Encyclopedia Astronautica
Ukraine


Ukraine

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Associated People
  • Korolev Korolev, Sergei Pavlovich (1907-1966) Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for creating the first long range ballistic missiles, the first space launchers, the first artificial satellite, and putting the first man in space. After his premature death the Soviets lagged in space. More...
  • Glushko Glushko, Valentin Petrovich (1908-1989) Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for all large liquid propellant engines for missiles and LVs. Led Glushko bureau, 1946-1974; Headed NPO Energia 1974-1989, directing development of Energia launch vehicle and Buran spaceplane. More...
  • Brezhnev Brezhnev, Leonid I (1912-1982) Russian politician. Leader of the Soviet Union between 1965 and 1982. More...
  • Chelomei Chelomei, Vladimir Nikolayevich (1914-1984) Soviet Chief Designer 1955-1984 of OKB-52. Leading designer of cruise missiles and ICBMs. Fought for lead role in space launchers and manned spacecraft. Led work on UR-100, UR-200 ICBM's, Proton LV, Raketoplan, Almaz, TKS manned spacecraft. More...
  • Beregovoi Beregovoi, Georgi Timofeyevich (1921-1995) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 3. More...
  • Dobrovolsky Dobrovolsky, Georgi Timofeyevich (1928-1971) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 11. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing. More...
  • Yazdovsky Yazdovsky, Valeri Aleksandrovich (1930-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1968-1982. More...
  • Kolodin Kolodin, Pyotr Ivanovich (1930-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1983. More...
  • Popovich Popovich, Pavel Romanovich (1930-2009) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 4, Soyuz 14. Commander of first military space station mission. More...
  • Burdayev Burdayev, Mikhail Nikolayevich (1932-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Air Force Engineering Academy, doctorate degree, 1987. Cosmonaut training from May 1967 - 18 August 1969. Worked as trainer at the Gagarin Center. Professor in space ballistics from 1994. More...
  • Ponomaryova Ponomaryova, Valentina Leonidovna (1933-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. Was married to astronaut Yuri Ponomaryov. More...
  • Nelyubov Nelyubov, Grigori Grigoyevich (1934-1966) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Discharged with Anikeyev and Filatuev after alcohol incident. Returned to Air Force duties in Siberia, underwent increasing depression, killed in 1966 when hit by a train. More...
  • Kugno Kugno, Eduard Pavlovich (1935-1994) Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1964. More...
  • Shonin Shonin, Georgi Stepanovich (1935-1997) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 6. More...
  • Lisun Lisun, Mikhail Ivanovich (1935-) Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1989. More...
  • Bondarenko Bondarenko, Valentin Vasilyevich (1937-1961) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Killed in a fire in a spacecraft simulator run using a a pure oxygen atmosphere. His death had a profound effect on future design of Soviet spacecraft. More...
  • Volk Volk, Igor Petrovich (1937-) Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-4. More...
  • Zholobov Zholobov, Vitali Mikhailovich (1937-) Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 21. More...
  • Oleinik Oleinik, Ivan Ivanovich (1937-) Ukrainian officer. Colonel-General. Commander of Plesetsk Cosmodrome 1985-1991. From 1992 served in Ministry of Defence of the Ukraine. More...
  • Fartushny Fartushny, Vladimir Grigoryevich (1938-) Ukrainian engineer cosmonaut, 1968-1971. More...
  • Shcheglov Shcheglov, Vasily Dmitriyevich (1940-1973) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1972. Graduated from Yeisk Higher Military Pilot School, 1963 Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Died of lung cancer. More...
  • Levchenko Levchenko, Anatoli Semyonovich (1941-1988) Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir LII-1. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Air Force School, 1964. Buran test pilot; cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980. Later a civil test pilot for the Soviet Air Force Ministry. Died of a brain tumor in Moscow. More...
  • Lyakhov Lyakhov, Vladimir Afanasyevich (1941-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-3, Salyut 7 EO-2, Mir EP-3. More...
  • Kizim Kizim, Leonid Denisovich (1941-2010) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Salyut 7 EO-3, Mir EO-1. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. 374 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Petrushenko Petrushenko, Aleksandr Yakovlevich (1942-1992) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1973. Later worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, then moved to the satellite control center in Monino until his retirement 1991. More...
  • Bachurin Bachurin, Ivan Ivanovich (1942-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1992. More...
  • Grishchenko Grishchenko, Vitali Andreyevich (1942-1992) Ukrainian navigator cosmonaut, 1965-1968. More...
  • Kramarenko Kramarenko, Aleksandr Yakovlevich (1942-2002) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Popov Popov, Leonid Ivanovich (1945-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-4, Salyut 6 EP-10, Salyut 7 EP-2. More...
  • Borodai Borodai, Alexei Sergeyevich (1947-) Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1993. More...
  • Volkov, Aleksandr Volkov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1948-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-4-2, Mir EO-4, Mir EO-10. Father of cosmonaut Sergei Volkov. 391 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Kadenyuk Kadenyuk, Leonid Konstantinovich (1951-) Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-87. Longest wait for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut - 21 years. Soyuz cosmonaut 1976-1983; Spiral pilot 1983-1987; Buran pilot, 1987-1989, NASA PS, 1996. More...
  • Vasyutin Vasyutin, Vladimir Vladimirovich (1952-2002) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-4-2. More...
  • Konyukhov, S P Konyukhov, Stanislav Nikolayevich Ukrainian chief designer. General Designer and Chief of KB Yuzhnoye, developed satellites and launch vehicles. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. More...
  • Tsibliyev Tsibliyev, Vasili Vasilyevich (1954-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-14, Mir EO-23. 381 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Sirius (Sirius). More...
  • Krichevsky Krichevsky, Sergei Vladimirovich (1955-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1998. More...
  • Artsebarsky Artsebarsky, Anatoli Pavlovich (1956-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-9. More...
  • Onufrienko Onufrienko, Yuri Ivanovich (1961-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-21, ISS EO-4. 389 cumulative days in space. After leaving cosmonaut corps in April 2004, assigned as Deputy Chief for the First Administration of RGNII TsPK. Call sign: Skif (Skif - Roman-age tribe). More...
  • Malenchenko Malenchenko, Yuri Ivanovich (1961-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-16, STS-106, ISS EO-7, ISS EO-16. Call sign: Agat (Agate). 514 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Gidzenko Gidzenko, Yuri Pavlovich (1962-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-20, ISS EO-1, ISS EP-3. Call sign: Uran (Uranus). More...
  • Krikun Krikun, Yuri Yuriyevich (1963-) Ukrainian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. In 1997 unsuccessfully applied for the Ukrainian cosmonaut team. More...
  • Kononenko, O D Kononenko, Oleg Dmitriyevich (1964-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EO-17. More...
  • Kotov Kotov, Oleg Valeriyevich (1965-) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EO-15, ISS EO-22. MD from Moscow Sergei M. Kirov Military Medicine Academy, 1980 . Russian Air Force. Worked in the TsPK, medical department. Cosmonaut training 3 June 1996 - 18 March 1998. More...
  • Meytarchan Meytarchan, Vyacheslav Georgyevich (1965-) Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996. More...
  • Adamchuk Adamchuk, Nadezhda Ivanyeva (1970-) Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996. Botanist. More...
  • Pustovyi Pustovyi, Dr Yaroslav Ihorovych 'Yarko' (1970-) Ukrainian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1996-2005. Ukraine Air Force. More...
  • Shkaplerov Shkaplerov, Anton Nikolayevich (1972-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on. More...
  • Volkov, Sergey Volkov, Sergey Aleksandrovich (1973-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EO-17, ISS EO-28. Son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov. More...

Associated Spacecraft
  • DS-1 Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1961.10.27 (DS-1 s/n 1) and 1961.12.21 (DS-1 s/n 2). Technology test version of the original DS light satellite design. Primary mission was to test launch vehicle. More...
  • DS-2 Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.03.16 (Cosmos 1) to 1964.12.01 (DS-2 s/n 2). More...
  • DS-P1 Ukrainian military target satellite. 4 launches, 1962.06.30 (Cosmos 6) to 1964.02.27 (Cosmos 25). Prototype ABM radar target; supported developmental experiments for ABM systems. More...
  • DS-K-8 Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1962.08.18, Cosmos 8. Detected meteoroid flux in near-earth space and carried unspecified military research equipment. More...
  • DS-A1 Ukrainian navigation technology satellite. 7 launches, 1962.10.20 (Cosmos 11) to 1965.07.02 (Cosmos 70). More...
  • DS-MT Ukrainian technology satellite. 3 launches, 1963.06.01 (DS-MT s/n 1) to 1964.12.10 (Cosmos 51). Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied variations in the intensity of cosmic rays. More...
  • DS-U4-T Ukrainian materials science satellite. Cancelled 1963. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for low gravity materials and technology studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-MG Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1964.03.18 (Cosmos 26) to 1964.10.24 (Cosmos 49). Payload developed by VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied magnetosphere of the earth. More...
  • DS-P1-Yu Ukrainian military target satellite. 79 launches, 1964.07.30 (Cosmos 36) to 1976.08.26 (Cosmos 850). Development of systems for air defense and the control of outer space. More...
  • DS-U2-V Ukrainian military technology satellite. 4 launches, 1965.10.19 (Cosmos 93) to 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 202). Military technology development satellite - mission still classified. More...
  • DS-U2-M Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1965.11.26 (Cosmos 97) to 1967.03.03 (Cosmos 145). Development tests of atomic clocks. More...
  • DS-K-40 Ukrainian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1965.12.28 (DS-K-40 s/n 1) and 1966.02.21 (DS-K-40 s/n 2). Development of systems for the later operational Tselina satellites. More...
  • DS-U5 Ukrainian technology satellite. Cancelled 1965. Light satellite with propulsion for periodic correction of orbit. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-U4-B Ukrainian biology satellite. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-P1-I Ukrainian military target satellite. 19 launches, 1966.01.25 (Cosmos 106) to 1977.06.18 (Cosmos 919). Operational radar target for the ABM forces. More...
  • DS-U1-G Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1966.02.11 (Cosmos 108) to 1967.12.19 (Cosmos 196). Studied the relationship between variations in the upper atmosphere and solar activity. More...
  • DS-U2-I Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1966.05.24 (Cosmos 119) to 1968.12.14 (Cosmos 259). Studied the influence of the ionosphere on passing VLF radio waves. More...
  • DS-U2-MP Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. 2 launches, 1966.12.12 (Cosmos 135) to 1967.06.05 (Cosmos 163). Studied cosmic dust particles in near-Earth space. More...
  • DS-U2-D Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1966.12.21 (Cosmos 137) to 1968.04.26 (Cosmos 219). Studied charged particle flows. More...
  • DS-MO Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.03.21 (Cosmos 149) to 1970.01.16 (Cosmos 320). Used in development of aerodynamic systems for stabilization and orientation of spacecraft. Also carried military optical equipment experiments. More...
  • DS-U3-S Ukrainian solar satellite. 2 launches, 1967.06.16 (Cosmos 166) to 1968.07.05 (Cosmos 230). Specialized orbital solar observatory for measuring solar rays in multiple spectral zones. More...
  • Tselina-O Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 42 launches, 1967.06.26 (Tselina-O GVM) to 1982.03.31 (Cosmos 1345). From 1965 to 1967 two dedicated ELINT systems were tested by the Soviet Union: Tselina and US. Both were routinely operated. More...
  • DS-U1-Ya Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.03.06 (DS-U1-Ya s/n 1) and 1968.06.12 (Cosmos 225). Studied charged particle flows and cosmic rays. More...
  • DS-U1-A Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1968.04.19, Cosmos 215. Studied the optical characteristics of the atmosphere. Radiation observatory; 8 telescopes. More...
  • DS-U2-GK Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.12.20 (Cosmos 261) to 1970.06.13 (Cosmos 348). Conducted complex geophysical studies of the upper atmosphere. Air density, auroral investigations. More...
  • DS-U2-GF Ukrainian solar satellite. One launch, 1968.12.26, Cosmos 262. Conducted heliophysical studies. More...
  • DS-U3-IK Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1969.10.14 (Intercosmos 1) to 1976.07.26 (Intercosmos 16). Measurements of the sun; used for Interkosmos launches. More...
  • DS-U1-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.12.25 (Intercosmos 2) to 1972.12.01 (Intercosmos 8). Studies ionosphere of the earth; version used for Intercosmos international launches. More...
  • DS-U2-MG Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1970.01.20 (Cosmos 321) to 1970.08.10 (Cosmos 356). Studied the Earth's magnetic poles. More...
  • DS-U1-R Ukrainian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.04.24, Cosmos 335. Studied spectral range of the UF. More...
  • DS-U2-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1970.08.07 (Intercosmos 3) to 1975.12.11 (Intercosmos 14). Studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere; version used for Intercosmos international launches. More...
  • DS-U2-IP Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.11.17, Cosmos 378. Studied the ionosphere and charged particle flows. More...
  • Tselina-D Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 77 launches, 1970.12.18 (Cosmos 389) to 1994.05.25 (Tselina-D). The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system. More...
  • DS-P1-M Ukrainian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 15 launches, 1970.12.22 (DS-P1-M s/n 1) to 1982.06.06 (Cosmos 1375). Target for IS ASAT systems tests. More...
  • Tselina-OM Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Study 1970. Improved version of Tselina-O. Either not put into production or later launches listed as Tselina-O were actually of Tselina-OM model. More...
  • DS-U2-K Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.06.05, Cosmos 426. Studied charged particle flows and cosmic radiation. More...
  • DS-U2-MT Ukrainian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1971.12.02, Cosmos 461. Measured micrometeoroid impacts and gamma rays. More...
  • DS-U2-GKA Soviet-French earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1971.12.27 (Oreol) to 1973.12.26 (Oreol 2). Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. More...
  • Taifun-1 Ukrainian military target satellite. 25 launches, 1974.06.18 (Cosmos 660) to 1994.09.27 (Cosmos 2292). From 1969 KB Yuzhnoye built the Lira targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems. More...
  • Taifun-2 Ukrainian military target satellite. 31 launches, 1976.04.28 (Cosmos 816) to 1995.03.02 (Cosmos 2306). In 1969 KB Yuzhnoye introduced targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems. More...
  • AUOS Ukrainian technology satellite. 14 launches, 1976.06.19 (Intercosmos 15) to 2009.01.30 (Koronas-F). Standardized bus for low earth orbit scientific studies and testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions. More...
  • GVM DS-U2-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1977.02.15, Cosmos 893. Designation indicates a mass model of the DS-U2-IK (which studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere). However flown after the functional spacecraft's flights were completed. More...
  • Okean-E Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1979.02.12 (Cosmos 1076) to 1980.01.23 (Cosmos 1151). First prototype of Okean series. Development of methods for obtaining operational information on the Pacific Ocean. More...
  • Taifun-1Yu Ukrainian military target satellite. 13 launches, 1979.12.05 (Cosmos 1146) to 1996.04.24 (Cosmos 2332). The Taifun-1Yu, a modification of the basic design with smooth calibration surfaces, was to be in service by 1980. More...
  • IK-B-1300 Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1981.08.07, Intercosmos 22. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. More...
  • Nadezhda Ukrainian navigation satellite. 10 launches, 1982.06.29 (Cosmos 1383) to 2002.09.26 (Nadezhda-M). More...
  • Okean-OE Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1983.09.28 (Cosmos 1500) to 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1602). More...
  • Tselina-2 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 25 launches, 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1603) to 2007.06.29 (Cosmos 2406). More...
  • Okean-O1 Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 9 launches, 1986.07.28 (Cosmos 1766) to 2004.12.24 (Sich-1M). Third generation Soviet oceanographic research satellite, equipped with a side-looking radar, radiometer, and multi-spectral scanner. More...
  • Tselina-3 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The Tselina-3 third generation two-tier ELINT satellite system was developed in parallel with Tselina-2. More...
  • US-PU Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 13 launches, 1993.03.30 (Cosmos 2238) to 2006.06.24 (Cosmos 2421). More...
  • Okean-O Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1999.07.17. More...
  • MS-1 Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2004.12.24 (Mikron) to 2007.04.17 (MisrSat 1). Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment. More...

Associated Engines
  • 15D151 NII-125 solid rocket engine. Combined missile (RT-20P) stage 1. Out of production. Launch thrust 588 kN. Designed for first stage of combined missile and SLBM; flight tested, no production. First flight 1967. More...
  • 15D206 Yuzhnoye solid rocket engine. RT-23 early models stage I. Out of Production. The case-bound T9-BK composite solid propellant charge had a star shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • D-18T Lotarev turbofan engine. 229.4 kN. Used on An-225 launch aircraft for Interim HOTOL, MAKS concepts. Development ended 1988. Isp=9000s. More...
  • D50 Yuzhnoye electric/xenon rocket engine. 48 mN. Development. Isp=1700s. Hall engine electric jet propulsion system intended for use by spacecraft for inter-orbital transfer, orbit correction, and stabilization. More...
  • RD-127 Yuzhnoye solid rocket engine. Maneuvering vehicle bang-bang propulsion, consisted of 25 small solid-propellant motors, probably for homing vehicles or multiple warhead dispensing applications. More...
  • RD-293 Yuzhnoye rocket engine. Maneuvering vehicle axial maneuvering. More...
  • RD-69M Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 54.3 kN. R-36 stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. 4 nozzles, maximum 50 degree gimbal angle. More...
  • RD-69 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 49.2 kN. R-16 stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-68M Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 285 kN. R-36 stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. 4 nozzles, maximum 42 degree gimbal angle. More...
  • RD-68 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 380 kN. R-16 stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-861K Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 77.630 kN. Tsyklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar. Developed 2005. Isp=330s. High pressure fuel was used to gimbal the engine in two planes, replacing four thrust vector engines on the basic RD-861. More...
  • RD-855 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 328 kN. Tsyklon stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Isp=292s. Four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine burned hypergolic propellants in a gas generator scheme. More...
  • RD-868 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 23.250 kN. Apogee stage. Developed 1983-. Isp=325s. In development in 1996. One main and an unknown number of control thrusters. 23.25 + 0.03 kN. Chamber pressure 91.5 / 6.9 bar. Specific impulse 325 / 230 sec. More...
  • RD-869 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 8.580 kN. R-36M2 vehicle bus. Based on RD-864. Two thrust levels. The four thrusters swing out of the stage housing before use. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Diameter 3,0 / 4,02 m. Isp=313s. First flight 1986. More...
  • RD-809 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 88 kN. Upper stages. Isp=345s. 2007 design concept for a four-chamber restartable main engine for launch vehicle upper stages. More...
  • RD-851 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 32.480 kN. R-16 (SS-7) stage 1 attitude control engine . Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Isp=279s. More...
  • RD-864 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 20.2 kN. R-36M vehicle bus. Out of Production. Isp=309s. Two thrust levels. The four thruster swing out of the stage housing before use. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Specific impulse 309 / 298 sec. More...
  • RD-863 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 276.840 kN. MR-UR-100 / RS-16 (SS-17) stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Isp=301s. More...
  • RD-862 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 142.630 kN. MR-UR-100 / RS-16 (SS-17) stage 2. Out of Production. Based on RD-857. Thrust vector control by secondary gas injection into nozzle. Roll control via special small jet nozzles. Isp=331s. More...
  • RD-802 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Upper stages. Design concept 2007. Isp=344s. Derivative of the RD-8 Zenit-2 second stage vernier thrust engine combustion chamber for use in launch vehicle upper stages. More...
  • RD-866 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 5.2 kN. RT-23 MIRV-bus. Out of Production. Isp=305s. Engine consisted of two turbopumps with gas generators and two feeders; a single chamber main engine; and 16 liquid thrusters for attitude control and translation. More...
  • RD-861G Yuzhnoye, Fiat Avio N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 76.453 kN. Vega upper stage. Developed 1996-. Isp=325s. Proposed uprate of RD-861 engine. Thrust vector control by gimbal, roll control by 4 nozzles (thrust 29 N each). More...
  • RD-861 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 78.710 kN. Tsyklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar. In production. Isp=317s. Based on RD-854. Thrust vector control by 4 nozzles (thrust 98 N each) fed from a gas generator. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-8 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 78.4 kN. Zenit stage 2 attitude control engine. In Production. Isp=342s. Four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine operated in a staged combustion scheme with afterburning of the generator gas. Development began in 1976. More...
  • RD-860 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 5.9 kN. Upper stages. Developed 1972. Isp=320s. Engine used a novel scheme combining an existing proven combustion chamber but using a pneumatic pump for propellant supply. More...
  • RD-859 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 20.050 kN. LK lunar lander reserve engine. Hardware. Isp=312s. Backup engine for the LK manned lunar lander in the event the primary RD-858 engine failed. Restart within three seconds after shut down. Flight tests 1970. More...
  • RD-858 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 20.1 kN. Isp=315s. Primary engine for LK manned lunar lander. Propulsion cluster provided the variable thrust needed for a soft landing onto the lunar surface, then restarted for injection into lunar orbit. Flown 1970. More...
  • RD-856 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 54.230 kN. Tsyklon stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Isp=280s. Autonomous four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine burned hypergolic propellants in a gas generator scheme. More...
  • RD-854 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 75.5 kN. R-36orb (SS-X-10) orbital stage. Out of Production. Thrust vector control by 4 nozzles fed from gas generator. Isp=312s. More...
  • RD-853 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 467.6 kN. Stage 2, no application. Developed 1960-63. Designed for second stage, no application. Two thrust levels. Thrust 467.6 kN + 11.8 kN / 7.65 kN. Isp=300s. More...
  • RD-852 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 48.250 kN. R-16 (SS-7) stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Isp=255s. More...
  • RD-857 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 137.3 kN. RT-20P missile stage 2. Out of production. Isp=329s. Designed for second stage of mixed propulsion missile, only flight tests. Thrust vector control by secondary gas injection into nozzle. First flight 1967. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. In 1960 the Soviet government decreed development of a lightweight launch vehicle for launch of payloads not requiring R-7 family of boosters. A modification of the R-12 IRBM was selected as the first stage; a new high-performance second stage was developed using a unique Lox/UDMH propellant combination. After two failures, the first successful flight was on March 16, 1962. More...
  • R-12 Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-12 was the first operationally effective intermediate range ballistic missile, the first Soviet missile deployed with a thermonuclear warhead, and the first mass-produced missile in history. 2,300 of the storable propellant rockets were built and deployed in both mobile and silo-based versions for thirty years, from March 1959 to June 1989. It was a primary element in the Soviet deterrent threatening Western Europe and China throughout the Cold War. Deployment of R-12's to Cuba in 1962 precipitated the Cuba Missile Crisis. More...
  • R-12U Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version of the R-12U, for pad-launch or from the 'Dvina' silo complex. More...
  • R-14 Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-14, with a range of 3600 km, was the only missile of that range class to be fielded. A key element in the Cuba missile crisis, it thereafter was part of the nuclear deterrent targeted at NATO and China. Built in relatively limited numbers by Soviet standards, it was perhaps more important as the basis for the first stage of the R-16 ICBM and the Kosmos-3 launch vehicle. The latter continued in use into the 21st Century. More...
  • R-16 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations. More...
  • Tselina-2 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of the Tselina-2 road transport for a heavy ICBM can be traced back to the late 1960's. By the 1970's two versions had been designed, the 12-axle MAZ-7906 and 8-axle MAZ-7907. They could transport loads of up to 140 tonnes, much greater than the single-warhead RT-23 and its container. Although trials of prototypes were conducted in the 1980's, the road mobile version of the RT-23 was never put into service. More...
  • R-16U Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Standardised version of R-16, for either pad or silo launch. More...
  • Kosmos 63S1 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The 63S1 initial production version was used through May 1966 for a total of 40 launches, of which 12 were failures. It was succeeded by the 63S1M prototype for the 11K63 production space launcher. More...
  • R-56 Polyblock Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. One design approach considered for Yangel's R-56 superbooster of the 1960's was a polyblock design limited to rail transport restrictions (4 x 3.8 m diameter stages clustered together). Although a dynamic test model was built and tested at Tsniimash, Yangel finally reached the conclusion that a monoblock design was clearly superior to polyblock versions. Further work on the polyblock design was abandoned. Tsniimash exhibits in its small museum the 1:10 structural simulation model of the 3.8 m diameter polyblock design. More...
  • R-56 Polyblock ICBM Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Three stage carrier rocket with consecutive first and parallel second stages. Range indicated on placard; possibly considered as monster ICBM in competition with UR-500. Work began in 1961. More...
  • 8K94 Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Unusual designation for the upper stages of another Yangel project - possibly reflecting design originally was stand-alone IRBM? More...
  • SK-100 Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1962 Yangel produced his first design for a large clustered rocket. The SK-100 would have clustered seven R-16 ICBM first stages in order to put 100 metric tons into earth orbit. The concept was abandoned for the simpler R-56 design. More...
  • 64S5 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Space launch version, never went beyond design stage. More...
  • R-26 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Two stage light ICBM developed 1960-1962, but cancelled so that Yangel could concentrate his efforts on the R-36. After project cancellation, a mock-up of this missile was shown in Moscow parades and misidentified for years by Western analysts as the 'SS-8'. More...
  • Tsiklon Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • R-36 8K67 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial ICBM version. More...
  • R-36-O Ukrainian orbital missile. The R-36-O was the only orbiting military nuclear weapon ever deployed, although in order to remain legal under international treaties it was a 'fractional orbital' weapon. Although American infrared early warning satellites invalidated the 'surprise attack' component of the concept, 18 missiles were operational from 1969 to 1983. More...
  • Kosmos 11K63 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Series production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-12 IRBM. Succeeded 63S1M prototype from 1965, using same 'Dvina' launch complex. From March 16, 1967 orbital launches from Plesetsk were from the purpose-built 'Raduga' launch complex LC133. Total of 123 launches, of which 8 were failures. More...
  • Kosmos 63S1M Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Modernized version of 63S1 initial configuration of the first Kosmos launcher and the prototype for the production 11K63 launch vehicle. Suborbital launches from Plesetsk from 1965 at from the modified R-12 silo 'Dvina'. Flown only a few times in 1965-1967. Succeeded by the 11K63 production model launched from the 'Raduga' complex. More...
  • R-56 Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The R-56 was Yangel's ultimate superbooster design. Trade studies begun in 1962 resulted in a conventional tandem stage design capable of being transported on the Soviet canal system from the factory to the launch site, while still placing 40 metric tons into low earth orbit. However various Soviet government factions favored the much larger (and less practical) Korolev N1 or Chelomei UR-700 designs. Yangel made one last attempt to convince the government to sponsor a common approach to the lunar program, with different design bureaus concentrating on just one part of the mission, as the American's were doing. But his practical solutions obtained no traction, and further work on the R-56 was abandoned. More...
  • R-46 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Super-heavy ICBM designed by Yangel in 1963-1966. The original R-56 super-booster concept consisted of clustered R-46's. More...
  • RT-20P Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Following the protracted development of Shavyrin's Gnom air-augmented ICBM, it was decided to let Yangel tackle the problem of developing a 30 tonne gross mass ICBM using more conventional technology. At first a three-stage solid propellant design was considered. But it was found impossible to achieve the launch weight with such an approach. Yangel's solution was to propose the only mixed propulsion ICBM ever developed - a solid propellant first stage, and high performance ampulised storable liquid propellant second stage. The draft project for the missile was completed in December 1964 and a decree to proceed with development was issued on 24 August 1965. Shortly thereafter Shavyrin died and Gnom was cancelled, leaving Yangel's RT-20P the lead project for the mobile ICBM requirement. Designs for silo-launched and submarine-launched versions of the missile were to be developed as well. More...
  • Tsiklon-2A Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Minimal modification of the R-36 ICBM used in replacement of Chelomei's cancelled UR-200 booster for initial launches of the IS ASAT and US naval radarsat. Development was authorized in late 1965 and first launch was made before the end of 1967. It flew only eight times before being replaced by the definitive Tsyklon-2 space launch vehicle. More...
  • R-36 8K67P Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36P was a version of the R-36 which could deploy three separate (but not independently-targeted) warheads instead of one. The concept was to ensure a wider zone of destruction and overpressure then a single warhead detonation would create. More...
  • Tsiklon-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. More...
  • R-36M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. More...
  • MR-UR-100 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...
  • Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. More...
  • MR-UR-100U 15A16 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the MR-UR-100U loaded into the super-hardened 15P715U universal silo, with a modernised guidance system with better reliability and accuracy. More...
  • R-36MU 15A18 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the R-36M with a new ten warhead MIRV bus, better guidance system, increased throw-weight, and increased range. More...
  • Perimetr 15A11 Ukrainian strategic communications missile. Perimetr was developed for launch of a highly secret communications payload. This would be be put in orbit or on a long high-altitude trajectory to provide back-up command and control of the strategic forces in the event of nuclear war. More...
  • RT-23 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The only rail-based ICBM ever deployed. Developed by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine was protracted, but understandable given the huge technical challenges. Twelve years of design and testing was followed by deployment from 1988. All were retired by 2003. More...
  • RT-23 15Zh44 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The draft project for the silo-based RT-23 with the 15F143 warhead was completed in December 1979. Trials of this basic version began at Plesetsk on 26 October 1982. The basic RT-23 was accepted for military service on 10 February 1983, but the decision was taken not to put it into production. All resources were to be devoted to an improved RT-23UTTKh. More...
  • RT-23U 15Zh60 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Design began of the silo-based version of the RT-23UTTKh on 9 August 1983. More...
  • RT-23 15Zh52 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. A draft project of the 15Zh52 MIRV train-based version of the RT-23 was completed in June 1980. The system was designed to allow the mobile launchers to conduct long-duration deployments up to 200 km from base. More...
  • RT-23U 15Zh61 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. A decree of 9 August 1982 ordered development of an improved RT-23UTTKh, dubbed 'Molodets'. Three basing modes were to be possible using a single containerised missile: train-launched, a 'Tselina-2' road-mobile transport, or silo-based. This would be able to deploy up to ten nuclear warheads from a layered circular dispenser. Retired in 2003. More...
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...
  • Zenit-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version that continued to be used for launch of Russian military satellites tailored to it after the fall of the Soviet Union. More...
  • R-36M2 15A18M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in very limited numbers before the end of the Cold War. More...
  • Ikar Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Ikar was Yuzhnoye's design for a heavy ICBM, a next-generation replacement for the R-36M2. Design was begun at the beginning of the 1990's under Stanislav Us. It may have used all-solid propellants, and nested rocket stages. Work was quickly dropped after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. More...
  • Koltso Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Koltso was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of decrees of 29 September 1976 and 31 May 1984. Development was authorised by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM. More...
  • Kopye-R Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Kopye-R was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of a draft project completed in February 1986. Development was authorised by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM. More...
  • Universal Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye solid-propellant ICBM designed for mass production to counter US 'Star Wars' programme. Two built before break-up of Soviet Union. Some design features incorporated into all-Russian Topol-M. More...
  • Zenit-2 11K77.05 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version with a dispenser for multiple Globalstar communications satellite launches. More...
  • Zenit-3SL Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. From the beginning of the program a Zenit-3 version was proposed for geosynchronous launches using the N1/Proton Block D third stage. This had the potential of replacing the Proton in the role of geosynchronous launcher. It was considered for launch from Australia / Cape York in the 1980's. Finally a joint US-Norwegian-Ukraininan-Russian consortium was formed to launch the three stage commercial Zenit from the Odyssey floating launch platform in the Pacific Ocean. More...
  • Dnepr Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles. More...
  • Mayak Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. New family of modular medium-sized launch vehicles proposed by the Ukraine in 2005. No known development or production funding was forthcoming. More...
  • Tsiklon-4 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Updated version of Tsyklon 3, announced by the Ukraine in 2005 as being in design. Improved lower stages, new upper stage and a new 4.0-m diameter payload fairing. No production plans. More...
  • Zenit-2SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version of the Zenit-3SL booster developed for the Sea Launch program, modified for launch from ground facilities at Baikonur. Uses the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with no upper stage. More...
  • Zenit-3SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Zenit-3SL modified for launch from existing ground facilities at Baikonur, using the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with an upper stage Block DM-SLB designed by RSC Energia (Russia) and a new payload fairing designed by NPO Lavochkin (Russia). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...
  • NKAU Ukrainian agency. National Space agency overseeing development of Ukraine, Ukraine. More...
  • Lotarev Ukrainian manufacturer of rocket engines. Lotarev Design Bureau, Ukraine. More...
  • NII-125 Ukrainian manufacturer of rocket engines. NII-125, Ukraine. More...

Associated Programs
Associated Launch Sites
  • Kolomiya Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1990. In the 1950's it was a base for units deployed with two R-2 launchers. Probably during the period as an RVSN division it operated R-12 missiles. More...
  • Khmelnitskiy Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1993, equipped with 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N) and possibly operating some R-12 launchers. In the 1950's this was the base for units deployed with two R-1 launchers. More...
  • Lutsk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1992. Probably an R-12 missile base. More...
  • Belokorovichi Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1991. In the 1950's it was the base for units deployed with four R-1 launchers, followed by two R-2 launchers, then 12 R-5. From 1961 it operated 12 R-14, and possibly additional R-12 missiles. More...
  • Pervomaisk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1993. Base for units deployed with 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos and later 46 mobile RT-23 launchers. More...
  • Romny Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1992. Probably an R-12 missile base. More...
  • Kiev Base for units deployed with six R-5 launchers. More...
  • Lvov Base for units deployed with two R-1 missile launchers. More...

Associated Stages
  • 15D151 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,150/2,450 kg. Thrust 647.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Four nozzles. Length with interstage 9.8 m. Sea level thrust 60,000 kgf. Specific impulse estimated. More...
  • 8K94 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,800/900 kg. Thrust 147.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • An-124 Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded mass 430,000 kg. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, 900 kph at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. More...
  • An-225 Subsonic rocket carrier. Loaded/empty mass 600,000/216,000 kg. Thrust 1,387.07 kN. Specific impulse 9000 seconds. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. More...
  • Energia Strapon Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,906.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Essentially identical to Zenit stage 1. More...
  • Gerakl Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded mass 900,000 kg. NPO Molniya-1000 cargo aircraft, catamaran layout, twin-fuselage triplane. Release conditions: Suspended load, 450,000 kg, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. More...
  • Kosmos A-1 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 39,515/3,150 kg. Thrust 730.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 264 seconds. More...
  • Kosmos-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 87,200/5,300 kg. Thrust 1,740.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit. More...
  • MR-UR-100 St 1 N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 1236.00 kN (277,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 59,000 kg (130,073 lb). More...
  • MR-UR-100-2 N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 142.00 kN (31,923 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb). More...
  • R-12 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,610/4,810 kg. Thrust 625.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 235 seconds. Payload 390 kg. Range 1500 km. Maximum altitude 398 km. Time of flight 11.8 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 3530 m/s. Accuracy 6 km in range, 5 km laterally. Source: wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow. More...
  • R-16-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,609.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...
  • R-16-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 882.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...
  • R-26-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 60,300/3,000 kg. Thrust 1,451.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. All figures accurate except empty mass estimated. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH, Orevo. More...
  • R-26-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,500 kg. Thrust 428.06 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. All figures accurate except empty mass estimated. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH, Orevo. More...
  • R-36-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Verniers 4 x RD-69M, 54.3 kN, maximum 50 degree gimbal angle. More...
  • R-36M2-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,266/2,356 kg. Thrust 18.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Main engine could be throttled to 800 kgf. More...
  • R-36M2-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 41,114/4,374 kg. Thrust 760.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Surplus ICBMs; failures based on ICBM tests through 1994. More...
  • R-36M2-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,520/13,620 kg. Thrust 4,523.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 318 seconds. Surplus ICBMs; failures based on ICBM tests through 1994. More...
  • R-36M St 1 N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 4522.00 kN (1,016,586 lbf) thrust. Mass 210,000 kg (462,971 lb). More...
  • R-36--1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 122,300/6,400 kg. Thrust 2,651.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. Verniers 4 x RD-68M, 285 kN, maximum 42 degree gimbal angle. More...
  • R-36-0-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 48,000/5,000 kg. Thrust 955.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. More...
  • R-36-0-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 125,000/8,500 kg. Thrust 2,640.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. More...
  • R-36M-2 N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 760.00 kN (170,855 lbf) thrust. Mass 49,000 kg (108,027 lb). More...
  • R-56 Polyblock Stage B Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 55,500/5,000 kg. Thrust 784.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • R-56 Block A N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,162,000/162,000 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • R-56 Block B N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 213,000/13,000 kg. Thrust 1,980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. More...
  • R-56 Block K N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,400/700 kg. Thrust 117.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Empty mass estimated (rounded figures given in source material indicates impossible 9 tonnes gross with 8.7 tonnes propellant). More...
  • R-56 Block O N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 32,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 544.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds. Empty mass estimated (rounded figures given in source material indicates impossible 31 tonnes gross with 30 tonnes propellant). More...
  • R-56 Polyblock Stage A Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 222,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 4,410.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 320 seconds. Range 16,000 km. Payload 35,000 kg. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Three stage carrier rocket with consecutiveively divided first and paraell divided second stages. Work began in 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...
  • S1 Lox/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,595/840 kg. Thrust 105.51 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. More...
  • S3 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 20,135/1,435 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 303 seconds. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit. More...
  • Tsyklon 2-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 122,300/6,400 kg. Thrust 2,640.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. SL-11; 11K68;R-36M More...
  • Tsyklon 2-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. More...
  • Tsyklon 3-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 127,000/8,300 kg. Thrust 3,032.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. SL-14;11K69 More...
  • Tsyklon 3-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53,300/4,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 318 seconds. More...
  • Vulkan 0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,891.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Original design of Energia strap-ons, for use with Vulkan booster for manned lunar expedition. Ultimately derived from R-56 of 1961. More...
  • Zenit-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 354,300/28,600 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Modification of same stage used as strap-on for Energia launch vehicle. More...
  • Zenit-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90,600/9,000 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. More...

Ukraine Chronology


1903 February 13 - .
1907 January 12 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for creating the first long range ballistic missiles, the first space launchers, the first artificial satellite, and putting the first man in space. After his premature death the Soviets lagged in space..

1908 September 2 - .
  • Birth of Valentin Petrovich Glushko - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for all large liquid propellant engines for missiles and LVs. Led Glushko bureau, 1946-1974; Headed NPO Energia 1974-1989, directing development of Energia launch vehicle and Buran spaceplane..

1912 December 19 - .
1914 June 30 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomei - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer 1955-1984 of OKB-52. Leading designer of cruise missiles and ICBMs. Fought for lead role in space launchers and manned spacecraft. Led work on UR-100, UR-200 ICBM's, Proton LV, Raketoplan, Almaz, TKS manned spacecraft..

1921 April 15 - .
1928 June 1 - .
1930 June 8 - .
1930 September 23 - .
1930 October 5 - .
  • Birth of Pavel Romanovich Popovich - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 4, Soyuz 14. Commander of first military space station mission..

1932 August 27 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Nikolayevich Burdayev - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Air Force Engineering Academy, doctorate degree, 1987. Cosmonaut training from May 1967 - 18 August 1969. Worked as trainer at the Gagarin Center. Professor in space ballistics from 1994..

1933 September 18 - .
1934 March 31 - .
  • Birth of Grigori Grigoyevich Nelyubov - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Discharged with Anikeyev and Filatuev after alcohol incident. Returned to Air Force duties in Siberia, underwent increasing depression, killed in 1966 when hit by a train..

1935 June 27 - .
1935 August 3 - .
1935 September 5 - .
1936 September 27 - .
1937 February 16 - .
  • Birth of Valentin Vasilyevich Bondarenko - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Killed in a fire in a spacecraft simulator run using a a pure oxygen atmosphere. His death had a profound effect on future design of Soviet spacecraft..

1937 April 12 - .
1937 June 18 - .
1938 February 3 - .
1940 April 9 - .
  • Birth of Vasily Dmitriyevich Shcheglov - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1972. Graduated from Yeisk Higher Military Pilot School, 1963 Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons..

1941 May 21 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Semyonovich Levchenko - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir LII-1. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Air Force School, 1964. Buran test pilot; cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980. Later a civil test pilot for the Soviet Air Force Ministry..

1941 July 20 - .
1941 August 5 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Denisovich Kizim - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Salyut 7 EO-3, Mir EO-1. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. 374 cumulative days in space..

1942 January 1 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Yakovlevich Petrushenko - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1973. Later worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, then moved to the satellite control center in Monino until his retirement 1991..

1942 January 29 - .
1942 April 26 - .
1942 November 8 - .
1945 August 31 - .
1947 July 28 - .
1948 April 27 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Volkov - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-4-2, Mir EO-4, Mir EO-10. Father of cosmonaut Sergei Volkov. 391 cumulative days in space..

1951 January 28 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Konstantinovich Kadenyuk - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-87. Longest wait for a spaceflight after becoming an astronaut - 21 years. Soyuz cosmonaut 1976-1983; Spiral pilot 1983-1987; Buran pilot, 1987-1989, NASA PS, 1996..

1952 March 8 - .
1954 February 20 - .
1955 July 9 - .
1956 September 9 - .
1957 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. LV Configuration: R-12 63M No. 2?.
  • 63M No. 2? - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1957 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. LV Configuration: R-12 63M No. 3?.
  • 63M No. 3? - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1957 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. LV Configuration: R-12 63M No. 4?.
  • 63M No. 4? - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1957 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. LV Configuration: R-12 63M No. 5?.
  • 63M No. 5? - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1957 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. LV Configuration: R-12 63M No. 6?.
  • 63M No. 6? - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 No. 1 (LKI2-1) - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. LV Configuration: R-12 63M No. 8 (LKI-8).
  • 63M No. 8 (LKI1-8) - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 (LKI2 2 of 24) - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • K63 - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 December 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • 8K63 control flight - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 December 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • 8K63 control flight - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 December 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • 8K63 control flight - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 December 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • 8K63 control flight - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1958 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • 8K63 control flight - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 March 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • GCh Gruzomaket - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 April 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 May 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 May 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 May 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 May 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 June 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 June 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 June 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 July 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 August 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 August 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1959 August 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 September 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 September 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 September 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 September 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 October 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 October 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1959 October 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 October 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1959 November 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 December 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 December 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1959 December 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 January 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 February 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 March 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 March 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 March 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 March 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 March 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 May 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 May 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 May 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 June 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 June 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 August 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 September 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 November 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 November 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1960 December 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 January 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 January 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 January 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 February 6 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Ivanovich Onufrienko - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-21, ISS EO-4. 389 cumulative days in space. After leaving cosmonaut corps in April 2004, assigned as Deputy Chief for the First Administration of RGNII TsPK. Call sign: Skif (Skif - Roman-age tribe)..

1961 February 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 February 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 March 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 March 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 March 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 March 23 - .
  • Death of Valentin Vasilyevich Bondarenko at Moscow, Russia. Killed in fire in pure oxygen simulator run. - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Bondarenko. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Killed in a fire in a spacecraft simulator run using a a pure oxygen atmosphere. His death had a profound effect on future design of Soviet spacecraft..

1961 March 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 April 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 April 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 April 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 April 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 April 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 April 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 May 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 May 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 June 9 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • V-1000 target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 June 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 June 24 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • V-1000 target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 June 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 June 30 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • V-1000 target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 July 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 July 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 August 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 August 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 August 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 September 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 September 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 September 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 September 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 November 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 December 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 December 22 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-16, STS-106, ISS EO-7, ISS EO-16. Call sign: Agat (Agate). 514 cumulative days in space..

1961 December 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 December 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1961 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 January 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 January 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 February 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 February 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 February 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 March 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 March 26 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Pavlovich Gidzenko - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-20, ISS EO-1, ISS EP-3. Call sign: Uran (Uranus)..

1962 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 April 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 April 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 April 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 April 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 April 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 April 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 May 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 May 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 May 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 May 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 June 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 June 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 June 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 June 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 June 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 June 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 July 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • SSATC Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 July 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 July 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 July 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • SSATC Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 August 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • SSATC Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 August 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 September 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • SSATC Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 September 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 September 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 September 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 September 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 October 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • SSATC Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 November 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 November 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 November 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 6 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • SSATC Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • SSATC Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 11 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 14 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 19 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 21 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 25 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 December 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 January 22 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 February 5 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 February 8 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 February 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 February 14 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 February 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 March 1 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 March 7 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 March 12 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 March 15 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 March 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 March 19 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 March 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 March 28 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 April 9 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 April 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 April 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 June 3 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Yuriyevich Krikun - . Nation: Ukraine. Summary: Ukrainian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. In 1997 unsuccessfully applied for the Ukrainian cosmonaut team..

1963 June 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 June 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 June 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 June 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 June 26 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 5 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 19 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • R-12U (8K63U) - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 July 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 August 9 - . Launch Site: Sovetskaya Gavan. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 August 23 - . Launch Site: Sovetskaya Gavan. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 August 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 August 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 September 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 September 19 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 September 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 September 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 October 1 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 October 4 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 October 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 October 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 October 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 November 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 November 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 November 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 November 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 November 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 December 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 December 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 December 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 December 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1963 December 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 December 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 January 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 January 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 January 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 January 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 February 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 February 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 February 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 February 29 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 March 4 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 March 10 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 March 11 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • Target - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 March 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 March 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 March 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 April 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 June 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 June 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 June 21 - .
1964 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 July 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 July 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 July 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 July 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 July 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 July 17 - . Launch Site: Sovetskaya Gavan. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 July 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 July 21 - . Launch Site: Sovetskaya Gavan. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 August 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 August 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 August 6 - . Launch Site: Sovetskaya Gavan. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 August 26 - . Launch Site: Sovetskaya Gavan. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 September 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 September 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 October 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 October 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 October 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 December 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 December 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 December 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 December 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1964 December 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1965 March 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1965 March 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Pad: V-2?. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1965 April 16 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1965 April 24 - . Launch Site: Makat. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1965 May 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1965 October 27 - .
  • Birth of Oleg Valeriyevich Kotov - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EO-15, ISS EO-22. MD from Moscow Sergei M. Kirov Military Medicine Academy, 1980 . Russian Air Force. Worked in the TsPK, medical department. Cosmonaut training 3 June 1996 - 18 March 1998..

1965 December 7 - .
1966 January 14 - .
  • Death of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Related Persons: Korolev. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for creating the first long range ballistic missiles, the first space launchers, the first artificial satellite, and putting the first man in space. After his premature death the Soviets lagged in space..

1970 October 4 - .
1970 December 29 - .
1971 June 30 - .
  • Death of Georgi Timofeyevich Dobrovolsky. Killed in cabin depressurization of Soyuz 11. - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 11. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing..

1972 February 20 - .
1973 April 1 - .
1982 November 10 - .
1984 December 8 - .
  • Death of Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomei - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Related Persons: Chelomei. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer 1955-1984 of OKB-52. Leading designer of cruise missiles and ICBMs. Fought for lead role in space launchers and manned spacecraft. Led work on UR-100, UR-200 ICBM's, Proton LV, Raketoplan, Almaz, TKS manned spacecraft..

1989 January 10 - .
  • Death of Valentin Petrovich Glushko - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Related Persons: Glushko. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for all large liquid propellant engines for missiles and LVs. Led Glushko bureau, 1946-1974; Headed NPO Energia 1974-1989, directing development of Energia launch vehicle and Buran spaceplane..

1994 February 3 - .
1994 February 24 - .
1996 January 1 - .
  • Ukrainian Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Adamchuk; Meytarchan. Summary: Ukrainian astronauts trained for flights to the Mir space station..

2002 April 13 - .
2002 July 20 - .
2004 December 24 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. LV Configuration: Tsiklon-3 701. FAILURE: Launch vehicle control system failure during third stage apogee kick burn..
  • Sich-1M - . Payload: Okean O1-N9. Mass: 2,263 kg (4,989 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Agency: NKAU. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O1. Decay Date: 2006-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 28505 . COSPAR: 2004-052A. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 82.5559 deg. Summary: Ukranian-built remote sensing satellite. Originally tagged by USAF SpaceCom as Cosmos 2412. Third stage apogee kick burn was too short, raising the perigee of the orbit from 78 km to 280 km, rather than the 650 km planned..
  • Mikron - . Payload: MK-1TS. Mass: 66 kg (145 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Agency: NKAU. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MS-1. Decay Date: 2005-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 28507 . COSPAR: 2004-052C. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 82.5559 deg. The Mikron microsatellite was equipped with a small visible range video camera. The information from the satellite was to be used to provide remote sensing of topography and meteorology. However the main purpose of the experimental satellite was to test the MS-1 microsatellite bus created under the Ukrainian National Space Program. The satellites spectral range was from 0.45 to 0.90 mm; swath width was 253-391 km; resolution 124-191 m.

2009 September 29 - .
  • Death of Pavel Romanovich Popovich at Gurzuv, Krim - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Popovich. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 4, Soyuz 14. Commander of first military space station mission..

2010 June 14 - .
  • Death of Leonid Denisovich Kizim - . Nation: Ukraine. Related Persons: Kizim. Summary: Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Salyut 7 EO-3, Mir EO-1. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. 374 cumulative days in space..

2011 August 17 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Sich 2 - . Mass: 175 kg (385 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37794 . COSPAR: 2011-044G. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.60 min. Summary: Ukrainian remote sensing satellite built by the Yuzhnoye..

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