew, Lawrence, Camarda. Shuttle return to flight. Primary objective was to verify fixes made to external tank to prevent foam and ice shedding that killed STS-107 crew. Also resupplied ISS, which had to rely on smaller Progress logistics flights while the shuttle was grounded. More...
  • STS-121 Crew: Lindsey, Kelly Mark, Fossum, Nowak, Wilson, Sellers. ISS logistics flight. Delivered equpment and supplies aboard the Leonardo cargo module. More...
  • STS-115 Crew: Jett, Ferguson, Stefanyshyn-Piper, Tanner, Burbank, MacLean. ISS logistics flight. Delivered equpment and supplies aboard the Leonardo cargo module. More...
  • STS-116 Crew: Polansky, Oefelein, Curbeam, Patrick, Fuglesang, Higginbotham. First Swedish astronaut. Most demanding ISS assembly mission to date. Completed installation of the P5 truss, retracted the recalcitrant port P6 solar array wing, and activated the truss electrical and cooling system. More...
  • STS-117 Crew: Sturckow, Archambault, Forrester, Swanson, Olivas, Reilly. Final major step in assembly of the ISS truss and power-generating solar array segments. The S3/S4 Truss and its solar arrays were delivered and installed. More...
  • STS-118 Crew: Kelly Scott, Hobaugh, Caldwell, Mastracchio, Williams Dave, Morgan, Drew. ISS logistic mission. Delivered consumables, and completed necessary supplementary assembly, repair, and external equipment moves necessary for the next major stage of ISS assembly. More...
  • STS-120 Crew: Melroy, Zamka, Parazynski, Wheelock, Wilson, Nespoli. ISS assembly mission. Delivered the Harmony module to the station, and external work moved the P6 truss to its final location and put the ISS into its full-power configuration for the first time. More...
  • STS-122 Crew: Frick, Poindexter, Walheim, Love, Melvin, Schlegel. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Columbus European Laboratory Module and the Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure - Non-Deployable (MPESS-ND). More...
  • STS-123 Crew: Gorie, Johnson Gregory H, Linnehan, Behnken, Foreman, Doi. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) and the Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 1 (SLP-D1) with the Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (Dextre). More...
  • STS-124 Crew: Kelly Mark, Ham, Nyberg, Garan, Fossum, Hoshide. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Module (JEM-PM) and the Japanese Remote Manipulator System (JEM RMS). More...
  • STS-126 Crew: Ferguson, Boe, Pettit, Bowen, Stefanyshyn-Piper, Kimbrough. ISS logistics flight. Station resupply with Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). More...
  • STS-119 Crew: Archambault, Antonelli, Phillips, Swanson, Acaba, Arnold. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the fourth starboard truss segment (ITS S6) and fourth set of solar arrays and batteries. More...
  • STS-125 Crew: Altman, Johnson Gregory C, Grunsfeld, Massimino, Feustel, Good, McArthur. Fourth and final servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. Only shuttle mission authorized prior to shuttle retirement not to go to the ISS - therefore with no means of space rescue should the heat shield be damaged during ascent to orbit. More...
  • STS-127 Crew: Polansky, Hurley, Cassidy, Marshburn, Wolf, Payette. Deliver to the ISS and install the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF); Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Exposed Section (ELM-ES); and Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 2 (SLP-D2). More...
  • STS-128 Crew: Sturckow, Ford, Forrester, Hernandez, Fuglesang, Olivas. Deliver to the ISS and install the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM); Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC); Three-crew quarters, galley, and second treadmill (TVIS2); and the Crew Health Care System 2 (CHeCS 2). More...
  • STS-129 Crew: Hobaugh, Wilmore, Foreman, Bresnik, Melvin, Satcher. Resupply mission to deliver to the ISS the EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC1) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 2 (ELC2). More...
  • STS-130 Crew: Zamka; Virts; Hire; Robinson; Behnken; Patrick. Deliver to the ISS and install the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC) More...
  • STS-131 Crew: Poindexter; Dutton; Metcalf-Lendenburger; Wilson; Mastracchiio; Yamazaki; Anderson,Clayton. Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC3) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4). More...
  • STS-132 Crew: Ham; Antonelli; Good; Sellers; Bowen; Reisman. Deliver to the ISS and install Node 3 with Cupola. With this mission ISS assembly is to have been completed. More...
  • STS-133 Crew: Lindsey; Boe; Drew; Barratt; Bowen; Stott. Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 5 (ELC5) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC1). Astronaut Skopra was replaced by Bowen one month before launch when he was injured in a bicycle accident. More...
  • STS-134 Last ISS assembly mission and last flight of shuttle Endeavour. Crew: Kelly, Mark; Johnson, Gregory; Fincke; Chamitoff; Feustel; Vittori. More...
  • STS-135 Last flight of shuttle Atlantis and last space shuttle flight. Delivered supplies to keep ISS running at six-crew level until commercial resupply was to come on line in 2012. Crew: Ferguson; Hurley; Walheim; Magnus. Extra contingency mission at end of shuttle program. The crew trained as STS-335, a rescue mission to return the STS-134 crew to earth if they became marooned in space. After the safe return of STS-134, the mission proceeded as STS-135, with a reduced crew that could be returned over an 18 month period aboard Soyuz capsules in case the crew could not return in Atlantis. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Goddard Robert H. Goddard was the father of American rocketry. In a series of rockets flown between World War I and World War II, he solved all of the fundamental problems of guided liquid propellant rockets. More...
  • Goddard 1 American test vehicle. Rocket used by Goddard to achieve the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket. More...
  • Goddard 2 American test vehicle. After several tests indicating the model was too small to permit refinements, Goddard decided to build a rocket twenty-fold larger. During 1926 a new tower was built, and flow regulators, multiple liquid injection into large combustion chambers, means for measurement of pressure and lifting force, electrically fired igniter, and turntable for rotation were developed. More...
  • Goddard 3 American test vehicle. First instrumented liquid fuel rocket. Length 11 ft 6 in.; maximum diameter 26 in.; weight 32 lb; gasoline 14 lb; liquid oxygen 11 lb; total loaded weight 57 lb. More...
  • ARS The ARS-2 was an improvement by the American Interplanetary Socity of the German Mirak design. It used liquid oxygen and gasoline propellants, and was successfully launched on 14 May 1933. Successive rockets refined the design. More...
  • Goddard 4 American test vehicle. Goddard rocket using pressure-fed Lox/Gasoline propellants, streamline casing, and remote control guidance. Masses varied; typical values indicated. More...
  • Swan American rocketplane. William G. Swan stayed aloft for 30 minutes over Atlantic City, N.J., in a glider powered with 10 small rockets. More...
  • Goddard A American test vehicle. The A series rockets used simple pressure feed, gyroscopic control by means of vanes, and parachute. The rockets in this series averaged in length from 4.11 m to 4.65 m.; their weight empty varied from 26 kg to 39 kg. More...
  • Goddard K American test vehicle. This consisted of ten proving-stand tests for the development of a more powerful motor, 10 in. in diameter. Weight of rocket, about 225 lb; weight of fuels, 50-70 lb for the series. More...
  • Goddard L-A American test vehicle. Tests of the Goddard L Section A covered development of a nitrogen-pressured flight rocket using 10 in, motors based on the K series and ran from May 11 to November 7, 1936 (L1-L7). Length of the L Series Section A rockets varied from 10 ft 11 in, to 13 ft 6 1/2 in.; diameter 18 in.; empty weight 120 to 202 lb; loaded weight 295 to 360 lb; weight oxygen about 78 lb; weight gasoline 84 lb; weight nitrogen, 4 lb. More...
  • Goddard L-B American test vehicle. The L-B series were check tests of 5.75-in.-diameter chambers with fuels of various volatilities; development of tilting cap parachute release; tests of various forms of exposed movable air vanes; test of retractable air vanes and parachute with heavy shroud lines. The series ran from November 24, 1930-May 19, 1937 (L8-L15). Final results of Section B of L Series showed two proving-stand tests, and six flight test attempts, all of which resulted in flights. Average interval between tests 22 days. More...
  • Goddard L-C American test vehicle. Series L Section C rockets included light tank construction, movable-tailpiece (i.e. gimbal) steering, catapult launching, and further development of liquid nitrogen tank pressure method. Lengths varied from 17 ft 4.25 in. to 18 ft 5.75 in.; diameter 9 in., weight empty varied from 80 to 109 lb; loaded weight about 170 lb or more; lift of static tests varied from 228 lb to 477 lb; jet velocities from 3960 to 5340 ft/sec. More...
  • Truax American test vehicle. The US Navy's R. C. Truax, at Annapolis, Md., developed a number of pioneering early rockets. More...
  • JATO American sounding rocket. JATO (Jet Assisted Take-Off) rockets came in many types and were used to shorten the takeoff of aircraft in short field or overload conditions. They were among the first practical applications of rocketry, and much early development of rocket technology by JPL, Aerojet, Goddard, and others was devoted to JATO applications. More...
  • Goddard P-C American test vehicle. Section C tests would run through October 10, 1941 and represent the final Goddard rocket flight tests. The series of twenty-four static and flight tests (P13-P36) was made with rockets of large fuel capacity, with the rocket motor, pumps, and turbines previously developed. These rockets averaged nearly 22 ft in length, and were 18 in, in diameter. They weighed empty from 190 to 240 lb. The liquid-oxygen load averaged about 140 lb, the gasoline 112 lb, making "quarter-ton" loaded rockets. More...
  • Private American test vehicle. At request of Army Ordnance, Cal Tech's rocket laboratory developed the first US long-range missiles. Project ORDCIT resulted in development of the Private A and Corporal missiles. At Camp Irwin, Calif., 24 Private A rockets were launched by JPL, only 11 months after the start of Project ORDCIT. This rocket technology that led to later operational Corporal and Sergeant missiles. More...
  • BQ-1-BQ-2 American intermediate range cruise missile. In March 1942, the USAAF initiated a program to develop radio-controlled assault drones, frequently called "aerial torpedoes" at that time. These aerial torpedoes were to be unmanned expendable aircraft (either purpose-built or converted from existing types), fitted with a large payload of high-explosive, remote-control equipment and a forward-looking TV camera. The drones were to be directed to the target by radio commands from a control aircraft, where the operator would "fly" the drone watching the video transmitted by the camera. More...
  • BQ-3 American intermediate range cruise missile. In October 1942, Fairchild received a contract to build two XBQ-3 prototype unmanned assault drones based on the AT-21 Gunner twin-engined trainer design. More...
  • BQ-4-TDR Early family of American unmanned remotely-controlled aircraft for use in combat. More...
  • Loon American short range cruise missile, a copy of the German V-1 (Fieseler Fi 103). More...
  • Wac Development of the JPL-Ordnance WAC began in 1944. In 1946 it became the first American rocket to exceed 80 km altitude (above the earth's atmosphere as defined by publicity of the time). It was capable of taking 11 kg to 30 km altitude and was powered by a liquid propellant engine originally developed for JATO applications. More...
  • HVAR American air-to-air rocket. High-Velocity Air Rocket. An unguided fighter weapon, it was later adapted for use by NACA in the early 1950's to boost subscale aerodynamic models to supersonic speed. More...
  • Rascal American air-to-surface missile, development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1958. Project originated as Bell Aircraft Corp / AAF / Project MX-776. Requirement for a 160 km range air-launched guided missile was overcome by other technology during its protracted development. More...
  • Aphrodite American intermediate range cruise missile. In July 1944, the USAAF implemented the idea to convert "war-weary" B-17 Flying Fortress bombers to radio-controlled assault drones. About 25 B-17s, mostly B-17F, were converted to BQ-7 configuration under program Aphrodite. The BQ-7 was to be flown from Great Britain against very hardened or heavily defended German targets - submarine pens or V-1 missile sites. More...
  • BQ-8 American intermediate range cruise missile. In 1944 the USAAF intended to convert some worn-out Consolidated B-24D/J Liberator bombers to BQ-8 radio-controlled assault drones for use against heavily defended targets on Japanese islands in the Pacific. The concept was the same as used for the B-17 Flying Fortress conversions in the BQ-7 Aphrodite project. More...
  • Banshee American intercontinental cruise missile. Cruise missile version of B-29 bomber More...
  • BQM-6C American intermediate range cruise drone. Drone version. More...
  • FFAR American air-to-air rocket. Folding-Fin Air Rocket, boosted by 1 x Mk7. Unguided fighter weapon, later used as sounding rocket. More...
  • Nike American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicles consisting first of just the Nike booster were initially fired in the course of development of the Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile. Later it was used occasionally as a sounding rocket, but much more often as the boost stage of a multi-stage sounding rocket. More...
  • Cobra-BTV American test vehicle, part of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program that led to the operational Talos ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile in the 1950's. More...
  • Douglas HATV American orbital launch vehicle. The Douglas HATV design of 1946 was laid out by the Douglas engineer William Ballhaus. He proved that there were no obstacles to a single-stage-to-orbit space launch vehicle, as long as pressurized 'metal balloon' tanks were used instead of using aircraft-structure design approaches. More...
  • Hermes C-1 American tactical ballistic missile. The Hermes C1 was a clustered-engine intercontinental ballistic missile proposed by General Electric in June 1946. It was eventually down-scoped to a single-engine tactical missile, which flew as the Redstone in 1953. More...
  • Martin HATV American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin HATV 1946 design used a single Aerojet engine of unconventional design to achieve single-stage-to-orbit performance. More...
  • NAA HATV North American's HATV proposal was an ogival single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, with tanks made from 18-8 stainless steel. In common with other HATV designs, the tanks had to be pressurized to maintain rigidity. More...
  • World Circling Space Ship American orbital launch vehicle. Rand study of 1946-1947, in response to the Navy HATV, for a three-stage satellite launcher to be in use by 1952. Development funding was not forthcoming. More...
  • Deacon American test vehicle. The Deacon was an advanced solid rocket motor design cancelled at the end of World War II. In 1947 NACA began using reworked surplus motors to boost instrumented subscale aircraft models to speeds of up to Mach 4. They became a workhorse for the Agency's aerodynamic research, resulting in new production. Thousands were flown, until, by the end of the 1950's, supersonic wind tunnels took over the job. Data shown is for single-stage version. More...
  • HVAR FFAR American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x HVAR + 1 x Mk7 More...
  • Double FFAR American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Mk7 + 1 x Mk7 More...
  • Corporal E American short range ballistic missile. Experimental version of Corporal Missile More...
  • Corporal American short range liquid-propellant ballistic missile. The first American operational guided missile, deployed 1954-1964. Replaced by the Sergeant solid-propellant missile. More...
  • Hermes B-1 American tactical ballistic missile. Test vehicle for Hermes II Mach 3 ramjet cruise missile. The modified V-2 merely acted as a booster for the 'Ram' second stage. More...
  • Hermes American tactical ballistic missile. Hermes was a major US Army project to implement German rocket technology after World War II. Development started in 1944 with award to General Electric as the prime contractor. The program was cancelled in 1954 after $ 96.4 million had been spent. Most of this was for nought since the Air Force received the long-range missile assignment in the end.

    The designs ran the gamut from short range solid propellant rockets through Mach 3 ramjets to intercontinental boost-glide vehicles. General Electric was also responsible for firing captured German V-2 rockets, training Army personnel in their use, and the Bumper project which created a two-stage vehicle using a V-2 and a WAC-Corporal. See individual entries for the Hermes A-1, Hermes A-3, Hermes B-1, and Hermes C. More...

  • Aerobee American sounding rocket. In late 1945 James Van Allen was assigned by John Hopkins University to survey sounding rocket requirements for upper atmosphere research. The V-2 was found to be too heavy and complex. In 1946 Van Allen decided that what was needed was a small rocket, derived from the Aerojet Wac Corporal and the Bumblebee missile developed under a US Navy program. This combination of an Aerojet booster and a Bumblebee second stage was dubbed the Aerobee. Aerobees were launched for 53 m tall launch towers to provide the necessary stability until enough speed had been gained for the fins to be effective in controlling the rocket. Launch towers were built at White Sands, Fort Churchill, Wallops Island, and aboard the research ship USN Norton Sound. The Aerobee could take 68 kg to 130 km altitude. More...
  • Aerobee RTV-N-8 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 More...
  • HATV American orbital launch vehicle. Significant Navy program begun in 1946 to develop a single-stage-to-orbit satellite launch vehicle. The Air Force blocked Navy efforts to develop it on a joint basis, while at the same time having no interest in the project itself. Work was abandoned at the end of 1948. More...
  • Hermes A-3 American tactical ballistic missile. Prototype of a single-stage liquid propellant tactical Army missile. Two versions test flown but abandoned in favour of the Redstone in-house design. More...
  • Hiroc American test vehicle, built and flown by Convair in 1945-1947 to test technologies applied to the later Atlas ICBM. More...
  • MGM-5A American short range ballistic missile. First production version. More...
  • MGM-5B American short range ballistic missile. Second production version. More...
  • Navaho SSM-A-2 American intermediate range cruise missile. The first version of the Navaho developed in 1946-1950 was a Mach-3 ramjet vehicle with an integral rocket booster. Completion of the vehicle was cancelled in 1950 but the engine was used to power the Redstone ballistic missile. More...
  • Nativ As part of its effort to develop what started out as an American version of the A9 boost-glide rocket, North American Aviation built seven Nativ subscale technology demonstrators. More...
  • Navaho The Navaho intercontinental cruise missile project was begun just after World War II, at a time when the US Army Air Force considered ballistic missiles to be technically impractical. The Navaho required a large liquid propellant rocket engine to get its Mach 3 ramjet up to ignition speed. This engine, derived with German assistance from that of the V-2, provided the basis for the rockets that would later take Americans into space.

    It turned out that mastering the guidance and materials technology needed for a Mach 3 cruise air vehicle was actually more difficult than for a Mach 22 ballistic missile. In the end, the Redstone, Thor, Jupiter, and Atlas rockets were flying before their equivalent-range Navaho counterparts. However the Navaho program provided the engine technology that allowed the US to develop these ballistic missiles rapidly and catch up with the Russians. Navaho also developed chem-milling fuel tank fabrication techniques, inertial and stellar navigation, and a host of other technologies used in later space vehicles. It put North American Aviation, and its Rocketdyne Division, in a leading position that allowed them to capture the prime contracts for the X-15, Apollo, and Space Shuttle projects, thereby dominating American manned spaceflight for the next seventy years. More...

  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • MX-774 American test vehicle. Project MX-774 inaugurated by AAF with Consolidated-Vultee to study rocket capabilities with an ICBM as a final objective. Limited funds permitted a few test launches. These rockets demonstrated technologies that woud later be applied to the Atlas. More...
  • Matador American intermediate range cruise missile. Glenn L. Martin Co. surface-to-surface cruise missile (Matador / Project MX-771). More...
  • Aerobee XASR-SC-1 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 More...
  • Bumblebee STV American test vehicle in the 1940's. The primary goal of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program was to develop a ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. Bumblebee test vehicles and technologies led to the operational Terrier and Talos missile of the 1950's. More...
  • Bumblebee STV American test vehicle in the 1940's. The primary goal of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program was to develop a ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. Bumblebee test vehicles and technologies led to the operational Terrier and Talos missile of the 1950's. More...
  • Taurus SSM-N-4 Interim long-range cruise missile considered by the US Navy in 1946-1948, an unmanned version of the AJ-1 Savage carrier-based bomber. More...
  • RM-10 American test vehicle. Two-stage test vehicle to make heat transfer studies at high speed in free flight, launched from NACA's Pilotless Aircraft Reserach Station at Wallops Island, Va. Vehicle was developed by PARD of Langley Laboratory. More...
  • Navaho G-38 American intercontinental cruise missile. The intercontinental-range Navaho G-38 was the ultimate development of the German A-9/A-10 concept. At the time the Navaho program was cancelled on 13 July 1957 missiles were in fabrication with first flight test planned by the end of 1958. More...
  • Viking American sounding rocket. The Viking sounding rocket, originally code-named Neptune, was conceived in 1945 by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as having the same altitude capability as the V-2 but only one third the mass. Martin was given the contract to develop the rocket, and Reaction Motors the engine. The advanced design featured a gimbaled pump-fed engine, a fuel tank integral with the fuselage. All rockets would be static-tested and certified before launch. The first launch was on 3 May 1949. Viking was abandoned in 1954 as too expensive, but Martin's experience on the design led to the first stage of the Vanguard orbital launch vehicle and the Titan ICBM. More...
  • Double Deacon American test vehicle. Single stage vehicles consisting of 2 Deacon motors fired in parallel. More...
  • Aerobee RTV-A-1 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 More...
  • Boojum Intercontinental supersonic cruise missile. A follow-on to the Snark that was Northrop's competitor with the North American Navaho. Never reached development stage and no details available. Name obviously derived from the punchline of Lewis Carroll's poem: "...for the Snark was a Boojum, you see..." More...
  • LTV-N-4 American Naval Ordnance Test Station solid-propellant test vehicle to support development of ramjet-powered missiles. Flew in 1949 and was 4.5 m long. More...
  • Tsien Spaceplane 1949 American winged rocketplane. In 1949 Tsien Hsue-shen, the leading expert in high-speed aerodynamics working in America, applied the knowledge learned from German rocket developments to the design of a practical intercontinental rocket transport. More...
  • Aerobee RTV-N-10 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 More...
  • Aerobee XASR-SC-2 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 More...
  • Hermes A-1 The Army Hermes A-1 single stage test rocket was an American version of the German Wasserfall anti-aircraft rocket. More...
  • Deacon Deacon American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Deacon More...
  • Lark American surface-to-air missile. Lark missile. More...
  • Deacon HVAR American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x HVAR More...
  • Snark American intercontinental subsonic cruise missile. Developed 1946-1959; deployed only briefly in 1961 before being made obsolete by ICBM's. More...
  • Lance American short range ballistic missile, which replaced the Little John, Sergeant and Honest John rockets in US Army service in the 1970's. Retired in 1992. More...
  • RIM-2D American surface-to-air missile. Nuclear warhead. More...
  • Shuttle ISS American winged orbital launch vehicle. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. When the decision was made to move the International Space Station to a high-inclination 51.6 degree orbit, net payload to the more challenging orbit dropped to unacceptable limits. The situation was improved by introduction of the Super Lightweight External Tank, which used 2195 Aluminium-Lithium alloy as the main structural material in place of the 2219 aluminium alloy of the original design. This saved 3,500 kg in empty mass, increasing shuttle payload by the same amount. The tank was first used on STS-91 in June 1998. More...
  • Honest John American tactical ballistic rocket. Unguided single-stage solid-propellant US Army missile developed by Douglas Aircraft. It was later used as the booster stage for a range of sounding rockets, test vehicles, and targets. More...
  • Aerobee RTV-A-1b American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1 More...
  • Aerobee RTV-A-1a American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25 More...
  • Concept ICBM American orbital launch vehicle. The January 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines plus two vernier engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was optimistically estimated as 460 m. More...
  • Land-Based Version American surface-to-air missile. Land based-version of Terrier surface-to-air missile. Development begun in 1951. Project cancelled in 1956. More...
  • MX-1593 American orbital launch vehicle. The September 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was 1850 m. More...
  • Rockoon American air-launched sounding rocket. The Rockoon (balloon-launched rocket) consisted of a small high-performance sounding rocket launched from a balloon above most of the atmosphere. The Rockoon low-cost technique was conceived during an Aerobee firing cruse of the Norton Sound in March 1949. Rockoons were first launched from icebreaker Eastwind off Greenland by an ONR group under James A. Van Allen. They were later used by ONR and University of Iowa research groups in 1953-55 and 1957, from ships in sea between Boston and Thule, Greenland. A variety of upper stage rocket stages were used. More...
  • Deacon Rockoon American sounding rocket. The Rockoon concept involved release of a 12 m diameter balloon from a ship, which took a Deacon sounding rocket to 9 to 27 km altitude in 80 minutes. The rocket was ignited at a preset time or altitude or by remote control, and then boosted an 18 kg payload to a 50 to 100 km altitude. The Deacon was painted black and wrapped in plastic to protect it against the cold, and fitted with larger fins for stability at high altitude. More...
  • Bomarc USAF Mach 3 ramjet surface-to-air missile; later converted to target missiles and launched from Vandenberg AFB. More...
  • Talos American Navy long-range ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. In service 1959-1979. More...
  • Quad Deacon American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 4 Deacons fired in parallel. More...
  • Hermes A-2 American tactical ballistic missile. The Army Hermes A-2 single stage test rocket proved the technology of large solid rocket motors as developed by H L Thackwell at Thiokol. But the Army preferred to have further development done in-house and JPL was selected to develop the Sergeant rocket. In addition to the flight tests, a total of 22 motors were static fired, including one after seven years of storage. More...
  • HPAG Deacon American test vehicle. Two stage vehicles consisting of HPAG boosters + 1 x Deacon More...
  • Redstone Redstone was the first large liquid rocket developed in the US using German V-2 technology. Originally designated Hermes C. Redstones later launched the first US satellite and the first American astronaut into space. More...
  • Navaho X-10 American intermediate range cruise missile. Reusable, conventional airfield takeoff-and-landing aerodynamic test vehicle for Navaho missile. More...
  • Nike Deacon American test vehicle. Two-stage rocket using surplus Nike boosters and Deacon sounding rocket upper stage. The combination was much cheaper than Aerobee, and unlike Rockoon could be launched from fixed launchers in two and a half hours. It was used for 'falling sphere' air density studies, atmospheric soundings, and for heat transfer studies launched from NACA Wallops Island. More...
  • Proposed Atlas American orbital launch vehicle. The April 1953 design for the Atlas at the time of Convair's proposal used five main engines to power a 200 metric tone rocket able to send a 1400 kg nuclear warhead over a 10,200 km range. CEP was 1850 m. More...
  • Rigel SSM-N-6 American Navy pioneering cruise missile project. Development started in 1943. Program cancelled in 1953. More...
  • Aerobee RTV-N-10b American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-24 More...
  • Nike Nike HPAG American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x HPAG More...
  • Nike Nike T40 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 More...
  • Contracted Atlas American orbital launch vehicle. The 1954 design for the Atlas as contracted for by the Air Force used three main engines to power a 110 metric ton rocket able to send a 1400 kg nuclear warhead over a 10,200 km range. CEP was 3700 m. The missile actually delivered six years later would have the same dimensions and launch mass, but 63% more range and four times better accuracy. More...
  • XIM-70 American surface-to-air missile. Land-based version. Full scale development begun in 1954. Project cancelled in 1957. More...
  • Nike Hercules American surface-to-air missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Hercules Booster + 1 x TX-30 More...
  • Nike Ajax American surface-to-air missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Ajax More...
  • Aerobee RTV-N-10c American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-34 More...
  • Aerobee Hi American sounding rocket. Aerobee Hi was a development of the basic Aerobee with longer propellant tanks, improved materials, a better propellant fraction, and smaller fins. 9.3 m l x 0.39 m dia. The booster stage fired for 2.5 seconds and took the rocket to 270 m altitude and 820 kph. The upper stage then fired for 25 seconds, burning out at 40 km altitude travelling at 6400 kph. Thereafter the payload would coast up to 270 km altitude before falling back toward earth. More...
  • X-17 QTV American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x T-40 + 1 x Dummy stage + 1 x Dummy stage More...
  • X-17 American test vehicle. USAF X-17 flight test program at Cape Canaveral studied reentry problems by simulating reentry velocities and conditions with a three-stage solid-fuel Lockheed X-17. A total of 26 X-17 flights were conducted until March 1957. More...
  • X-17 HTV American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 3-DS-47000 + 3 x NOTS 124-C + 1 x NOTS 124-C More...
  • Aerobee AJ10-27 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-27 More...
  • Aerobee RTV-N-10a American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25 More...
  • Rockair American sounding rocket. The Rockair technique (research rocket launched from aircraft) was developed by the Office of Naval Research and the University of Maryland. A 2.75-inch FFAR rocket was fired from a Navy F2H-2 Banshee aircraft to an altitude of approximately 60,000 m. More...
  • HJ Nike American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike More...
  • Jupiter A American orbital launch vehicle. The Jupiter A was a modified Redstone missile fitted with Jupiter inertial navigation and control system elements. It also tested Hydyne fuel and other engine modifications for the Jupiter C re-entry vehicle test booster. More...
  • Loki Rockoon American sounding rocket. Balloon-launched Loki with larger fins for stability at high altitudes. The basic Loki was used in this manner on 23 September 1955, measuring cosmic rays. More...
  • Deacon Rockoon Loki Two stage version of Rockoon balloon-launched soundinr coekt consisting of a Deacon first stage and Loki second stage. More...
  • Thor American liquid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile, developed by Douglas in 1956-1958. 60 deployed to Britain in 1958-1962. The basis for a family of Thor and Delta space launch vehicles, remaining in production into the 2010's. More...
  • Asp American sounding rocket. Sounding rocket (Atmospheric Sounding Projectile) originally designed against a US Navy Bureeau of Ships requirement to sample the mushroom clouds of nuclear explosions. Developed by Cooper Development Corporation for the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Flight test in 1956. Designed to lift 13.6 kg to 40 km. More...
  • X-17 HTV 1 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 3-DS-47000 + 1 x Dummy stage + 1 x Dummy stage More...
  • LGM-30C American intercontinental ballistic missile. Mobile version of Minuteman. Development begun in 1955. Cancelled in 1962. More...
  • Sergeant American single-stage solid-propulsion tactical ballistic missile developed for the US Army in 1956-1962. Surplus rockets and the Sergeant's rocket motor (known commercially as Castor) became the basis for many sounding rockets. More...
  • Loki American unguided solid-propellant barrage anti-aircraft rocket adapted to use as a meteorological sounding rocket. More...
  • HJ Nike T40 T55 American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55 More...
  • Aerobee AJ10-34 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-34 More...
  • Nike Nike American sounding rocket. 2-4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + upper stages. More...
  • HJ Nike T40 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 More...
  • Cajun American sounding rocket. The Cajun research rocket was developed as a dimensionally-similar but higher performance successor to the Deacon. More...
  • Nike Cajun American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle sounding rocket consisting of a Nike booster together with a Cajun upper stage. Aside from the Soviet MMR-06, the Nike-Cajun was the most often launched sounding rocket. The Cajun motor was developed for NASA in the 1950's by Thiokol, providing a more modern but still affordable replacement for the World War II-era Deacon. More...
  • Nike T40 T55 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55 More...
  • Jupiter C American orbital launch vehicle. Re-entry vehicle test booster and satellite launcher derived from Redstone missile. The Jupiter A version of the Redstone missile was modified with upper stages to test Jupiter re-entry vehicle configurations. Von Braun's team was ordered to ballast the upper stage with sand to prevent any 'inadvertent' artificial satellites from stealing thunder from the official Vanguard program. Korolev's R-7 orbited the first earth satellite instead. The Jupiter C was retroactively named the 'Juno I' by Von Braun's team. More...
  • Terrapin American test vehicle. Terrapin sounding rockets were two-stage vehicles launched from Wallops Island. The Terrapin sounding rocket was developed by Republic Aviation under a National Security Agency contract for a University of Maryland project that allowed graduate students to study the upper atmosphere. The two-stage rocket used a Deacon motor with a slow-burn grain for the lower stage, and a TSI upper stage. The upper stage was equipped with low-drag swept stabilising fins. More...
  • Nike Recruit American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit More...
  • Recruit American sounding rocket. The Recruit motor was usually used as an upper stage, but in this air-launched vehicle was used for re-entry vehicle heat transfer and aerodynamic stability tests. More...
  • Navaho G-26 American intermediate range cruise missile. The Navaho G-26 was a 2/3 scale test version of the operational Navaho G-38. The Navaho program was cancelled on 13 July 1957, but already-built G-26 test missiles were flown to the end of 1958. More...
  • Rockaire American air-launched sounding rocket. This USAF version of the Navy Rockair (research rocket launched from aircraft) vehicle consisted of a Deacon rocket launched from an F-86D Sabrejet fighter. More...
  • Lobber American surface-to-surface missile. In 1955 Convair undertook a small R&D program to develop a resupply missile that would deliver supplies and communications equipment to surrounded or isolated Army field units. More...
  • PWN-5 American sounding rocket. Produced by Marquardt for the Army, Roksonde meteorological sounding rockets first completed a series of tests at White Sands Missile Range and Pacific Missile Range. They were later successfully fired from Cape Canaveral, telemetered measurements of winds and temperatures at altitudes above 600,000 m. More...
  • Jupiter C Juno I American short range ballistic missile. Four stage orbital launch version consisting of 1 x Redstone + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 + 1 x RTV Motor. The fourth stage allowed the Explorer payload to be placed into orbit. More...
  • World Series American orbital launch vehicle. In May 1956 the Air Force proposed mating an Atlas A with an Aerobee-Hi upper stage in order to launch a satellite during the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). The Eisenhower administration selected the Vanguard instead. After Sputnik, an Atlas B with no upper stage orbited the Score satellite as a reply to the Soviet's Sputnik 3. More...
  • Recruit T55 American sounding rocket. The Recruit motor was the first stage of this larger booster, dropped from a B-57 for re-entry vehicle heat transfer tests. More...
  • Doorknob American test vehicle. Test vehicle developed by Sandia for aeronomy measurements during atmospheric nuclear tests. One (Doorknob-1) or two surplus Lacrosse (Doorknob-2) missile motors were mated with the payload section. More...
  • Doorknob 2 American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Lacrosse + 1 x Lacrosse More...
  • Thor DM-18 American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle adapted from Thor IRBM with no upper stage. More...
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Jupiter American intermediate range ballistic missile. The Jupiter IRBM was developed for the US Army. By the time development was complete, the mission and the missile was assigned to the US Air Force, which had its own nearly identical missile, the Thor. Jupiters were stationed in Turkey and Italy in the early 1960's, but withdrawn in secret exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet R-5 missiles from Cuba. The Jupiter was used as the first stage of the relatively unsuccessful Juno II launch vehicle, and proposed for the Juno III and Juno IV. Jupiter tooling and engines were used to build the much larger Juno V / Saturn I launch vehicle. More...
  • Aerobee AJ10-25 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25 More...
  • Orion OLV American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Nuclear-pulse drive launch vehicle seriously developed by General Atomics in the United States from 1955-1965. The design allowed vast payloads of hundreds of tons to be hurled to the planets. By 1958 the Orion team saw themselves in direct competition with Von Braun's chemical rockets. They hoped to a land a huge manned expedition on Mars by 1964 and tour the moons of Saturn by 1970. However politically NASA would not argue for the exception to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty necessary to allow firing of nuclear explosions in space. More...
  • Atlas A American test vehicle. First test model of Atlas ICBM. Two booster engines, no sustainer, dummy warhead. 50% reliability in 8 flight tests. More...
  • Farside American sounding rocket. Project Farside was an attempt to reach extreme altitudes with the rockoon concept. Using a four-stage solid-propellant rocket hung below a 106 188-m3 (3 750 000-ft3) balloon, altitudes approaching 6437 km (4000 mi) were reached during the fall of 1957. Farside was a four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 1 x Recruit + 4 x Arrow II + 1 x Arrow II. More...
  • Nike Asp American sounding rocket. Rail-launched vehicle consisting of an Asp plus a Nike booster. This product of the Cooper Development Corporation was designed to lift 27 kg to 260 km. An improved version, the Aspan 300, was also developed.The Nike-Asp was sometimes ship-launched. More...
  • Vanguard American orbital launch vehicle. Vanguard was the 'civilian' vehicle developed by the US Navy to launch America's first satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year. The Army / von Braun Jupiter-C instead launched the first US satellite after Sputnik and Vanguard's public launch failure. The second stage design led to the Able upper stage for Thor/Atlas, and then to the Delta upper stage still in use in the 21st Century. The original version of Vanguard used a Grand Central final stage. More...
  • HJ Nike Nike American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike More...
  • Titan-Vanguard American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin Company proposed to the Department of Defense that the first stage of the Titan I intercontinental ballistic missile be combined with the Vanguard rocket to provide a launch vehicle capable of placing an instrument package into lunar orbit and on the lunar surface. NASA was instead given the mission and used Atlas/Agena and Atlas/Centaur for this purpose instead. More...
  • Hawk Rockoon American sounding rocket. Balloon-launched Loki with larger fins for stability at high altitudes. The larger Loki II motor was used from 5 August 1957 as part of the IGY. This variant could reach 122 km and was called the 'Hawk Rockoon'. More...
  • Kitty American sounding rocket developed to measure winds aloft in support of nuclear tests. More...
  • Super-Jupiter American orbital launch vehicle. The very first design that would lead to Saturn. A 1.5 million pound thrust booster using four E-1 engines - initial consideration of using a single USAF F-1 engine abandoned because of development time. Existing missile tankage was clustered above the engines. More...
  • Triton US Navy ship- and sub-to-surface cruise ramjet-powered supersonic missile. Development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1957. More...
  • Polaris TV American missile. Single stage test vehicle to test thrust-vectoring system. More...
  • Polaris American submarine-launched ballistic missile. Probably the most technically innovative program in history, Polaris integrated solid-propellant, inertially-guided intermediate range ballistic missiles with nuclear submarines that could remain submerged for months at a time. All of these were new technologies, but the first ship was underway only three years after go-ahead. More...
  • Aerobee 100 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 100 More...
  • Nike Apache American sounding rocket. The most popular sounding rocket introduced during the early 1960's was this two-stage, solid-propellant vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Apache upper stage. More...
  • Apache American sounding rocket. The Apache upper stage was an improved version of the Cajun. The Thiokol engine used aluminised polyurethane propellant with a higher specific impulse and phenolic lining in the steel nozzle. Cost to NASA was $ 6,000 per rocket. The Apache could be used in a single stage version, but was normally used with a booster stage, usually the Nike. More...
  • Thor Able American orbital launch vehicle. Thor with Able stage derived from Vanguard second stage. More...
  • Bold Orion 1 American anti-ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-47 Stratojet + 1 x Sergeant More...
  • Bold Orion American air-launched anti-ballistic missile. Dropped from B-47 medium bombers, the missile consisted of a Sergeant booster and Altair upper stage. More...
  • Exos American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit More...
  • Sergeant 5-stage American test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Lance + 1 x Lance + 1 x Recruit + 1 x T-55 More...
  • Project Pilot American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. The US Navy's satellite launcher project competed with the Army's Jupiter-C, the Air Force Atlas, and the civilian Vanguard. Air-launched satellite launch vehicle, and anti-satellite versions, tested by the US Navy shortly after Sputnik. One may have achieved orbit. More...
  • Jason American sounding rocket. The five-stage Jason rocket was developed by the US Air Force for monitoring of radiation in near-earth space (700-800 km) after high altitude nuclear explosions. Originally known as the Argo E-5, it consisted of an Honest John plus Nike plus Nike plus Recruit plus T-55. First used in 1958. More...
  • Arcon American sounding rocket. Similar to the Deacon and Cajun. Developed by the Atlantic Research Corp. for NRL. First used in 1958. Designed to lift 18 kg to 113 km. The two-stage vehicle consisted of two Arcon motors in tandem. More...
  • Atlas B American test vehicle. First all-up test version of the Atlas ICBM, with jettisonable booster engines and a single engine sustainer on core - a '1 1/2' stage launch vehicle. More...
  • Ascamp American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Asp + 1 x RTV Motor More...
  • Thor Able I American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 1/AJ10-41 + 1 x Altair More...
  • High Virgo American air-launched test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-58 Hustler + 1 x TX-20 Sergeant More...
  • Aerobee 300 American sounding rocket. The Aerobee 300, also called the Sparrowbee, consisted of an Aerobee 150 or Aerobee 180 lower stage with a 20 cm diameter Sparrow rocket as an upper stage. The Sparrow would ignite at 35 km altitude at 53 seconds into the flight, and boost the payload to 10,000 kph, allowing it to coast up to 420 km apogee. The rocket was designed for studies of the sun above the atmosphere and was only fired from Fort Churchill (the White Sands range was too small to cover the possible impact points of the high-altitude rocket). More...
  • HJ American sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket. More...
  • Juno II American orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jupiter IRBM. Basic 4 stage vehicle consisted of 1 x Jupiter + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 + 1 x RTV Motor More...
  • Bold Orion 2 American anti-ballistic missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-47 Stratojet + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Altair More...
  • Atlas C American test vehicle. Last development version of Atlas. Never deployed operationally or used for space launches. More...
  • Atlas Vega American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas-Vega consisted of an Atlas booster with a storable propellant upper stage. It was planned by NASA at its inception for deep space and planetary missions before the Atlas Centaur was available. Work had already begun when NASA discovered that the CIA and the US Air Force had an essentially identical launch vehicle (Atlas-Hustler, later called Atlas-Agena) in development for the highly classified Corona reconnaisance satellite program. Atlas-Vega was accordingly cancelled. More...
  • Crossbow American air-to-surface missile, development started in 1953. Program cancelled in 1957. More...
  • Dart American surface-to-surface anti-tank missile. Development started in 1953 Program cancelled in 1958 in favor of the the French SS.10. More...
  • Juno II (3) American intermediate range ballistic missile. Three stage version consisting of 1 x Jupiter + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 More...
  • Orion Test Article American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The original test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 133 kg including its bullet-shaped outer shell. More...
  • Juno V-A American orbital launch vehicle. By 1958 the Super-Jupiter was called Juno V and the 4 E-1 engines were abandoned in favor of clustering 8 Jupiter IRBM engines below existing Redstone/Jupiter tankage. The A version had a Titan I ICBM as the upper stages. Masses, payload estimated. More...
  • Juno V-B American orbital launch vehicle. A proposed version of the Juno V for lunar and planetary missions used a Titan I ICBM first stage and a Centaur high-energy third stage atop the basic Juno V cluster. Masses, payload estimated. More...
  • Project Pilot 1 American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Ground-launched, 5 stage vehicle for Project Pilot. More...
  • Project Pilot 2 American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Six stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F4D-1 Skyray + 2 x HOTROC + 2 x HOTROC + 1 x X-241 + 1 x NOTS 8in + 1 x NOTS 3in Sph. More...
  • Plato US Army anti-ballistic missile, development started in 1951. Program cancelled in 1959. More...
  • Regulus 2 American supersonic sub-to-surface intermediate-range cruise missile, development started in 1953. Program cancelled in 1958 in deference to Polaris project. More...
  • Arcas American sounding rocket. The Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with the support of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. Primarily a meteorological rocket, the Arcas was first fired in July 1959. The single-stage version was designed to lift 5.4 kg to 64 km. For more demanding missions, several versions of boosted Arcas were developed, as well as a stretched Super Arcas motor. More...
  • ALSOR American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F-104A Starfighter + 1 x Viper I More...
  • Viper American sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket developed as a follow-on to the Loki-Dart. More...
  • Thor Agena A American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Agena A More...
  • Thor Able II American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 2/AJ10-42 More...
  • Aerobee 150 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 150. More...
  • Titan American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...
  • Titan 1 American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, built as back-up to Atlas, using two stages instead of one and a half, and conventional tank construction in lieu of balloon tanks. It was also to have been used for suborbital tests of the X-20A Dynasoar manned space plane. For unknown reasons never refurbished for use as space launcher and scrapped after being replaced by the Titan II in the missile role in mid-1960's. More...
  • Draco American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-20 Sergeant + 1 x TX-30 More...
  • Trailblazer 1 American test vehicle. The rocket's first three stages would take the upper stage package to a 260 km apogee. The upper stage package was mounted upside-down in relation to the other stages. When it had reached the peak, the three upper stages fired in sequence, ramming the payload, a 13 cm sphere, into the atmosphere at orbital re-entry speeds. More...
  • Trailblazer American test vehicle. The Trailblazer rockets were designed to conduct experiments in re-entry physics. More...
  • Atlas D American intercontinental ballistic missile. Rocket used both as a space launcher and ICBM. More...
  • Saturn A-1 American orbital launch vehicle. Projected first version of Saturn I, to be used if necessary before S-IV liquid hydrogen second stage became available. Titan 1 first stage used as second stage, Centaur third stage. Masses, payload estimated. More...
  • Hound Dog First American air-launched cruise missile to become operational. Based on Navaho technology. More...
  • Terrier Standard US Navy solid propellant two-stage extended-range surface-to-air missile. Developed in the 1950's, in service until replaced by the Standard ER in the 1980's. Modified Terrier missiles were used as sounding rockets, sometimes supplemented with upper stages. More...
  • Saturn C-2 American orbital launch vehicle. The launch vehicle initially considered for realizing the Apollo lunar landing at the earliest possible date. 15 launches and rendezvous required to assemble direct landing spacecraft in earth orbit. More...
  • Javelin American sounding rocket. The four-stage Javelin rocket was originally known as the Argo D-4 and was developed by the Air Force to replace its Jason rocket with the mission of measuring radiation in space after high-altitude nuclear explosions. It was subsequently used by NASA for a variety of high-altitude near-space scientific experiments. More...
  • X-15A American air-launched rocketplane. Manned hypersonic research rocket aircraft. More...
  • Thor Able III American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 3/AJ10 + 1 x Altair More...
  • Little Joe Little Joe was used to test the Mercury capsule launch escape system. The booster was designed by NASA Langley using existing components. Six to eight solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing built by North American. More...
  • Nike Zeus American anti-ballistic missile. First anti-ballistic missile tested by US. Protoypes were deployed operationally from the mid-Pacific test base as nuclear-tipped ASAT missiles. Cancelled 1966; replaced by the Spartan missile. More...
  • Nike Zeus A American anti-ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-135 + 1 x Zeus A More...
  • Minuteman 1A American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial production version, 3 stage vehicle. The Minuteman IA used exclusively the Mk.5 RV with the W59 (1 MT) warhead. More...
  • Minuteman American intercontinental ballistic missile. Mainstay of the US deterrent. 1,000 Minuteman silos were built in the early 1960's, and the missile was to remain in service to the mid-21st Century. As versions were retired and updated, they provided a plentiful source of surplus rocket motors for other projects. More...
  • Polaris A1 American missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x A1P + 1 x A1P stage 2 More...
  • Atlas C Able American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas C first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage. More...
  • Terrier Asp American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Asp More...
  • Shotput American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Altair More...
  • Mace American intermediate range cruise missile. Intermediate range cruise missile. Only Cape Canaveral launches are listed here, but over 30 launches were also conducted from Launch Area Able-51 by Det 1, 4504th CCTW at Holloman AFB, New Mexico from October 1959 throurgh 1963. More...
  • Strongarm American test vehicle. A large five-stage rocket developed by the Army Ballistics Research Laboratory with the cooperation of the University of Michigan. Consisted of an Honest John plus Nike plus Nike plus modified Recruit plus a scaled-down Sergeant. Fired first from Wallops Island on November 10, 1959. Could lift 6.8 kg to 1600 km. More...
  • Atlas Able American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas with upper stage based on Vanguard second stage. More...
  • Argo American sounding rocket. Argo sounding rockets measured radiation caused by the Project Argus high altitude nuclear explosions. The missiles reached 800 km altitude, and were launched from Wallops Island, AMR, and Ramey AFB, Puerto Rico. The Argo A-1, also known as Percheron, consisted of a modified Sergeant plus 2 Recruits, and was later used on occasion by NASA's Langley Research Center. It could lift 180 kg to 177 km. The Argo D-4, D-8, and E-5 are listed under Javelin, Journeyman, and Jason. More...
  • CIM-10A American surface-to-air missile. Also XIM-10, YIM-10. More...
  • Hyperion 1958 American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Hyperion was considered in 1958 as a ca. 1970 Saturn follow-on. It used a small jettisonable chemical booster stage that contained chemical engines and the LOX oxidizer for the conventional engines. More...
  • Nike Zeus 3 American anti-ballistic missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-135 + 1 x TX-238 + 1 x TX-239 More...
  • Atlas D Able American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas D first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage. More...
  • Navaho/X-15 North American proposed several methods of taking the X-15 spaceplane to higher velocities and altitudes. One of these involved the use of one to three Navaho booster rockets, which could even place the X-15 into orbit. This incremental approach to manned spaceflight was not pursued - the Mercury and X-20 Dynasoar programs were favored instead. More...
  • Nova NASA American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Nova vehicle most often illustrated in the popular press and histories. As in other early concepts, this NASA design of 1959/1960 used F-1 engine in both first and second stages. Resulting performance and total liftoff mass was equivalent to later Saturn V. More...
  • Orion Hot Rod American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The modified test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 105 kg. The outer shell and upper shock absorber of the original design were deleted and a parachute recovery system added. More...
  • Thor Able II M1 American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 2/AJ10-42 + 1 x Altair More...
  • Jupiter Mercury American intermediate range ballistic missile. Version of Jupiter IRBM designed for launch of Mercury manned capsules on long suborbital flights. Cancelled early in the programme, with the decision being to proceed from Mercury Redstone suborbital flights directly to Mercury Atlas orbital missions. More...
  • Strongarm 1 American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit More...
  • Saturn B-1 American orbital launch vehicle. Most powerful version of Saturn I considered. New low energy second stage with four H-1 engines, S-IV third stage, Centaur fourth stage. Masses, payload estimated. More...
  • Saturn A-2 American orbital launch vehicle. More powerful version of Saturn I with low energy second stage consisting of cluster of four IRBM motors and tankage, Centaur third stage. Masses, payload estimated. More...
  • Terrier Sounding Rocket American surface-to-air missile. Modified single stage Navy Terrier missiles with cameras were used as sounding rockets. They were launched to an altitude of 140 km from Wallops Island, providing a 1,600 km composite photograph of a frontal cloud formation. More...
  • Sparoair I American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F3H Cougar + 1 x Sparrow + 1 x Sparrow More...
  • Sparoair American air-launched sounding rocket. Air-launched two stage vehicle consisting of tandem Sparrow air-to-air missile motors. More...
  • Jaguar B-57 American air-launched test vehicle. Three stage vehicle air launched from a B-57A Canberra. The rocket consisted of consisting of 3 x Recruit + 1 x Recruit + 1 x Baby Sergeant More...
  • Nike Viper I American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Viper I More...
  • Atlas Agena A American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D + 1 x Agena A upper stage. Agena originally called 'Hustler', based on engine for cancelled rocket-propelled nuclear warhead pod for B-58 Hustler bomber. More...
  • Thor Able IV American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x AJ10 + 1 x Altair More...
  • Astrobee American sounding rocket. Aerojet-designed family of sounding rockets conceived as a lower-cost replacement of the liquid-propellant Aerobee. More...
  • Astrobee 500 American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Asp More...
  • Aerobee 150A American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 150A More...
  • Thor Able-Star American orbital launch vehicle. As Thor Able but with enlarged Ablestar second stage with 2 1/2 x greater burn time. More...
  • Scout X American suborbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair More...
  • Scout American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions. More...
  • HJ Nike Gosling American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Gosling More...
  • Thor Delta American orbital launch vehicle. Commercial name for the military's Thor-Delta. The name of the Delta second stage eventually was applied to subsequent commercial follow-ons. More...
  • Kiva/Hopi American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kiva + 1 x Hopi More...
  • Hopi American sounding rocket. The Hopi-Dart vehicle consisted of a Hopi III booster as first stage, and an unpowered dart as second stage. A boosted version of the configuration used a Kiva motor as the first stage. More...
  • Scout X-1 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1B + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair More...
  • Iris American sounding rocket. Sounding rocket developed by Navy, then handed over to NASA. Flown only four times, but then used in unique Hydra-Iris test series. More...
  • Caleb American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Heavily classifed project related to air-launched ASAT development. Launch tests in 1958. NOTS project staff believed they successully orbited a satellite but unconfirmed. More...
  • Aerobee 300A American sounding rocket. Aerobee 300A used a four-fin Aerobee 150A second stage rather than the older three-fin 150. More...
  • Viper Falcon American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Viper I + 1 x Falcon More...
  • Journeyman American sounding rocket. Five stage vehicle of the Argo series consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Lance + 1 x Lance + 1 x Altair More...
  • Blue Scout Jr American suborbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Cetus More...
  • Atlas E American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial fully operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance system from Atlas F. Deployed as missiles from 1960 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used over twenty years as space launch vehicles. More...
  • Thor Agena B American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x Agena B More...
  • Polaris A2 American missile. In comparison to the A-1, the Polaris A-2 had a slightly longer first stage and a lighter second-stage motor casing. These features increased range to 2800 km (1500 nm), the performance originally envisioned by the Navy. More...
  • Redstone MRLV American suborbital launch vehicle. Greatly modified Redstone rocket used to launch the Mercury manned spacecraft on a suborbital trajectory, typically 380 km downrange, 220 km altitude, and a speed of 6800 kph. More...
  • Blue Scout Junior American suborbital launch vehicle. Smaller Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital military tests. More...
  • CGM-16E American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version More...
  • HGM-16F American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version. Also CGM-16F More...
  • Helios American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Study by Kraft Ehricke of a vehicle where the booster stage contains liquid oxygen tanks only and takes the nuclear second stage to the stratosphere. The nuclear sustainer then takes the payload to orbit or escape trajectory. More...
  • Nova B American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Convair/Ehricke Nova design using standard tank/engine modules of 4.9 m diameter in both first and second stages; 6 F-1 engine/modules in first stage, 6 J-2 engine/modules in second stage. More...
  • Nova C American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova vehicle using Nova A as first two stages, nuclear spacecraft with jettisonable tanks as upper stage. More...
  • Nova 8L Mod American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova concept where first two stages use short Nova building blocks with 2 F-1's in each block. Four used in stage 1, one in stage 2. Typical of early Nova designs with F-1's in both first and second stages. More...
  • Nova D American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova vehicle using Nova B as first two stages, nuclear spacecraft with jettisonable tanks as upper stage. More...
  • Nova 9L American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using clustered small diameter tanks; 9 x F-1 first stage and 4 x F-1 second stage; compared with solid Nova using five six segment solid motors in first stage and four four segment motors in second stage. More...
  • Nova 4S American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using a cluster of 4 x 240 inch solid motors used as first stage; upper stages as Nova 7S and 8L. More...
  • Nova 7S American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using a cluster of 7 x 160 inch solid motors used as first stage; upper stages as Nova 4S and 8L. More...
  • Nova 5S American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using segmented solid motors in first and second stages. Five six segment motors in first stage; four four segment motors in second stage, equivalent to 9 x F-1 first stage and 4 x F-1 second stage. More...
  • Thor Ablestar 2 American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Able-Star/AJ10-104D More...
  • Orion Planetary American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The baseline planetary version of Orion would have launched from the earth's surface. It would have been bullet-shaped, 41 m in diameter and about 50 m high. More...
  • PWN-10 American sounding rocket, equipping the Loki-Dart payload with a radar transponder, in turn requiring the larger Super Loki motor to reach the same altitude. More...
  • PWN-8 American sounding rocket. In the early 1960s, the low-cost Loki-Dart sounding rockets could only carry a passive chaff payload to high altitude. For more sophisticated payloads like temperature transmitters, the USAF had to use the significantly more expensive Arcas. The Space Data Corporation (SDC) was founded in 1963 with the goal to develop a meteorological instrument package small enough to fit into the 3.5 cm (1.38 in) diameter darts of the Loki-Dart systems. More...
  • Saturn C-4 American orbital launch vehicle. The launch vehicle actually planned for the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous approach to lunar landing. The Saturn C-5 was selected instead to have reserve capacity. More...
  • Titan 3BAS2 American orbital launch vehicle. Configuration of Titan 3B proposed by Martin in mid-1960's. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation. Never flown. More...
  • Thor Hydra American orbital launch vehicle. Thor with Hydra liquid oxygen/hydrogen pressure-fed upper stage. Never went beyond initial hardware testing. However such a stage would have vastly increased Thor-Ablestar performance, from 150 kg to over 1000 kg in a medium polar orbit. More...
  • Blue Scout Jr 2 American suborbital launch vehicle. Three stage version consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor More...
  • Winged Titan American winged orbital launch vehicle. The only trace of this winged version of the Titan launch vehicle are some drawings in popular magazines ca. 1960. More...
  • Kisha Judi American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kisha + 1 x Judi III More...
  • Sparoair II American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F3H Cougar + 1 x Sparrow + 1 x Sparrow More...
  • Blue Scout 1 American suborbital launch vehicle. Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital tests. More...
  • Nova 4L American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Earliest NASA Nova design, using only 4 F-1's, capability less than later Saturn designs. More...
  • Blue Scout 2 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital and orbital military tests. More...
  • Astrobee 1500 American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Aerojet Jr + 1 x Alcor More...
  • Saturn I RIFT American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. In the first half of the 1960's it was planned to make suborbital tests of nuclear propulsion for upper stages using a Saturn IB first stage to boost a Rover-reactor powered second stage on a suborbital trajectory. The second stage would impact the Atlantic Ocean down range from Cape Canaveral. More...
  • Rocket belt American test vehicle. In the 1960's Bell Aerosystems caught the public imagination with a series of rocket and jet-powered rocket belts. Rocket belt-equipped fliers became a symbol of the future and a fixture at World Fairs, football games, etc. But the technology was too expensive and limited to ever be adopted for military or civilian terrestrial purposes. More...
  • Nova A American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Convair/Ehricke Nova design using standard tank/engine modules of 4.9 m diameter in both first and second stages; 4 F-1 engine/modules in first stage, 4 J-2 engine/modules in second stage. More...
  • Saturn C-3 The launch vehicle concept considered for a time as the leading contender for the Earth Orbit Rendezvous approach to an American lunar landing. More...
  • Astrobee 200 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor More...
  • Atlas Agena B American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with improved, enlarged Agena upper stage. More...
  • Atlas F American intercontinental ballistic missile. Final operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance systems. Deployed as missiles from 1961 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used for over thirty years as space launch vehicles. More...
  • RAM American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. More...
  • RAM A American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Employed by NACA-Langley for accelerating aerodynamic models. Could lift 34 kg to 1271 km. 5 stage vehicle. More...
  • Saturn C-1 American orbital launch vehicle. Original flight version with dummy upper stages, including dummy Saturn S-V/Centaur (never flown). More...
  • Saturn I American orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun launch vehicle known as 'Cluster's Last Stand' - 8 Redstone tanks around a Jupiter tank core,powered by eight Jupiter engines. Originally intended as the launch vehicle for Apollo manned circumlunar flights. However it was developed so early, no payloads were available for it. More...
  • Asp Apache American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Asp + 1 x Apache More...
  • Argus American sounding rocket. NASA Bios (biological investigation of space). More...
  • Saturn C-5 American orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of Saturn C-5 at the time of selection of this configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. The actual Saturn V would be derived from this, but with an increased-diameter third stage (6.61 m vs 5.59 m in C-5) and increased propellant load in S-II second stage. More...
  • Astroplane American winged orbital launch vehicle. Martin concept of 1961 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would be powered by nuclear magnetohydrodynamic engines. More...
  • Trailblazer 2M American test vehicle. Five stage version for artificial meteorite launches consisting of 2 x Recruit strap-ons + 1 x Castor first stage + 1 x Skat second stage. The upper stage package consisted of 1 x Altair + 1 x Cygnus 15 + 1 x Cygnus 5 More...
  • Astro IV American orbital launch vehicle. A two-stage all-Lox/LH2 vehicle proposed for the USAF SLV-4 requirement. Ruled out because it did not use the large segmented solids then favored by the USAF and its think tanks. More...
  • Blue Scout ERCS American strategic communications missile. USAF initial Emergency Rocket Communications System booster. More...
  • CIM-10B American surface-to-air missile. CQM-10 drone version More...
  • Patriot American surface-to-air missile. Standard Army surface-to-air missile. Later versions had anti-tactical missile capability. More...
  • SLS BC-2720 American orbital launch vehicle. The BC-2720 was the member of the SLS family selected to boost the Air Force Lunex lunar lander on a direct lunar trajectory. This would have used four 180 inch solid rocket boosters strapped around an the 'C' Lox/LH2 core vehicle. The core would have required either 12 J-2 engines or 2 M-1 engines. The translunar injection third stage was the 'B', with a single J-2 engine. More...
  • SLS A-410 American orbital launch vehicle. The smallest identified member of the SLS family, selected to place the Air Force Lunex lunar lander re-entry vehicle in a low earth orbit for initial tests, was the A-410. This consisted of the 'A' Lox/LH2 stage supplemented by 100-inch diameter solid fuel booster rockets. More...
  • SLS AB-825 American orbital launch vehicle. The AB-825 represented a medium launch vehicle of the USAF 1961 Space Launching System family. The AB-825 would have conducted earth orbit tests of partially-fuelled Lunex lunar lander stages, and also have boosted the Lunex manned glider on circumlunar test flights. It consisted of the 'A' stage and 'B' stages with 180 inch diameter short-length solid fuel booster motors. More...
  • SLS A-388 American orbital launch vehicle. The A-388 was the version of the Space Launching System family proposed to fill the SLV-4 requirement - boost to orbit of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane. The booster was dubbed 'Phoenix' - perhaps a hope it could be rescued from the ashes of the manned space program having been turned over to NASA.... More...
  • Saturn C-3B American orbital launch vehicle. Final configurtion of the Saturn C-3 at the time of selection of the Saturn C-5 configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. More...
  • Saturn C-4B American orbital launch vehicle. Final configurtion of the Saturn C-4 at the time of selection of the Saturn C-5 configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. Only Saturn configuration with common bulkhead propellant tanks in first stage, resulting in shorter vehicle than less powerful Saturn C-3. More...
  • Sea Bee American sea-launched test vehicle. Seabee was a brief proof of principle program to validate the sea-launch concept for Sea Dragon. A surplus Aerobee rocket was modified so that it could be fired underwater. The rocket worked properly the first time in restrained mode. Later tests were made with various approaches to readying the unit for repeat firings. This proved to be so simple that the cost of turn-around was found to be about 7% of the cost of a new unit. More...
  • Saturn C-3BN American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-3 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in place of S-IVB oxygen/hydrogen stage. More...
  • Soltan American orbital launch vehicle. The progenitor of the Titan 3 was this design, which used two, 3 segment, 100 inch diameter solid rocket boosters. The 100 inch segmented boosters had already been ground-fired by Aerojet. However the final decision was to develop the more-capable Titan 3C with 5 segment, 120 inch diameter solid rocket boosters. More...
  • Saturn C-5N American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-5 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in place of S-IVB oxygen/hydrogen stage. More...
  • SLS American orbital launch vehicle. In the mid-1950's, US Air Force-funded studies identified the optimum long-term solution for space launch. The studies indicated the desirability of segmented solids for a first stage to achieve low cost, high reliability and flexibility of basic booster size by adding or subtracting segments. Studies further showed that oxygen-hydrogen propellants, with their very high specific impulse, were a preferred choice for upper stages, where mass was more important. This choice also resulted in minimum systems cost. More...
  • Titan C American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan C, a Titan II booster stage topped by a new liquid oxygen/hydrogen upper stage, was the launch vehicle selected in November 1959 for the DynaSoar orbital flight program. Despite the fact the upper stage engine was secretly tested in 1958-1960, after many political twists and turns, it was cancelled in favor of the Titan 3C in July 1961 More...
  • Saturn I Blk2 American orbital launch vehicle. Second Block of Saturn I, with substantially redesigned first stage and large fins to accomodate Dynasoar payload. More...
  • Scout X-1A American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1B + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair + 1 x Cetus More...
  • Terrier Asp IV American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Asp IV More...
  • Titan 2 American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, developed also as the launch vehicle for the manned Gemini spacecraft in the early 1960's. When the ICBM's were retired in the 1980's they were refurbished and a new series of launches began. More...
  • Scout X-2 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair More...
  • Skybolt American strategic air-to-surface ballistic missile, development started in 1959. Program cancelled amid huge controversy in 1963 after Britain had agreed to buy the weapon in place of its own Blue Streak. More...
  • Nova 8L American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Most capable NASA Nova design, studied in June 1960 just prior to selection of Saturn for moon landing. Used a three stage configuration of eight F-1 engines in stage 1, two M-1 engines in stage 2, and one J-2 engine in stage 3. Similar to the Saturn C-8 except in the use of M-1 engines. Unlike other modular Nova designs of the time, this one had the unitary stage construction of Saturn. More...
  • Atlas Centaur American orbital launch vehicle. First test version of Atlas with Centaur upper stage. More...
  • Scout X-2M American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x MG-18 More...
  • Saturn C-8 American orbital launch vehicle. The largest member of the Saturn family ever contemplated. Designed for direct landing of Apollo command module on moon. Configuration used eight F-1 engines in the first stage, eight J-2 engines in the second stage, and one J-2 engine in the third stage. Distinguishable from Nova 8L in use of J-2 engines instead of M-1 engines in second stage. More...
  • Thor Agena D American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x Agena D More...
  • Polaris A3 American missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x A3P + 1 x X-260 More...
  • Scout X-3A American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair + 1 x Cetus More...
  • RAM B American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor More...
  • Delta A American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x AJ10-118 + 1 x Altair More...
  • Castor-Recruit American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Recruit More...
  • Minuteman 1B American intercontinental ballistic missile. Full production version. Minuteman IB used the Mk.5 RV with the W59 (1 MT), the Mk.11 with the W56 (1.2 MT) and the Mk.11A with the W56 as well. More...
  • Delta B American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x AJ10-118A + 1 x Altair More...
  • Scout X-3 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair More...
  • Aldebaran American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Immense nuclear pulse launch vehicle proposed by Dandridge Cole. More...
  • Douglas Astro American winged orbital launch vehicle. The Douglas "Astro" was a VTHL TSTO system designed for launching space station crews and cargo by the 1968-70 period. A key requirement was that off-the-shelf technologies must be used, e.g. existing M-1, J-2 and RL-10 engines from the Saturn and Nova expendable launch vehicle programs. More...
  • Midgetman American intercontinental ballistic missile. Early 1960's two-stage version of Minuteman. More...
  • Martin Astrorocket American winged orbital launch vehicle. Early two-stage-to-orbit shuttle study, using storable propellants, Dynasoar-configuration delta wing orbiter and booster. More...
  • Nexus American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Early 1960's recoverable launch vehicle proposed by Krafft Ehricke at General Dynamics. Perhaps the largest conventionally-powered launch vehicle ever conceived, it was designed to deliver 900 tonnes to low earth orbit. More...
  • Scout X-2 1C American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1C + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair More...
  • RBSS American winged orbital launch vehicle. The Recoverable Booster Space System was a plan circulated in the early 1960's to use the XB-70 as a recoverable supersonic first stage for a range of systems. The XB-70 would be capable of orbiting a 6800 kg payload, or an X-20 manned space glider. More...
  • Sea Horse American sea-launched test vehicle. The second phase of Sea Launch was to demonstrate the concept on a larger scale, with a rocket with a complex set of guidance and control systems. Sea Horse used one of 39 surplus Corporal missiles that Truax obtained from the Army and successfully demonstrated ignition in the ocean of a rocket stage. More...
  • Sea Dragon American sea-launched heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Sea Dragon was an immense, sea-launched, two-stage launch vehicle designed by Robert Truax for Aerojet in 1962. It was to be capable of putting 1.2 million pounds (550 tonnes) into low Earth orbit. The concept was to achieve minimum launch costs through lower development and production costs. This meant accepting a larger booster with a lower performance propulsion system and higher stage dead weight then traditional NASA and USAF designs. More...
  • X-15/Blue Scout American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. In March 1962, NASA proposed an orbital launch vehicle using the B-52/X-15 combination. A Blue Scout booster would be fitted to an extendable launch rail on the belly of the X-15. The X-15 would be air-launched from the B-52, and then itself air-launch the Blue Scout well above the earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Scout X-3M American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x MG-18 More...
  • Hopi Dart American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle consisting of a Hopi III and an unpowered dart. More...
  • Raven American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. More...
  • Deacon Judi American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Judi III More...
  • Nike Javelin American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Javelin More...
  • Tomahawk Sandia American sounding rocket. Test and sounding vehicles developed by Sandia using the TE-416 Tomahawk motor. More...
  • Nike Tomahawk American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Tomahawk upper stage. Payload 45 kg to 370 km or 115 kg to 215 km. More...
  • Scout X-4 American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2 More...
  • Atlas Agena D American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with further improved and lightened Agena upper stage. More...
  • Little Joe II American test vehicle. Little Joe II was an enlarged version of the Little Joe concept used in the Mercury program, used to test the Apollo capsule launch escape system. The vehicle was designed by General Dynamics. Six to nine solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing. More...
  • Little Joe II 6-1-0 American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Recruit + 1 x Algol 1D fired in sequence. More...
  • Scout X-2B American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2 More...
  • Boosted Arcas American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of a booster + 1 x Arcas second stage. More...
  • Apollo LES American test vehicle. Flight tests from a surface pad of the Apollo Launch Escape System using a boilerplate capsule. More...
  • Thor Delta C American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Delta D + 1 x Altair 2 More...
  • Aerospaceplane American winged orbital launch vehicle. Development project from 1958-1963 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would carry three crew and additional paylaod from any airfield to orbit and back More...
  • Astro American winged orbital launch vehicle. Douglas design of the early 1960's for a two-stage-to-orbit, winged, recoverable vehicle. Two versions were envisioned - a preliminary one the size of a DC-8 and a monster vehicle capable of delivering one million pounds payload to orbit. It was assumed at this scale that Lox/LH2 vehicles could achieve stage propellant mass fractions of 88% to 86%. More...
  • DAC Helios ISI American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. As the basic design, but featuring an Improved Specific Impulse chemical stage that used many engines feeding into single large nozzle. More...
  • DAC Helios American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono 1963 concept for a chemical-boosted / nuclear upper stage launch vehicle, designed as alternatives to the Convair/Ehricke Helios. The baseline version used a nuclear, recoverable upper stage boosted above the atmosphere by a minimum chemical stage. More...
  • Nike Javelin 3 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Javelin 3 More...
  • Lockheed RTTOCV American sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed's HTHL TSTO spaceplane concept from 1963, an outgrowth of an earlier USAF study with Hughes. The fully reusable orbiter would have been carried by a sled-launched booster rocket rocketplane. More...
  • Nova MM S10E-1 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable single stage to orbit Nova using cylindrical shape, 24 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been October 1977. More...
  • Nova MM T10EE-1 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; expendable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; expendable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been November 1976. More...
  • Nova MM S10R-1 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable single stage to orbit Nova using cylindrical shape, 24 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been June 1978. More...
  • Nova MM T10RE-1 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; expendable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been January 1977. More...
  • Nova MM R10R-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable version of most exotic Martin Nova vairant; single stage to orbit, 30 cd module air augmented engines in annular shroud. Operational date would have been October 1980. More...
  • Nova MM S10R-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable single stage to orbit Nova using conical shape, 30 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been July 1978. More...
  • Nova MM R10E-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable version of most exotic Martin Nova vairant; single stage to orbit, 30 cd module air augmented engines in annular shroud. Operatio