Encyclopedia Astronautica
Europe


Europe

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • MiniSil Project for On-Board Autonomy technology satellite. Launched 2009.11.02, More...
  • Planck Space observatory designed to observe the fine detail of the cosmic microwave background. Planck reached the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point in July 2009, and had successfully completed a second all-sky survey by February 2010. Launched 2009.05.14, More...
  • ESRO European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1967.05.30 (ESRO 2A) to 1972.11.22 (ESRO 4). The ESRO series were small Scout-launched probes of near-earth space. More...
  • STV European technology satellite. 3 launches, 1968.11.29 (STV 1) to 1970.06.12 (STV 3). Satellite Test Vehicle. More...
  • HEOS European earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.12.05 (HEOS 1) and 1972.01.31 (HEOS 2). Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; examined magnetic fields outside of Earth's magnetosphere. More...
  • TD-1A European technology satellite. One launch, 1972.03.12. Sixth satellite of ESRO. More...
  • COS European technology satellite. One launch, 1975.08.09. CERS/ESRO satellite, first European Space Agency satellite. More...
  • ESA-Geos European earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1977.04.20 (ESA-Geos 1) and 1978.07.14 (ESA-Geos 2). Magnetospheric research. European Space Agency satellite. More...
  • ECS/OTS European communications satellite. 20 launches, 1977.09.13 (OTS 1) to 2001.02.07 (Skynet 4F). More...
  • Meteosat European earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1977.11.23 (Meteosat 1) to 1997.09.02 (Meteosat 7). More...
  • OTS European communications technology satellite. Study 1978. Communications experiments satellite of the European Space Agency. More...
  • CAT European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1979.12.24 (CAT 1) to 1981.12.20 (Tech. capsule). More...
  • Exosat European x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.05.26. EXOSAT was a space research satellite of the European Space Agency. More...
  • Columbus Space Station European manned space station. Study 1984. The European Space Agency Columbus module began as an independent European space station but would up as an unflown module of the International Space Station. More...
  • Giotto European comet probe. One launch, 1985.07.02. The Giotto mission was designed to study Comet P/Halley, and also studied Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup during its extended mission. More...
  • ATV ICC European space tug. Study 1985. The Integrated Cargo Carrier was located at the forward end of the ATV. It represented 60% of the total ATV volume and carried all of the cargo for resupplying the Station. More...
  • ATV SM European space tug. Study 1985. The unpressurized ATV Service Module included propulsion systems, electrical power (including solar arrays), computers, communications and most of the avionics. More...
  • Columbus Attached Pressurised Module European manned space station module. Study 1985. The European Space Agency formally joined the American Space Station project in May 1985, but the negotiations between ESA and NASA were often difficult. More...
  • Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer - MTFF European manned space station. Study 1986. In April 1986, Italy's Aeritalia finally proposed that the European Space Agency build a second free-flying pressurized module to be used with the Space Station. More...
  • ESA Polar Platform European manned space station. Study 1986. Britain initially expressed strong interest in developing an unmanned Polar Platform for Earth observation as part of the European Columbus package. In 1986 the platform was scheduled for a 1995 launch. More...
  • Olympus European communications technology satellite. One launch, 1989.07.12. This communications technology demonstration satellite tested direct television broadcast beams and was also equipped with conventional communications transponders. More...
  • Hipparcos European visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.08.08. Scientific satellite for astrometry. Didn't reach GEO due to AKM failure; measured star positions. Frequency plan 2054.25 /2241 MHz. Launch time 2325:53 UT. Designator ESA/89/03. More...
  • Ulysses European solar satellite. One launch, 1990.10.06. Ulysses was a joint NASA / ESA mission designed to study the polar regions of the Sun. More...
  • British Aerospace Space Station European manned space station. Study 1990. British Aerospace Ltd. (BAe) investigated alternate European space station designs for the European Space Agency. More...
  • ERS 1-2 European earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1991.07.17 (ERS 1) to 1995.04.21 (ERS 2). The primary mission of Europe's ERS-1 and -2 was to perform remote sensing of the Earth's oceans, ice caps, and coastal regions. More...
  • Eureca European materials science satellite. One launch, 1992.07.31. Microgravity experiments; deployed from one shuttle mission, left in earth orbit for extended periods, and retrieved and returned to earth on a later shuttle flight. More...
  • ESA MTFF-Derived Space Station European manned space station. Study 1987. Back in the heady days of 1987, Europe was making plans to build an autonomous space station derived from the Columbus Man-Tended Free-Flying (MTFF) platform as the next logical step after Space Station Freedom. More...
  • ESA ACRV European manned spacecraft. Study 1992. As Hermes gradually faded into oblivion, the European Space Agency started to take a closer a look at cheaper and less complicated manned space capsules. More...
  • ISS Columbus Orbiting Facility European manned space station. Launched 2008.02.07. In October 1993, ESA decided to further slash its overall budget by a combined $4.8 billion in 1994-2000. The Columbus space station module survived, but in a reduced form. More...
  • ISO European infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1995.11.17. Infrared astrophysics. More...
  • SOHO European solar satellite. One launch, 1995.12.02. SOHO was a component of the Collaborative Solar-Terrestrial Research (COSTR) Program of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. More...
  • ESA European space suit, tested 1995. Prototype full pressure suit for the European Space Agency (ESA), produced by Dornier, Dassault, Zodiac, et. al., 0.40 bar. More...
  • Cluster European earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1996.06.04 (Cluster F4) to (Cluster F4). The Cluster satellites were a series of sophisticated earth-observation platforms that were to be launched aboard the first Ariane 5. More...
  • Huygens European outer planets probe. One launch, 1997.10.15. Titan landing probe; attached to Cassini spacecraft. More...
  • MAQSAT European technology satellite. 4 launches, 1997.10.30 (MAQSAT-H/TEAMSAT) to 2005.02.12 (Maqsat 3). MAQSATs were mass model and technology satellites built by Kayser-Threde, Munich, and lofted during the test flights of the Ariane 5. More...
  • YES European tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.30 (YES) and 2007.09.14 (YES). Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech. More...
  • XMM European x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.12.10. ESA's X-ray Multi-Mirror space observatory was the biggest science satellite ever built in Europe. The spacecraft's X-ray optics covered a spectral range of 1-120 nanometers (12keV-0.1keV). More...
  • Cluster 2 European earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 2000.07.16 (Samba) to 2000.08.09 (Tango). More...
  • Artemis European communications technology satellite. One launch, 2001.07.12. Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite to test new communications technologies. More...
  • PROBA European earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2001.10.22. Proba (PRoject for On-Board Autonomy, 1) was a European Space Agency technology development minisatellite with a mass of 94 kg. More...
  • Envisat European earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 2002.03.01. The European Space Agency's Envisat polar platform was originally envisaged as an automated polar orbiting segment of the Space Station. More...
  • MSG European earth weather satellite. 2 launches, 2002.08.28 (MSG 1) and 2005.12.21 (MSG 2). MSG (Meteosat Second Generation 1) was a European (EUMETSAT consortium) geostationary weather satellite. More...
  • Integral European gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2002.10.17. INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) was a European (ESA) astrophysics satellite. The four-ton (with fuel) cylindrical (5 m height and 3. More...
  • Mars Express European Mars orbiter. One launch, 2003.06.02. The European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, designed to be built more quickly than any other comparable planetary mission, was a resounding success. More...
  • SMART-1 European lunar orbiter. One launch, 2003.09.27, Insat 3E. ESA's SMART-1 was to test miniaturization technology while exploring the Moon from orbit. More...
  • Rosetta European comet probe. One launch, 2004.03.02. European comet orbiter/landing mission. More...
  • Spacebus 4000 European communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2005.02.03. The Spacebus 4000 represented a new larger platform to meet customer demand. More...
  • Cryosat European earth resources radar satellite. CryoSat carried a radar altimeter to acquire accurate measurements of the thickness of floating sea ice so that annual variations could be detected. More...
  • SSETI Express European civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 2005.10.27. Student-built technology satellite sponsored by the ESA. It ejected three 1-kg Cubesats after separating from the booster, but then itself lost power less than 14 hours later. More...
  • Venus Express European Venus probe. One launch, 2005.11.09. European Union probe to Venus, with the primary mission of studying the atmosphere and space environment of the planet. More...
  • European Mars Mission European manned Mars expedition. Study 2005. In 2005 the Mars Society Germany proposed a European Mars Mission (EMM) that could be launched using an improved version of the Ariane 5 booster. More...
  • Fotino European tether technology satellite. Study 2005. European re-entry capsule experiment planned to be carried on Foton-M2, but not ready in time for launch. More...
  • Metop European earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.10.19. MetOp was Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology. More...
  • ATV European logistics spacecraft and space tug. The Automated Transfer Vehicle was first proposed in the mid-1980s as a way to transport unmanned cargo to a Space Station. Operational in that role, first launch 2008.03.09. Studies for a manned version with a re-entry capsule conducted, but no funding for development. More...
  • Galileo Navsat European navigation satellite. One launch, 2008.04.26, GIOVE B. Galileo was to be Europe's own global navigation satellite system, providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control. More...
  • CTV CM European manned spacecraft module. Study 2018. Re-entry vehicle portion of the proposed European CTV manned spacecraft. More...
  • CTV European manned spacecraft. Study 2018. Proposed European manned spacecraft to shuttle crews to the International Space Station from 2018. More...
  • Mini Space Station European manned space station. Study 2020. Potential European independent space station consisting of two docked ATV's with additional life support systems. More...
  • Safe Haven European manned space station. Study 2020. The ATV could evolve towards an unmanned free-flying laboratory providing a better microgravity level than the ISS. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Europa European orbital launch vehicle. Europe's first space launcher. The first stage was a British Blue Streak IRBM, the second stage the French Coralie, and the third stage the German Astris. All orbital launch attempts failed due to unreliability of the third stage. The project was cancelled after withdrawal of British support and replaced by the Ariane. More...
  • ELDO A European orbital launch vehicle. Three stage version of the Europa vehicle. More...
  • Cora European orbital launch vehicle. Cora was an experimental rocket to test the second and third stages of the Europa launch vehicle. More...
  • Europa II European orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version of the Europa vehicle, adding a P068 fourth stage. More...
  • FLTP European winged orbital launch vehicle. Europe's Future Launcher Technology Program (FLTP) was an ESA study program that ran from 1999-2002, with the objective of identifying and developing technologies necessary for the successor to the Ariane 5. The planned configuration was a two-stage fully recoverable winged launch vehicle. The winged booster would deliver the orbiter to a given altitude, then booster fly back to its launch base at Kourou. The second stage orbiter continued to orbit, delivered its payload and then returned to Kourou. The program faded out following collapse of the commercial launch market, development problems with the Ariane 5, and cancellation of NASA reusable launch vehicle projects. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ELDO European agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. European Launcher Development Organisation, Europe. More...
  • ESRO European agency overseeing development of spacecraft. European Space Research Organisation, Europe. More...
  • NATO European agency overseeing development of spacecraft. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Europe. More...
  • ESA European agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. European Space Agency, Europe. More...
  • Eutelsat European Telecommunications Satellite Organization, Europe. More...

Associated Programs
  • Eutelsat EUTELSAT regional geostationary telecommunication satellite for European countries. Operated by the EUTELSAT organization. More...
  • MARECS Geostationary maritime communications satellites, which form part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. The program began as the experimental Maritime Orbital Test Satellite (Marots) in 1973, but was subsequently changed to an operational system resulting in a name change, a satellite redesign, and delayed development. Marecs is operated by ESA for Inmarsat. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • NAMFI The NATO Missile Firing Installation is NATO's main Firing Range. It is located on the island of Crete, outside the town of Chania. More...

Europe Chronology


1961 January 30 - . LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa.
  • Europa conference. - . Nation: Europe. Summary: Conference of 12 European nations held at Strasbourg to discuss a British and French proposal for a European satellite launcher development program..

1961 November 3 - . Launch Site: Woomera. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa.
  • Woomera selected for Europa launches. - . Nation: Europe. Summary: Nine-nation Western European Conference in London announced decision to launch a satellite in mid-1965, using a British Blue Streak first stage, a French Veronique second stage, and a West German third stage, from the Woomera range in Australia..

1962 October 5 - .
  • European Southern Observatory founded. - . Nation: Europe.

1963 October 17 - . 10:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA5B. Launch Pad: LA5B?. LV Family: Black Knight. Launch Vehicle: Black Knight 201. LV Configuration: Black Knight-201 BK.11.
  • Blue Streak test - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO; RAE. Apogee: 527 km (327 mi).

1964 June 4 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. Launch Vehicle: Blue Streak. LV Configuration: Blue Streak F-1.
  • Blue Streak only. Successful. - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

1964 July 6 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S01/1.
  • MPE Ba-7 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1964 July 8 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S01/2.
  • MPE Ba-8 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1964 October 19 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. Launch Vehicle: Blue Streak. LV Configuration: Blue Streak F-2.
  • Blue Streak only. Successful. - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi).

1964 October 29 - . 23:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C02 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 March 21 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. Launch Vehicle: Blue Streak. LV Configuration: Blue Streak F-3.
  • Blue Streak only. Successful. - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi).

1965 March 31 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark-7 S03/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S03 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 45 km (27 mi).

1965 April 3 - . 12:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark-7 S03/2.
  • ESRO S03 / 2 (SE5) Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1965 August 10 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S05/1.
  • Ultraviolet photometer Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1965 September 30 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S04/1 (SEO8).
  • MPE Ba-12 / Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1965 October 2 - . 04:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S04/2 (SEO9).
  • MPE Ba-13 / Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 December 7 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C07 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 December 11 - . 04:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C07 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1965 December 14 - . 12:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-6.
  • ESRO C06 / 1 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1966 February 4 - . 23:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-16.
  • ESRO C15 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1966 February 11 - . 02:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-15. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C15 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1966 February 22 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-13.
  • ESRO C14 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1966 February 23 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-14.
  • ESRO C14 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1966 March 9 - . 22:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-12.
  • ESRO C13 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1966 March 10 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-11.
  • ESRO C13 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1966 May 15 - . 05:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-5.
  • ESRO C06 / 2 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1966 May 15 - . 09:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas AE001.
  • ESRO A23 / 1 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas AE002. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A23 / 2 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas A003.
  • ESRO A23 / 3 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 99 km (61 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Nissaki-Karystos. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-19.
  • ESRO C22 / 1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 09:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas A004.
  • ESRO A23 / 4 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas A005. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A23 / 5 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 7.00 km (4.30 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. Launch Complex: Koroni LP2. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas A006.
  • ESRO A23 / 6 Eclipse ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1966 May 20 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Koroni. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-20.
  • ESRO C22 / 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1966 May 23 - . 23:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa. LV Configuration: ELDO A F-4.
  • Active first stage with dummy upper stages and satellite. and satellite. Flight terminated after 136 seconds. - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1966 June 16 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S17/1.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1966 June 18 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S17/2.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1966 June 20 - . 19:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S08/1.
  • ESRO S08 / 1 (SK7) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1966 June 27 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique AGI. LV Configuration: Veronique AGI AGI/60.
  • FU-154 recovery test - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi). Summary: FU154 Technology (recovery) mission..

1966 June 28 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S08/2.
  • ESRO S08 / 2 (SK8) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1966 July 8 - . 19:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S18/1.
  • ESRO S18 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1966 July 13 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S18/2.
  • ESRO S18 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).

1966 July 20 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier I.
  • ESRO B12 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1966 July 25 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier I.
  • ESRO B12 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1966 November 14 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa. LV Configuration: ELDO A F-5.
  • Active first stage with dummy upper stages and satellite. Flight successful. - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1966 November 19 - . 23:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C21 / 1 Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi).

1966 November 26 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S11/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S11 / 2 (SK16) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1966 November 29 - . 01:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-8.
  • ESRO C9 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1966 November 30 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-7.
  • ESRO C9 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 147 km (91 mi).

1967 February 4 - . 23:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-22.
  • ESRO C21 / 2 Aurora / chemical release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1967 February 16 - . 07:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-9.
  • ESRO C10 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1967 February 22 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-10.
  • ESRO C10 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 158 km (98 mi).

1967 April 19 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-24/1.
  • ESRO C24/1 test - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi).

1967 May 22 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S11/1.
  • ESRO S11 / 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1967 May 25 - . 23:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S05/2.
  • ESRO S05 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1967 May 30 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S152C. FAILURE: Third stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • ESRO 2A - . Payload: Iris 1. Mass: 74 kg (163 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1967-05-29 . COSPAR: F670530A.

1967 July 31 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-30.
  • ESRO C20 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1967 July 31 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-31.
  • ESRO C32 / 1 Meteorite mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1967 August 4 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa. LV Configuration: Europa I F-6/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Active first and second stages with dummy third stage and satellite. - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1967 September 27 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S26/1.
  • ESRO S26 / 1 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1967 October 4 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon DE-35.
  • ESRO D34 / 1 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi).

1967 October 4 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S19/1.
  • ESRO S19 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1967 October 7 - . 10:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon DE-30.
  • ESRO D30 / 1 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi).

1967 October 7 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S26/2.
  • ESRO S26 / 2 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1967 October 10 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon DE-36. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO D34 / 2 Solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1967 October 10 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S19/2.
  • ESRO S19 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1967 November 24 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-36. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C13 / P Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1967 November 26 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-17.
  • ESRO C31 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1967 December 4 - . 21:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa. LV Configuration: Europa I F-6/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Active first and second stages with dummy third stage and satellite. - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1967 December 6 - . 21:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-2.
  • ESRO C31 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1968 February 1 - . 05:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-34.
  • ESRO C36 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1968 February 4 - . 05:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-35.
  • ESRO C36 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1968 March 6 - . 21:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-37.
  • ESRO C14 / P Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 March 26 - . 23:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S16/1.
  • ESRO S16 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1968 May 8 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-46.
  • ESRO C33 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1968 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier III. LV Configuration: Belier III 306.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO; CNES. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1968 May 15 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-47.
  • ESRO C33 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1968 May 17 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S161C.
  • ESRO 2B - . Payload: IRIS. Mass: 75 kg (165 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1971-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 3233 . COSPAR: 1968-041A. Apogee: 1,085 km (674 mi). Perigee: 334 km (207 mi). Inclination: 97.2000 deg. Period: 99.00 min.

1968 May 20 - . 15:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1. LV Configuration: Centaure 1 CE-38.
  • ESRO C42 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 May 22 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon D-31. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO D30 / 2 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1968 June 7 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1. LV Configuration: Centaure 1 CE-44.
  • ESRO C42 / 2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1968 June 8 - . 21:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-32.
  • ESRO C32 / 2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 July 30 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-31.
  • ESRO C20 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1968 August 12 - . 12:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas 2 AE007.
  • ESRO A50 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 96 km (59 mi).

1968 August 25 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Boosted Arcas 2. LV Configuration: Boosted Arcas 2 AE008.
  • ESRO A50 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1968 October 3 - . 20:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S167C.
  • ESRO 1A - . Payload: Aurorae. Mass: 81 kg (178 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1970-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3459 . COSPAR: 1968-084A. Apogee: 1,538 km (955 mi). Perigee: 258 km (160 mi). Inclination: 93.8000 deg. Period: 103.00 min. Summary: Aurora, polar ionosphere investigations. .

1968 October 7 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 ESRO S47/1.
  • Ultraviolet telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1968 October 8 - . 11:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-48.
  • ESRO C35 / 1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1968 October 15 - . 16:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-39.
  • ESRO C45 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1968 November 1 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE-50.
  • ESRO C45 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1968 November 1 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas. LV Configuration: Sidewinder-Arcas NASA 15.24II. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Arcas VI PCA Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1968 November 22 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC ESRO S41/1.
  • Solar BCS Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1968 November 25 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 ESRO S43/1.
  • ESRO S43 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1968 November 29 - . 23:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa. LV Configuration: Europa I F-7. FAILURE: Third stage exploded.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • STV 1 / Europa F-7 - . Mass: 249 kg (548 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: STV. Decay Date: 1968-11-30 . COSPAR: F681129A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Summary: First attempt by ELDO to launch a satellite to orbit. Satellite Test Vehicle payload..

1968 December 3 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 ESRO S27/1.
  • Ultraviolet telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1968 December 5 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta E1. LV Configuration: Thor Delta E1 481/D61.
  • HEOS 1 - . Payload: HEOS A1. Mass: 108 kg (238 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: HEOS. Decay Date: 1975-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3595 . COSPAR: 1968-109A. Apogee: 202,780 km (126,000 mi). Perigee: 20,020 km (12,430 mi). Inclination: 60.5000 deg. Period: 6,704.30 min. Summary: Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; examined magnetic fields outside of Earth's magnetosphere. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1969 February 25 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 3 (R127) Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE.
  • ESRO C49 / 1 (R3) Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO A40 / 4 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1969 February 25 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2B. LV Configuration: Centaure 2B CE.
  • ESRO C49 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1969 March 15 - . 20:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S43/2.
  • ESRO S43 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1969 March 15 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C52/1.
  • ESRO C52 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1969 April 13 - . 08:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 7 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1969 April 13 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 5 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 2 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 59 km (36 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C39/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO C39 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1969 April 14 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Sidewinder-Arcas.
  • ESRO A40 / 6 Ionosphere / plasma / field mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi).

1969 April 15 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C39/2.
  • ESRO C39 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi).

1969 June 5 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C35/2.
  • ESRO C35 / 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1969 July 2 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa. LV Configuration: Europa I F-8. FAILURE: Third stage failed.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Europa F-8 / STV 2 - . Payload: STV 2. Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: STV. COSPAR: F690702A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1969 July 5 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S38/1.
  • ESRO S38 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 July 6 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S64/1.
  • ESRO S64 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1969 July 11 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S38/2.
  • ESRO S38 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1969 July 13 - . 19:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S64/2.
  • ESRO S64 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1969 August 11 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C51/1.
  • ESRO C51 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1969 August 14 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C58/1.
  • ESRO C58 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 112 km (69 mi).

1969 October 1 - . 22:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S172C. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • ESRO 1B - . Payload: Boreas. Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1969-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4114 . COSPAR: 1969-083A. Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 85.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Ionospheric and auroral investigations; lower than planned orbit. Fourth satellite of ESRO. Also registered by the United States in A/AC.105/INF.220 as United States space object 1969-83A, with category B and orbital parameters 90.6 min, 280 x 339 km x 85.1 deg.

1969 October 5 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S29/1.
  • ESRO S29 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1969 October 10 - . 20:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C52/2.
  • ESRO C52 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1969 October 17 - . 22:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S29/2.
  • ESRO S29 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1969 October 24 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S68/1.
  • ESRO S68 / 1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1969 November 10 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S46/1.
  • ESRO S46 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1969 November 27 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C62/1.
  • ESRO C62 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1969 November 27 - . 06:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C62/2.
  • ESRO C62 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1970 January 24 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56A/1.
  • ESRO S56A / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 February 4 - . 05:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C57/1.
  • ESRO C57 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1970 February 6 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 AC S44/1.
  • ESRO S44 / 1 Stellar ultraviolet Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1970 February 14 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S66/2.
  • ESRO S66 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 23 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C37/1.
  • ESRO C37 / 1 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 February 24 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S70/1.
  • ESRO S70 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi).

1970 February 25 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S61/1.
  • ESRO S61 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1970 February 26 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S61/2.
  • ESRO S61 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1970 April 2 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S66/1.
  • ESRO S66 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1970 April 3 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C57/2.
  • ESRO C57 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 173 km (107 mi).

1970 April 4 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S28/1.
  • ESRO S28 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1970 June 7 - . 07:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C48/1.
  • ESRO C48 / 1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1970 June 12 - . 01:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA6A. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa. LV Configuration: Europa I F-9. FAILURE: Payload fairing failed to separate.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Europa F-9 / STV 3 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: STV. Decay Date: 1970-06-12 . COSPAR: F700612A. Apogee: 2,000 km (1,200 mi).

1970 June 22 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S68/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S68 / 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1970 July 3 - . 19:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S63/2.
  • ESRO S63 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 8 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S63/1.
  • ESRO S63 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56A/2.
  • ESRO S56A / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1970 July 24 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S65/1.
  • ESRO S65 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1970 July 27 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S65/2.
  • ESRO S65 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1970 August 9 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C58/2.
  • ESRO C58 / 2 Ionosphere / meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1970 August 10 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C51/2.
  • ESRO C51 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1970 August 19 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C48/2.
  • ESRO C48 / 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 163 km (101 mi).

1970 October 27 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S67/1.
  • ESRO S67 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi).

1970 October 29 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S67/2.
  • ESRO S67 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi).

1970 December 6 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S69.
  • ESRO S69 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1971 January 8 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/1.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 January 15 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/2.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1971 January 17 - . 14:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C37/2.
  • ESRO C37 / 2 MPE Ba Ionosphere / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1971 January 17 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/3.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1971 January 19 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/4.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 4 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/5.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 5 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1971 January 23 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/6.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 6 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C60/1.
  • ESRO C60 / 1 Chemical release / particles mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1971 January 25 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/7.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 7 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C60/2.
  • ESRO C60 / 2 Chemical release / particles mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1971 January 26 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel ESRO P40/1.
  • ESRO P40 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1971 January 27 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/8.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 8 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 47 km (29 mi).

1971 January 27 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C78/1.
  • ESRO C78 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1971 January 28 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S46/2.
  • ESRO S46 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi).

1971 January 29 - . 17:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/9.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 9 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1971 January 31 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/10.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 10 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1971 February 3 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/11.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 11 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/1.
  • ESRO S80 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/2.
  • ESRO S80 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1971 February 7 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/3.
  • ESRO S80 / 3 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1971 February 8 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/12.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 12 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 48 km (29 mi).

1971 February 9 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/13.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 13 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 February 11 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/14.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 14 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1971 February 12 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Skua. Launch Vehicle: Skua 1. LV Configuration: Skua Sk83/15.
  • ESRO Sk83 / 15 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 67 km (41 mi).

1971 February 26 - . 10:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S54. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S54 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1971 March 2 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S16/2.
  • ESRO S16 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1971 March 11 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S55.
  • ESRO S55 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1971 March 15 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S87/1.
  • ESRO S87 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1971 March 24 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S87/2.
  • ESRO S87 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 March 25 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S56B/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S56B / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56B/2.
  • ESRO S56B / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 July 2 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S73.
  • ESRO S73 Solar X-ray/Zodiacal mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1971 July 30 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Micon. Launch Vehicle: Zenit. LV Configuration: Zenit-C Zenit-Cuckoo. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO Z82 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 July 31 - . 00:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C59/1.
  • ESRO C59/1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 August 1 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C59/2.
  • ESRO C59/2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 119 km (73 mi).

1971 September 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S47/2.
  • ESRO S47 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S89.
  • ESRO S89 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 November 5 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. Launch Pad: CECLES. LV Family: Europa. Launch Vehicle: Europa II. LV Configuration: Europa II F-11. FAILURE: Structural failure of third stage. Guidance signals were reversed.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Europa F-11 / STV 4 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ELDO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: STV 4. Decay Date: 1971-11-05 . COSPAR: F711105A. Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).

1971 November 16 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 AC S44/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S44 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1971 November 22 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 2A. LV Configuration: Centaure 2A CE-67.
  • ESRO C78 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1971 November 25 - . 17:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S70/2.
  • ESRO S70/2 Ionosphere/VLF Radio mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1971 December 14 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S82.
  • ESRO S82/2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1972 January 21 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C76/1.
  • ESRO C76/1 Particles/Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1972 January 22 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna C. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C76/2.
  • ESRO C76/2 Particles/Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

1972 January 31 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta L. LV Configuration: Thor Delta L 564/D87.
  • HEOS 2 - . Payload: HEOS A2. Mass: 123 kg (271 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: HEOS. Decay Date: 1974-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5814 . COSPAR: 1972-005A. Apogee: 240,164 km (149,230 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 89.9000 deg. Period: 7,477.10 min. Summary: Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; particles and fields data. Fifth satellite of ESRO. Also registered as US object 1972-05A in A/AC.105/INF.248 with orbit 7835.4 min, 439 x 248160 km x 90.2 deg, category B. .

1972 February 28 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S84.
  • ESRO S84 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi).

1972 February 28 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S90.
  • ESRO S90 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi).

1972 March 2 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4. LV Configuration: Skylark 4 S77/1.
  • ESRO S77 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi).

1972 March 12 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta N. LV Configuration: Thor Delta N 573/D88.
  • TD-1A; Thor Delta 1A - . Payload: TD 1A. Mass: 472 kg (1,040 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: TD-1A. Decay Date: 1980-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5879 . COSPAR: 1972-014A. Apogee: 550 km (340 mi). Perigee: 523 km (324 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. Summary: Sixth satellite of ESRO. Also registered as US object 1972-14A in A/AC.105/INF.255 with orbit 95.3 min, 525 x 548 km x 97.5 deg, category B. .

1972 March 24 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S75/1.
  • ESRO S75 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1972 March 30 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4. LV Configuration: Skylark 4 S75/2.
  • ESRO S75 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1972 June 25 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S91.
  • ESRO S91 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1972 September 24 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4. LV Configuration: Skylark 4 S77/2.
  • ESRO S77 / 2 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi).

1972 October 13 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S105.
  • ESRO S105 Auroral mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1972 November 20 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S94.
  • ESRO S94 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1972 November 22 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S185C.
  • ESRO 4 - . Mass: 114 kg (251 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1974-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6285 . COSPAR: 1972-092A. Apogee: 1,173 km (728 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 91.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: Polar ionosphere investigations. Seventh ESRO satellite. Mass 115 kg. Also registered by the United States as 1972-92A, in A/AC.105/INF.267, with orbital parameters 98.8 min, 244 x 1160 km x 91.1 deg, category B. .

1975 May 31 - .
  • European Space Agency founded. - . Nation: Europe.

1975 August 9 - . 01:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2913. LV Configuration: Delta 2913 602/D113.
  • COS-B; COS B - . Payload: COS B. Mass: 280 kg (610 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: COS. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8062 . COSPAR: 1975-072A. Apogee: 99,002 km (61,516 mi). Perigee: 442 km (274 mi). Inclination: 90.3000 deg. Period: 2,203.90 min. Eighth CERS/ESRO satellite, first European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 0147:59 GMT. Argument of perigee 344.7 deg. Also registered by the United States in A/AC.105/INF.331 as 1975-72A, category B satellite with orbit 2203.9 min, 442 x 99002 km x 9 0.3 deg.

1977 April 20 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 617/D130.
  • ESA-Geos 1 - . Payload: ESA GEOS 1. Mass: 573 kg (1,263 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ESA-Geos. USAF Sat Cat: 9931 . COSPAR: 1977-029A. Apogee: 38,214 km (23,745 mi). Perigee: 2,939 km (1,826 mi). Inclination: 26.6000 deg. Period: 734.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1977 September 13 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914. LV Configuration: Delta 3914 619/D134. FAILURE: Vehicle exploded, probably SRM case.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • OTS 1 - . Mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Decay Date: 1977-09-13 . COSPAR: F770913A. Summary: Orbital Test Satellite; failed to orbit..

1977 October 22 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 623/D135.
  • ISEE 2 - . Payload: ISEE B. Mass: 166 kg (365 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ISEE. Decay Date: 1987-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 10423 . COSPAR: 1977-102B. Apogee: 137,765 km (85,603 mi). Perigee: 406 km (252 mi). Inclination: 13.5000 deg. Period: 3,438.50 min. Summary: International Sun-Earth Explorer. .

1977 November 23 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 620/D136.
  • Meteosat 1 - . Mass: 697 kg (1,536 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. Completed Operations Date: 1985-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10489 . COSPAR: 1977-108A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 11.9000 deg. Period: 1,437.60 min. European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 0135 GMT. Reached definitive position, 0 deg longitude over the Gulf of Guinea, on 7 December. Launched by United States Delta rocket. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at E-4 deg W in 1977-1981; 8E-12 deg E in 1981-1984; 2E-6 deg E in 1984-1985 As of 29 August 2001 located at 51.23 deg E drifting at 0.354 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 11.52E drifting at 0.055W degrees per day.

1978 May 11 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914. LV Configuration: Delta 3914 627/D141.
  • OTS 2 - . Payload: OTS 2. Mass: 865 kg (1,906 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1991-01-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10855 . COSPAR: 1978-044A. Apogee: 36,128 km (22,448 mi). Perigee: 36,085 km (22,422 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,452.50 min. Orbital Test Satellite; replacement for OTS-A; communications experiments. European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 2259 GMT. Reached definitive position, 10 deg east longitude, on May 24 at 0800 GMT. Launch by US Delta rocket. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 10 deg E in 1978-1982 over the Atlantic Ocean 5 deg E in 1982-1990 As of 30 August 2001 located at 18.51 deg W drifting at 4.070 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 39.02E drifting at 4.083W degrees per day.

1978 July 14 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 631/D143.
  • ESA-Geos 2 - . Payload: ESA GEOS 2. Mass: 573 kg (1,263 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ESA-Geos. Completed Operations Date: 1984-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10981 . COSPAR: 1978-071A. Apogee: 36,049 km (22,399 mi). Perigee: 36,027 km (22,386 mi). Inclination: 14.6000 deg. Period: 1,449.00 min. Magnetospheric research. European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 1043 GMT. Reached initial operational position of 6 deg East on 26 Jul 1978. During the two years of its mission, it will be maintained in position between longitude 0 and 35 deg east in geosynchronous orbit. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 36 deg E in 1978-1979 over the Atlantic Ocean 6-36 deg E in 1979-1981; over the Atlantic Ocean 24 deg E in 1981; over the Atlantic Ocean 33-37 deg E in 1981-1984 As of 3 September 2001 located at 177.77 deg W drifting at 3.212 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 179.12E drifting at 3.212W degrees per day.

1979 December 24 - . 17:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L01.
  • CAT 1 - . Payload: CAT 01. Mass: 1,602 kg (3,531 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. Decay Date: 1982-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11645 . COSPAR: 1979-104A. Apogee: 14,047 km (8,728 mi). Perigee: 125 km (77 mi). Inclination: 17.8000 deg. Period: 259.10 min. Launch vehicle test. Technological Capsule (CAT). ESA registration number: ESA/79/2. Principal mission of the technological capsule (with ballast), which was equipped with batteries having a lifetime of approximately 8 orbits, was to transmit back to earth technological data on the first developmental flight L01 of the ARIANE launch vehicle. When the batteries were exhausted, the capsule ended its radio transmissions, and it is now inoperative but still in orbit.

1980 May 23 - . 14:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L02. FAILURE: Failure.
  • CAT - . Payload: CAT. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Spacecraft: CAT. COSPAR: F800523G.

1981 June 19 - . 12:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L03.
  • Meteosat 2 - . Mass: 697 kg (1,536 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12544 . COSPAR: 1981-057A. Apogee: 36,329 km (22,573 mi). Perigee: 36,124 km (22,446 mi). Inclination: 11.1000 deg. Period: 1,458.60 min. Meteosat 2 is a geostationary meteorological satellite, operating within the world wide network of the World Weather Watch of WMO. Its main missions are: Imaging in the visible, IR and water vapour region of the spectrum; data reception from so-called dat a collection platforms (DCPs); data distribution to meteorological services and other interested parties (research institutes etc). Launch time 1233:03 UT. Geostationary position 0 deg E. Designator ESA/81/03. As of 3 September 2001 located at 58.52 deg W drifting at 5.577 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 125.67W drifting at 5.583W degrees per day.
  • CAT 3 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. USAF Sat Cat: 12546 . COSPAR: 1981-057C. Apogee: 26,528 km (16,483 mi). Perigee: 261 km (162 mi). Inclination: 10.7000 deg. Period: 461.20 min. Launch vehicle test payload. Technological capsule. ESA registration ESA/81/02. Launch time 1233:03 UT. The technological capsule, equipped with batteries for a lifetime of about six orbital revolutions, transmits to earth technological data about test flight L-03 of ARIANE. After di scharge of the battery the capsule will stop its transmissions and remain in orbit on inactive status. Frequency 136-138 MHz (transmission until 65h after launch only). Projected time of reentry 1986.

1981 December 20 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L04.
  • Tech. capsule - . Payload: CAT/Thesee. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. Decay Date: 1988-11-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 13025 . COSPAR: 1981-122C. Apogee: 36,051 km (22,401 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 10.6000 deg. Period: 636.00 min. Ariane L-04 technological capsule, ESA designator ESA/81/04. The technological capsule, equipped with batteries for a lifetime of about 6 orbital revolutions (65h), transmits to earth technological data about test flight L-04 of Ariane. After discharge of the battery the capsule will stop its transmissions and remain in orbit in an inactive status. Frequency 136-138 MHz, projected time of reentry before 1990.
  • MARECS 1 - . Payload: MARECS A. Mass: 582 kg (1,283 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1996-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 13010 . COSPAR: 1981-122A. Apogee: 37,858 km (23,523 mi). Perigee: 36,782 km (22,855 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,515.20 min. MARECS-A was a geostationary maritime communications satellite, which formed part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. MARECS-A moved to a new position on the geostationary orbit. Old position: 334E. New position: 22.5 E. The Marecs satellites were members of Inmarsat's first generation global maritime communications network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg W in 1982-1986; 178 deg E in 1986-1991; 20 deg E in 1991-1992; 22 deg E in 1992-1996 As of 1 September 2001 located at 11.08 deg W drifting at 18.839 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 168.28W drifting at 18.837W degrees per day. Additional Details: here....
  • CAT 4 - . Payload: MARECS 1 / CAT 4. Mass: 217 kg (478 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. USAF Sat Cat: 13011 . COSPAR: 1981-122B. Apogee: 30,744 km (19,103 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 10.4000 deg. Period: 536.80 min. Summary: Launch vehicle test payload. .

1982 September 9 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L5. FAILURE: Stage 3 turbopump.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • MARECS B - . Payload: MARECS B. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Decay Date: 1982-09-10 . COSPAR: F820909A. Summary: Marecs B intended for maritime communications, planned for lease to Inmarsat; launched with Sirio 2. Geosynch orbit..
  • Sirio 2 - . Payload: Sirio 2. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Spacecraft: SIRIO. COSPAR: F820909B.

1983 May 26 - . 15:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914. LV Configuration: Delta 3914 D169.
  • Exosat - . Mass: 510 kg (1,120 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Exosat. Decay Date: 1986-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 14095 . COSPAR: 1983-051A. Apogee: 191,878 km (119,227 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 72.5000 deg. Period: 5,442.10 min. X-ray experiments. Launch time 1518 UT. Launching agency ESA. EXOSAT is a space research satellite of the European Space Agency. The scientific objectives of the EXOSAT mission are to measure the position, structural features, spectral and temporal characteristics of cosmic X-ray sources in the energy range from less than 0.1 keV to greater than 50 keV.

1983 June 16 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L6.
  • Eutelsat 1 - . Payload: ECS 1. Mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1996-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14128 . COSPAR: 1983-058A. Apogee: 36,246 km (22,522 mi). Perigee: 36,123 km (22,445 mi). Inclination: 9.2000 deg. Period: 1,456.50 min. Designator ESA/83/4. Launch time 1159 GMT. Launch agency ESA. Geostationary position 10+/- 0.1 deg E. EUTELSAT 1 is a regional geostationary telecommunication Satellite for European countries. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. Frequency plan: 1 36-138 MHz (S-E). 148-149.9 MHz (E-S). 10.7-11.7 GHz (S-E). 14-14.5 GHz (E-S). Positions: Document Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1983; 13 deg E in 1983-1989; 16 deg E in 1989-1991; 25 deg E in 1992-1993; 48E1993-1996; 36 deg E in 1996 As of 31 August 2001 located at 12.27 deg W drifting at 5.043 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 109.78W drifting at 5.059W degrees per day.

1984 August 4 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V10.
  • Eutelsat 2 - . Payload: ECS 2. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1993-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 15158 . COSPAR: 1984-081A. Apogee: 36,248 km (22,523 mi). Perigee: 36,165 km (22,471 mi). Inclination: 3.0000 deg. Period: 1,457.60 min. Stationed at 7 deg E. Launch time 1333 UT. Geostationary orbit position 10 +/- 0.1; afterwards 7 +/- 0.1 deg E. EUTELSAT 2 is a regional geostationary satellite for European countries. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1984; 7 deg E in 1984-1990; 2 deg E in 1991; 1 deg E in 1992-1993 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.27 deg W drifting at 5.317 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 57.69E drifting at 5.323W degrees per day.

1984 November 10 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V11.
  • MARECS 2 - . Payload: MARECS B2. Mass: 563 kg (1,241 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 15386 . COSPAR: 1984-114B. Apogee: 37,544 km (23,328 mi). Perigee: 36,556 km (22,714 mi). Inclination: 9.9000 deg. Period: 1,501.10 min. Stationed at 177.5 deg E; maritime communications; leased by Inmarsat. Geostationary position 177.5 deg E. MARECS PAC 1 is a geostationary maritime mobile communication satellite which will form part of the INMARSAT world-wide maritime communication satellite network. 1985 Jul 1. Move to a new position. Old position: 177.5E. New position: 345 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 177 deg E in 1984-1986; 26 deg W in 1986-1990; 55 deg W in 1990-1992; 15 deg W in 1992-1997; 26 deg W in 1997-on. As of 4 September 2001 located at 25.98 deg W drifting at 0.006 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 105.63W drifting at 15.647W degrees per day.

1985 January - .
  • XMM approved by ESA - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: XMM. Summary: The XMM mission was the second Cornerstone mission of ESA's Long-Term Space Science programme. It was proposed by the Agency's Science Programme Committee in 1984 and was approved by the ESA Council of Ministers held in Rome..

1985 July 2 - . 11:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 V14.
  • Giotto - . Mass: 583 kg (1,285 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Comet. Type: Comet probe. Spacecraft: Giotto. USAF Sat Cat: 15875 . COSPAR: 1985-056A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 6.9000 deg. Period: 631.51 min. Encountered comet Halley March 13, 1986. The Giotto mission was designed to study Comet P/Halley, and also studied Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup during its extended mission. The spacecraft encountered Halley on March 13, 1986, at a distance of 0.89 AU from the sun and 0.98 AU from the Earth and an angle of 107 degrees from the comet-sun line. The actual closest approach was measured at 596 km. All experiments performed well and returned a wealth of new scientific results, of which perhaps the most important was the clear identification of the cometary nucleus. Fourteen seconds before closest approach, Giotto was hit by a `large' dust particle. The impact caused the spacecraft angular momentum vector to shift 0.9 degrees. Scientific data were received intermittently for the next 32 minutes. Some experiment sensors suffered damage during this 32-minute interval. Other experiments (the camera baffle and deflecting mirror, the dust detector sensors on the front sheet of the bumper shield, and most experiment apertures) were exposed to dust particles regardless of the accident and also suffered damage. Many of the sensors survived the encounter with little or no damage. Questionable or partially damaged sensors included the camera (later proved to not be functional) and one of the plasma analyzers (RPA). Inoperable experiments included the neutral and ion mass spectrometers and one sensor each on the dust detector and the other plasma analyzer (JPA). During the Giotto extended mission, the spacecraft successfully encountered Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup on July 10, 1992. The closest approach was approximately 200 km. The heliocentric distance of the spacecraft was 1.01 AU, and the geocentric distance, 1.43 AU at the time of the encounter. The payload was switched-on in the evening of July 9. Eight experiments were operated and provided a surprising wealth of data. The Johnstone Plasma Analyser detected the first presence of cometary ions 600,000 km from the nucleus at 12 hours before the closest approach. The Dust Impact Detectors reported the first impact of a fairly large particle at 15:30:56. Bow shocks/waves and acceleration regions were also detected. After the P/Grigg-Skjellerup encounter operation were terminated on 23 July 1992. The spacecraft will fly by the Earth on 1 July 1999.

1986 March 13 - .
  • Giotto, Comet Halley Flyby - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Giotto.

1987 September 16 - . 00:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V19.
  • Eutelsat I F4 - . Payload: ECS 4. Mass: 1,175 kg (2,590 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. USAF Sat Cat: 18351 . COSPAR: 1987-078B. Apogee: 35,813 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,760 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 6.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. European communications; 10 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1987-1988; 13 deg E in 1989-1991; 7 deg E in 1991-1993; 25 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 33.14 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 120.92E drifting at 5.702W degrees per day.

1988 June 15 - . 11:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V22.
  • Meteosat 3 - . Mass: 696 kg (1,534 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eumetsat. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. Completed Operations Date: 1995-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 19215 . COSPAR: 1988-051A. Apogee: 36,766 km (22,845 mi). Perigee: 36,723 km (22,818 mi). Inclination: 7.5000 deg. Period: 1,485.30 min. Stationed at 0 deg. Meteosat P2 is a geostationary meteorological satellite operating within the world wide network of the World Weather Watch of the World Meteorological Organization. Its main missions are: Imaging in the visible, IR and water vapour region of the spectrum; data reception from so-called Data Collection Platforms (DCPs); data distribution to meteorological services and other interested parties (research institutes, etc). Geostationary position 0 deg E. ESA designator ESA/88/02. Launch time 1119:33 UT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg E in 1988-1989; 49 deg W in 1989; 4 deg W in 1990-1991; 49 deg W in 1991-1993; 75 deg W in 1993-1995; 70 deg W in 1995 As of 5 September 2001 located at 175.17 deg W drifting at 11.970 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 140.75W drifting at 11.975W degrees per day.

1988 July 21 - . 23:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V24.
  • Eutelsat I F5 - . Payload: ECS 5. Mass: 1,185 kg (2,612 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 2000-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19331 . COSPAR: 1988-063B. Apogee: 36,456 km (22,652 mi). Perigee: 36,321 km (22,568 mi). Inclination: 6.1000 deg. Period: 1,466.90 min. European communications; 13 deg E. ECS-5/Eutelsat I F5 is a regional geostationary telecommunications satellite for European countries. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. Frequency plan 136-138 MHz (S-E), 148-149.9 MHz (E-S), 10.7-11.7 GHz (S-E), 14.0-14.5 GHz (E-S). Launch time 2334:00 UT. ESA designator ESA/88/03. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1989-1991; 21 deg E in 1991-1998; 12 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 48.15 deg E drifting at 7.596 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 102.26W drifting at 7.597W degrees per day.

1988 December 11 - . 00:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V27.
  • Astra 1A - . Mass: 1,780 kg (3,920 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 19688 . COSPAR: 1988-109B. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. European TV broadcast; 19.2 deg W. Astra 1A provides TV coverage to Western Europe. The satellite is owned and operated by Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES), a private company formed in 1985. Astra 1A is based in the GE 4000 series platform, and was the first in a network of four satellites. Spacecraft: GE 4000 platform.3-axis stabilisation with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Solar arrays provide 2800 W BOL, 3 50 Ahr NiH batteries. GEO insertion by Star 37XFP solid rocket motor. Payload: 16 Ku-band transponders (with six spares) . Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1989-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.38 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 13.01E drifting at 6.968W degrees per day.

1989 March 6 - . 23:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V29.
  • Meteosat 4 - . Payload: MOP 1. Mass: 681 kg (1,501 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eumetsat. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. Completed Operations Date: 1995-11-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19876 . COSPAR: 1989-020B. Apogee: 36,795 km (22,863 mi). Perigee: 36,600 km (22,700 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,482.90 min. Meteosat Operational Program; weather imaging, atmospheric data; 0 deg. Geostationary meteorological satellite, operating within the world-wide network of the World Weather Watch of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Its main missions are: imaging in the visible, infrared and water vapour region of the spectrum. Dat a reception from so called Data Collection Platforms (DCPs); data distribution to meteorological services and other interested parties (research institutes, etc). As of 4 September 2001 located at 98.34 deg W drifting at 11.393 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 21.37E drifting at 11.390W degrees per day.

1989 July 12 - . 00:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V32.
  • Olympus-1 - . Payload: Olympus F1. Mass: 2,595 kg (5,720 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Olympus. Completed Operations Date: 1993-08-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20122 . COSPAR: 1989-053A. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Commsat technology demonstration;19 deg W. Olympus-1 is a multi-payload communications satellite for direct TV broadcast in the bands of the 1977 Geneva Plan of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (including a national beam to Italy) plus communication transponde rs in the 14/12 GHz, 2nd 30/20 GHz bands. The latter are also used for a data relay experiment with ESA's EURECA satellite. Position on geostationary orbit 341 deg E. Launch time 0014:00 UT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg W in 1989-1991; 19 deg W in 1991-1993 As of 4 September 2001 located at 82.22 deg E drifting at 3.961 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 118.63E drifting at 3.947E degrees per day.

1989 August 8 - . 23:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V33.
  • Hipparcos - . Mass: 1,130 kg (2,490 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Hipparcos. USAF Sat Cat: 20169 . COSPAR: 1989-062B. Apogee: 35,836 km (22,267 mi). Perigee: 542 km (336 mi). Inclination: 6.7000 deg. Period: 638.70 min. Summary: Didn't reach GEO due to AKM failure; measured star positions. Scientific satellite for astrometry. Frequency plan 2054.25 /2241 MHz. Launch time 2325:53 UT. Designator ESA/89/03. .

1990 March 29 - . 08:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna MRL. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX MASER 4.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi).

1990 July 2 - .
  • Giotto, Earth Flyby - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Giotto.

1990 August 30 - . 22:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V38.
  • Eutelsat II F1 - . Mass: 1,878 kg (4,140 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 20777 . COSPAR: 1990-079B. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 13 deg E. Telecommunications satellite. Registered by France in ST/SG/SER.E/234 and 239 until EUTELSAT can register the satellite. EUTELSAT is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1990-1998; 48 deg E in 1999. As of 26 August 2001 located at 48.45 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 6.45E drifting at 3.328W degrees per day.

1991 January 15 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V41.
  • Eutelsat II F2 - . Mass: 1,878 kg (4,140 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 21056 . COSPAR: 1991-003B. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,759 km (22,219 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 10 deg E. Telecommunications satellite. Registered by France in ST/SG/SER.E/234 and 239 until EUTELSAT can register the satellite. EUTELSAT is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1991-1999 12 deg W in 1999-2000 As of 4 September 2001 located at 12.60 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.49E drifting at 4.801W degrees per day.

1991 March 2 - . 23:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V42.
  • Astra 1B - . Mass: 2,620 kg (5,770 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 5000. USAF Sat Cat: 21139 . COSPAR: 1991-015A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 19.2 deg E; European coverage. Astra 1B provides TV coverage to Western Europe. The satellite is owned and operated by Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES), a private company formed in 1985. Astra 1B is the second in a network of four satellites. SES acquired Astra 1B from DBS Crimson Satellite Associates while still under construction by GE Astro Space (as Satcom K3). Astra 1B is colocated with Astra 1A, and doubled the number of channels provided by the Astra network. Spacecraft: GE 5000 platform.3-axis stabilisation with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 20 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Solar arrays provide 4850 W BOL, 4 50 Ahr NiH batteries. GEO insertion provided by 2 500N bipropellant motors. Payload: 16 Ku-band transponders (with six spares) Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1991-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.20 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 92.40W drifting at 6.354W degrees per day.
  • Meteosat 5 - . Payload: MOP 2. Mass: 681 kg (1,501 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. USAF Sat Cat: 21140 . COSPAR: 1991-015B. Apogee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,434.90 min. Earth imaging for weather, climatology, atmospheric physics; 4 deg E. Geostationary meteorological satellite, operating within the world-wide network of the World Weather Watch of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Its main missions are: imaging in the visible, infrared and water vapour region of the spectrum. Dat a reception from so called Data Collection Platforms (DCPs); data distribution to meteorological services and other interested parties (research institutes, etc). Launch time 2336:00 UT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 4 deg W in 1991; 1 deg W in 1991; 4 deg W in 1991-1992; 1 deg W in 1992; 8 deg W in 1993-1997; 9 deg W in 1997-1998; 63 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.77 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 1 located at 63.15E drifting at 0.006E degrees per day.

1991 July 17 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40 V44.
  • ERS 1 - . Mass: 2,384 kg (5,255 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: ERS 1-2. USAF Sat Cat: 21574 . COSPAR: 1991-050A. Apogee: 775 km (481 mi). Perigee: 774 km (480 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.30 min. Microwave, IR imaging of oceans, ice and land; SAR. ERS-1 was an Earth exploration satellite, using active and passive sensors for oceanography etc. Frequency plan: 2048.85/2225 MHz (TTC), 7225.2960/8489 MHz (PRARE), 8040, 8140 MHz (data transmission). Launch time 0146:31 UT. Designator ESA/91/02.

1991 December 7 - . 22:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. LV Configuration: Atlas II AC-102 / Centaur II 8102.
  • Eutelsat II F3 - . Mass: 1,874 kg (4,131 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 21803 . COSPAR: 1991-083A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 16 deg E. Telecommunications satellite. French registration 1991-8. Transfer orbit was 663 min, 200 x 36000 km x 7.0 deg. Registered by France in ST/SG/SER.E/249 until EUTELSAT can register the satellite. EUTELSAT is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organi zation. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg E in 1992-1998; 36 deg E in 1999. As of 1 September 2001 located at 21.51 deg E drifting at 0.017 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.40E drifting at 3.531W degrees per day.

1992 April 9 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9BM1. LV Configuration: Black Brant 9BM1 MASER 5.
  • MASER 5 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi).

1992 May 15 - .
  • ESA Astronaut Training Group 1 selected. - . Nation: Europe. Related Persons: Merchez. Summary: European Space Agency astronaut sent to Russia for cosmonaut training..

1992 July 9 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V51.
  • Eutelsat II F4 - . Mass: 1,877 kg (4,138 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 22028 . COSPAR: 1992-041B. Apogee: 35,841 km (22,270 mi). Perigee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,438.00 min. Summary: Stationed at 7 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 7 deg E in 1992-1999; 10 deg E in 1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 25.62 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 120.18E drifting at 4.301W degrees per day..

1992 July 10 - .
  • Giotto Flyby of Comet Grigg-Skjellerup - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Giotto.

1992 July 31 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-46.
  • Eureca-1 - . Payload: Atlantis F12 / Eureca 1 / TSS 1. Mass: 4,491 kg (9,900 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft: Eureca. Decay Date: 1993-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22065 . COSPAR: 1992-049B. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 484 km (300 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Microgravity experiments; deployed from STS-46 8/2/92; retrieved by STS-57; European Retrievable Carrier. EURECA is a European scientific and technology mission, launched by the US Space Transportation System. The spacecraft is scheduled to be retrieved likewise by the US/STS in late spring/early summer 1993. Designator ESA/92/01. Frequency plan: 2053.4583/22 30 MHz, 28 GHz/ 18 GHz (data-relay via Olympus).

1993 January - .
  • XMM Project Team established. - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: XMM.

1993 May 12 - . 00:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. LV Configuration: Ariane 42L V56.
  • Astra 1C - . Mass: 2,790 kg (6,150 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 22653 . COSPAR: 1993-031A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 1.2 deg E. TV distribution services to Western Europe and the Canary Islands under franchise from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Contracted and controlled by the private company formed in 1985 called Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES). This is the third in a series of 4 medium power satellites, and will act primarily as Astra 1A's backup. Spacecraft: HS-601 platform.3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels.1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. Payload: 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA 10.95-11.200 Ghz down Ku-band European beams in 250 Mhz band adjacent (below) to Astra 1A, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.21 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 4.54E drifting at 0.051E degrees per day.

1993 November 20 - . 01:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V61.
  • Meteosat 6 - . Payload: MOP 3. Mass: 704 kg (1,552 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. USAF Sat Cat: 22912 . COSPAR: 1993-073B. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 2.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 0 deg. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg W in 1994-1997; deg W in 1997-1998; 9 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 9.14 deg W drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 36.89E drifting at 0.610E degrees per day.

1994 January 24 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP+ V63. FAILURE: Stage 3 turbopump overheated.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Eutelsat II F5 - . Mass: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. Decay Date: 1994-01-24 . COSPAR: F940124A. Summary: Launched with Turksat 1..

1994 October - .
  • XMM Prime Contractor selected. - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: XMM.

1994 November 1 - . 00:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. LV Configuration: Ariane 42P+ V69.
  • Astra 1D - . Mass: 2,924 kg (6,446 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23331 . COSPAR: 1994-070A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0200 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. European DBS and radio. Stationed at 19.29 deg E. TV distribution services to Western Europe and the Canary Islands under franchise from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Contracted and controlled by the private company formed in 1985 called Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES). This is the last in a series of 4 medium power satellites, and will act primarily as Astra 1B and 1C's backup. It will also carry four 12.5 Ghz BSS transponders that can be combined for HDTV. Spacecraft: HS-601 platform.3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels.1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. Payload: 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA 10.75-10.95 Ghz FSS (&12.5 Ghz BSS) down Ku-band European beams in 250 Mhz band adjacent (below) to Astra 1C, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1995-1998; 28 deg E in 1998; 19 deg E in 1998-1999; 28 deg E in 2000.- As of 3 September 2001 located at 24.18 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 23.50E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

1995 March 28 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP+ V71.
  • Hot Bird 1 - . Payload: Eutelsat HB1. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 23537 . COSPAR: 1995-016B. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Stationed at 13.0 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 12.93 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 160.81W drifting at 3.441W degrees per day..

1995 April 21 - . 01:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40+ V72.
  • ERS 2 - . Mass: 2,516 kg (5,546 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: ERS 1-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23560 . COSPAR: 1995-021A. Apogee: 785 km (487 mi). Perigee: 784 km (487 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.50 min. Summary: European Remote Sensing; carried SAR; ocean, land, ice, and atmospheric observations..

1995 October 19 - . 00:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. LV Configuration: Ariane 42L-3 V79.
  • Astra 1E - . Mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23686 . COSPAR: 1995-055A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Western Europe digital TV; 18 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 19.2 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.16 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.18E drifting at 0.019W degrees per day.

1995 November 17 - . 01:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P. LV Configuration: Ariane 44P-3 V80.
  • ISO - . Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: ISO. Completed Operations Date: 1998-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 23715 . COSPAR: 1995-062A. Apogee: 70,504 km (43,809 mi). Perigee: 1,110 km (680 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,417.80 min. Summary: Infrared Space Observatory; IR astrophysics. As of 6 September 2001 located at 168.62 deg E drifting at 5.004 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 6 located at 167.18W drifting at 5.668E degrees per day..

1995 December 2 - . 08:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-121.
  • SOHO - . Mass: 1,850 kg (4,070 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SOHO. USAF Sat Cat: 23726 . COSPAR: 1995-065A. Apogee: 671,400 km (417,100 mi). Perigee: 8,973 km (5,575 mi). Inclination: 29.6000 deg. Period: 29,196.30 min. Summary: Solar and Heliospheric Observatory; orbiting at L1 Lagrange point; solar physics. En route Earth-Sun L1 point Earth-Sun L1 libration point transfer trajectory. Inertial trajectory option..

1996 March - .
  • XMM Development begins - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: XMM.

1996 April 8 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 390-01.
  • Astra 1F - . Mass: 3,010 kg (6,630 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23842 . COSPAR: 1996-021A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 19.3E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.16 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.18E drifting at 0.016W degrees per day..

1996 June 4 - . 12:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V88 (501). FAILURE: Vehicle went off course and was destroyed by range safety. Reuse of flight software from Ariane 4 was the cause (faulty program logic that only took effect on Ariane 5 launch trajectory).. Failed Stage: G.
  • Cluster F1 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster. COSPAR: F960604A. The Cluster satellites were a series of sophisticated earth-observation platforms that were to be launched aboard the first Ariane 5. The explosion of the booster led to a costly setback for European space science. There were no back-up spacecraft. Some instruments may fly on other future satellites.
  • Cluster F2 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster. COSPAR: F960604B.
  • Cluster F3 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster. COSPAR: F960604C.
  • Cluster F4 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster. COSPAR: F960604D.

1997 March - .
  • Construction of XMM spacecraft begins - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: XMM.

1997 September 2 - . 22:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP-3 V99.
  • Hot Bird 3 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 24931 . COSPAR: 1997-049A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,762 km (22,221 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 13.3E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 12.96 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 3.94E drifting at 0.003W degrees per day..
  • Meteosat 7 - . Payload: MTP 1. Nation: Europe. Agency: Eumetsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. USAF Sat Cat: 24932 . COSPAR: 1997-049B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geosynchronous. Stationed over 10.2W Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg W in 1997-1998; deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 0.68 deg E drifting at 0.036 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 57.39E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

1997 October 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan Centaur 401B. LV Configuration: Titan 401B B-33 /Centaur (45E-13).
  • Huygens - . Nation: Europe. Agency: NASA. Spacecraft: Cassini. USAF Sat Cat: 25008 . COSPAR: 1997-061xx.

1997 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V101 (502).
  • MAQSAT-H/TEAMSAT - . Payload: MAQSAT-H. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Kayser-Threde. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MAQSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 25023 . COSPAR: 1997-066A. Apogee: 26,504 km (16,468 mi). Perigee: 545 km (338 mi). Inclination: 7.6000 deg. Period: 465.70 min. Summary: Dummy communications satellite instrumented to report the actual payload bay environment during launch. It included the TEAMSAT technology experiment payload, developed by ESTEC.
  • YES - . Payload: Young Engineers Satellite. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: ESTEC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: YES. USAF Sat Cat: 25025 . COSPAR: 1997-066C. Apogee: 26,604 km (16,530 mi). Perigee: 558 km (346 mi). Inclination: 7.6000 deg. Period: 467.70 min. Summary: Young Engineers Satellite with several technology experiments. Ejected from MAQSAT-H/TEAMSAT..
  • MAQSAT-B/EPS - . Payload: MAQSAT-B. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Kayser-Threde. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MAQSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 25024 . COSPAR: 1997-066B. Apogee: 26,549 km (16,496 mi). Perigee: 541 km (336 mi). Inclination: 7.6000 deg. Period: 466.40 min. Summary: Dummy satellite in the lower bay of the SPELTRA dual launch adapter..

1997 December 2 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 382-02.
  • Astra 1G - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25071 . COSPAR: 1997-076A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 23.9E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.18 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.17E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day..

1998 January 26 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion DLR K-NO2-230.
  • SSC MERMAID Microgravity / education mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SSC; DLR. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1998 February 27 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. LV Configuration: Ariane 42P-3 V106.
  • Hot Bird 4 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25237 . COSPAR: 1998-013A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Summary: Geostationary at 13.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 2 June 2001 located at 14.35 deg E drifting at 0.065 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 7.18W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

1998 August 1 - .
  • ESA Astronaut Training Group 3 selected. - . Nation: Europe. Related Persons: De Winne; Kuipers. Summary: European Space Agency astronauts sent to Russia for cosmonaut training..

1998 August 30 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 383-01.
  • Astra 2A - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25462 . COSPAR: 1998-050A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The first burn of the Proton's Block DM3 put the spacecraft into a 220 x 36,007 km x 51.6 deg transfer orbit. Astra 2A satellite was a Hughes HS-601, owned by Societe Europeene de Satellites, based in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has not registered any of the Astra satellites with the United Nations, in violation of treaty requirements. Geostationary at 28.3 degrees E. Used HS-601 XIPS ion engine for station keeping. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 28.21 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.20E drifting at 0.028W degrees per day.

1998 October 5 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V111.
  • Eutelsat W2 - . Payload: Eutelsat W2. Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 25491 . COSPAR: 1998-056A. Apogee: 36,086 km (22,422 mi). Perigee: 36,056 km (22,404 mi). Inclination: 1.7000 deg. Period: 1,450.70 min. Summary: Geostationary at 16.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 16.17 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 16.01E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

1998 November 24 - . 09:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Maxus. LV Configuration: Maxus MAXUS 3.
  • Biological/Physics mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SSC; ESA. Apogee: 713 km (443 mi).

1999 April 12 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-154.
  • Eutelsat W3 - . Payload: Spacebus 3000B2. Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 25673 . COSPAR: 1999-018A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite is for the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization. The vehicle entered a 153 km x 385 km x 27.4 deg parking orbit nine minutes after launch. The second Centaur stage burn delivered the satellite to a 166 km x 46,076 km x 19.7 deg super-synchronous transfer orbit. The satellite was stationed at 7 deg E and carried 24 Ku-band transponders with a wide beam covering Europe, North Africa and Asia, and a spot beam for digital TV to Turkey. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 7 deg E in 1999. As of 26 August 2001 located at 7.01 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 21.59E drifting at 0.003E degrees per day.

1999 June 18 - . 01:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 397-02.
  • Astra 1H - . Payload: HS-601HP . Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 25785 . COSPAR: 1999-033A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 19 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.12 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.23E drifting at 0.019W degrees per day.

1999 July 1 - .
  • Giotto, Earth Flyby - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Giotto.

1999 September - .
  • XMM integration/testing completed - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: XMM.

1999 December 10 - . 14:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V119 (504).
  • XMM - . Mass: 3,764 kg (8,298 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: XMM. USAF Sat Cat: 25989 . COSPAR: 1999-066A. Apogee: 104,406 km (64,874 mi). Perigee: 16,709 km (10,382 mi). Inclination: 62.5000 deg. Period: 2,872.40 min. Summary: ESA's X-ray Multi-Mirror space observatory was the biggest science satellite ever built in Europe. Complementary in characteristics to NASA's Chandra satellite, the spacecraft were expected to make major new astronomical discoveries..

2000 March 20 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U/Fregat - ST08.
  • Dumsat - . Mass: 2,382 kg (5,251 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Starsem. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 26106 . COSPAR: 2000-015A. Apogee: 17,687 km (10,990 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 316.60 min. Summary: Cluster 2 Composite Mock-Up validation flight. Mass model of a pair of Cluster II scientific satellites built by Aerospatiale Matra. Second test launch of the Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle..

2000 March 21 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V128 (505).
  • Asiastar - . Mass: 2,778 kg (6,124 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Worldspace. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Worldspace. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 26107 . COSPAR: 2000-016A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Direct Radio Broadcasting satelllite. First night launch of Ariane 5. Worldspace's second digital radio satellite. Joined Afristar in orbit with a mission of providing radio broadcasting to the developing world. Stationed at 105 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 104.96 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 104.99E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

2000 April 17 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 397-01.
  • Sesat - . Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 26243 . COSPAR: 2000-019A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,771 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Sesat (Siberia-Europe Satellite) used an MSS-2500-GSO (Gals/Ekspress) satellite bus built by NPO PM of Krasnoyarsk, with an Alcatel Espace France payload of 18 Ku-band transponders. The satellite had 8 Fakel SPD-100 plasma thrusters for stationkeeping. Eutelsat operated their Hot Bird fleet of European television broadcast satellites since the 1980's, but the venture into broadcasting to Siberia represented a new step for them. Stationed at 36 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 39 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 35.97 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 35.92E drifting at 0.004E degrees per day.

2000 May 24 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. Launch Pad: SLC36B. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIIA. LV Configuration: Atlas 3A AC-201.
  • Eutelsat W4 - . Mass: 3,190 kg (7,030 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26369 . COSPAR: 2000-028A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Maiden flight of Atlas IIIA with Russian RD-180 main engine; scrubbed four times. European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Eutelsat) satellite equipped with 32 Ku-band transponders, and antennae covering Russia and Africa. It will be stationed at 36 deg E. This was the third of the high power Eutelsat W series to be launched (W1 was destroyed in a ground accident). Stationed at 36 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 32 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 35.98 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 36.08E drifting at 0.005E degrees per day.

2000 July 16 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U/Fregat A15000-069 ST09.
  • Samba - . Payload: Cluster 2-FM6. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26410 . COSPAR: 2000-041A. Apogee: 116,279 km (72,252 mi). Perigee: 21,449 km (13,327 mi). Inclination: 88.5000 deg. Period: 3,423.40 min. The first two European Space Agency Cluster II satellites, Samba (FM7) and Salsa (FM6) were launched into an initial 200 km / 64.8 deg circular orbit. The Fregat upper stage then burned once before ejecting the satellites into a 250 x 18072 km x 64.7 deg transfer orbit. Both satellites then used their Astrium (former MBB) S400 liquid engines in a series of four additional burns before reaching their final 16869 x 121098 km x 90.6 deg orbits. Each magnetosphere research satellite deployed four 50-meter wire antennas.
  • Salsa - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26411 . COSPAR: 2000-041B. Apogee: 116,294 km (72,261 mi). Perigee: 21,430 km (13,310 mi). Inclination: 88.6000 deg. Period: 3,423.20 min.

2000 August 9 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U/Fregat A15000-070 ST10.
  • Rumba - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26463 . COSPAR: 2000-045A. Apogee: 116,297 km (72,263 mi). Perigee: 21,430 km (13,310 mi). Inclination: 88.5000 deg. Period: 3,423.30 min.
  • Tango - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26464 . COSPAR: 2000-045B. Apogee: 116,300 km (72,200 mi). Perigee: 21,430 km (13,310 mi). Inclination: 88.5000 deg. Period: 3,423.40 min. Rumba and Tango were the second pair of Cluster II magnetospheric research satellites of the European Space Agency. A series of five burns of the Fregat stage took them from an initial 190 km / 64.8 degree parking orbit to their final 17,200 x 120,600 km orbits inclined 90 degrees to the equator. They then separated from the Fregat and took up operations.

2000 September 6 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P. LV Configuration: Ariane 44P-3 V132.
  • Eutelsat W1 - . Mass: 3,250 kg (7,160 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 26487 . COSPAR: 2000-052A. Apogee: 35,812 km (22,252 mi). Perigee: 35,760 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. European Telecommunications Satellite Organization's Eutelsat W1 was launched into a geostationary transfer orbit, targetted for a final 10 deg E orbital position. The box-shaped 2.5 x 5.0 m satellite has two rectangular solar panel arrays spanning 31.7m and two dishes, a European beam and a steerable beam. The payload includes 28 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 10 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 1 deg E in 2000. As of 1 September 2001 located at 9.92 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 10.05E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.

2000 September 14 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V130 (506).
  • Astra 2B - . Mass: 3,320 kg (7,310 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 26494 . COSPAR: 2000-054A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Direct Broadcasting satellite. Launch postponed from July 25. Astra 2B was an Astrium/Toulouse Eurostar 2000+ television broadcast satellite owned by the Luxembourg-based Societe Europeene de Satellites. The satellite was to be stationed at 28.2E to replace the German DFS Kopernikus. It carried 28 Ku-band transponders. By September 19 Astra 2B was in a 31,153 x 35,762 km x 0.3 deg orbit, approaching geosynchronous altitude. Stationed at 28 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 2000. As of 20 August 2001 located at 28.50 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.15E drifting at 0.017W degrees per day.

2000 December 20 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V138 (508).
  • Astra 2D - . Mass: 1,414 kg (3,117 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 26638 . COSPAR: 2000-081A. Apogee: 35,895 km (22,304 mi). Perigee: 35,886 km (22,298 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,441.41 min. Astra 2D was a Boeing 376HP spin-stabilised satellite, with a dry mass of around 700 kg. It was owned by the Luxembourg-based company SES and was to broadcast to the British Isles. Astra 2D was in a 292 x 35835 km x 2.2 deg transfer orbit on December 22 and was subsequently boosted into geosynchronous orbit by its Star 30 apogee kick motor. The 825 kg (dry mass) satellite carried 16 Ku-band transponders to provide direct-to-home voice, video, and data transmissions to Britain and neighboring countries after parking over 28.2 deg-E longitude. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 2001 As of 3 September 2001 located at 28.17 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.17E drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.

2001 March 8 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V140 (509).
  • Eurobird - . Payload: Eutelsat W1R. Mass: 3,050 kg (6,720 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26719 . COSPAR: 2001-011A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Launch delayed from March 2. Eurobird was a Spacebus 3000B3 built by Alcatel (Cannes). It was the 18th member of the European Eutelsat consortium's geosynchronous constellation and carried 24 Ku-band transponders to provide broad bandwidth and high power direct-to-home transmissions to enable digital entertainment and internet connections. The three tonne (with fuel) satellite was to be parked over 28.5 deg-E longitude, replacing the aging Copernicus (Kopernikus (DFS 3), 1992-066A). Dry mass was probably around 1300 kg. The satellite had an Astrium S400 bipropellant engine. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 2001 As of 4 September 2001 located at 28.50 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 28.52E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.

2001 April 29 - . 11:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Maxus. LV Configuration: Maxus MAXUS 4.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SSC; ESA. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi).

2001 June 16 - . 01:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 403-02.
  • Astra 2C - . Mass: 3,728 kg (8,218 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 26853 . COSPAR: 2001-025A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from June 11. Astra 2C was a European (SES - Societe Europeene des Satellites, Luxembourg) geosynchronous communications Boeing 601HP spacecraft. The 3.7 tonne (including 1.2 tonne of fuel), 8 kW satellite was the fifth in the Astra series. It carried 32 Ku-band transponders to provide voice, video, and data links to Western Europe through a pair of 3 m diameter dishes, after parking over 28.2 deg-E longitude. As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.13 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.23E drifting at 0.024W degrees per day.

2001 July 12 - . 21:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V142 (510).
  • Artemis - . Mass: 3,105 kg (6,845 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26863 . COSPAR: 2001-029A. Apogee: 32,586 km (20,247 mi). Perigee: 32,451 km (20,164 mi). Inclination: 1.1000 deg. Period: 1,272.40 min. Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite designed to test new communications technologies. The Ariane 510 vehicle failed to reach its correct orbit. The solid boosters and main stage worked as planned and put the EPS upper stage in the planned near-suborbital trajectory. The EPS stage then fired but the Aestus engine failed to reach full thrust and cut off 1 minute early. Instead of the planned 858 x 35853 km orbit, only a 592 x 17528 km orbit was reached. The 3.1 tonne (with fuel), 2.5 kW spacecraft carried two pairs of ion engines and had adequate xenon propellant for those engines to reach geosynchronous altitude. This was the first ever rescue of a satellite mission using electric propulsion. The satellite reached its operational orbit in 31 January 2003.using the four German RITA electric xenon thrusters. Artemis could then function as originally planned, as there remained sufficient chemical propellant for 10 years’ operation. Artemis was to provide voice and data communications between mobile phones in Europe and North America, and act as a relay satellite between low-Earth orbiters and ground stations. Eventually, as part of the planned EGNOS system (to be operational by about 2010) it was to provide navigation/location determination as an independent European counterpart to the GPS and GLONASS fleets. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 21.40E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.

2001 September 25 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P. LV Configuration: Ariane 44P-3 V144.
  • Atlantic Bird 2 - . Mass: 3,149 kg (6,942 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26927 . COSPAR: 2001-042A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Ariane V144 placed the Atlantic Bird 2 satellite in geostationary transfer orbit. Atlantic Bird 2 was an Alcatel/Cannes Spacebus 3000B2 Ku-band communications satellite owned by the European consortium Eutelsat. It replaced the Telecom 2A satellite at 8 deg W. AB-2 had a dry mass of 1368 kg and a launch mass of 3150 kg. Atlantic Bird 1, built by Alenia, was to be launched at a later date. The spacecraft was the twenty-second member of the fleet. and was to provide high-speed television, video streaming, radio and internet services between North and South America, and Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, through its 26 Ku-band transponders. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 8.04W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.

2001 October 22 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C3.
  • PROBA - . Mass: 1,108 kg (2,442 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: PROBA. USAF Sat Cat: 26958 . COSPAR: 2001-049B. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 553 km (343 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Proba (PRoject for On-Board Autonomy, 1) was a European Space Agency technology development minisatellite with a mass of 94 kg. It carried a radiation detector, an IR spectrometer, debris impact detectors, Earth imaging cameras, and an experimental spacecraft processor for spacecraft autonomy experiments. The satellite was built by Verheart in Belgium using the MiniSIL bus developed by SI of England, and was controlled from Belgium. After release of the TES and BIRD satellites, the PS4's upper stage small RCS engines raised the orbit to 553 x 676 km, and PROBA was ejected at 0520 GMT.

2002 March 1 - . 01:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V145 (511).
  • Envisat - . Mass: 7,991 kg (17,617 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Arianespace. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Envisat. USAF Sat Cat: 27386 . COSPAR: 2002-009A. Apogee: 785 km (487 mi). Perigee: 783 km (486 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.50 min. This launch was the first Ariane 5 to use the 17-m Long Fairing and the first to launch north from Kourou. The booster placed the European Space Agency's Envisat polar platform in orbit. The flight profile was quite different from earlier Ariane 5 GTO launches where the EPC core stage usually reached a marginal orbit. In this case EPC separation at 350 km high 10 min after launch. The stage was on a -2610 x 651 km x 93.8 deg orbit, reaching apogee around 0125 UTC and reentering north of Ellesmere Island at about 0136 UTC. The EPS final stage with Envisat only achieved a positive perigee at 22 minutes after launch, with a circular 790 km sun-synchronous orbit reached at 25 min after launch. ESA reported the booster put the satellite to within 20 m of the desired orbital position.

2002 March 29 - . 01:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V149.
  • Astra 3A - . Mass: 1,495 kg (3,295 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 27399 . COSPAR: 2002-015A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Launch delayed from mid-March. After the Ariane third stage reached geostationary transfer orbit, JCSAT 8 separated, followed by the Mini-Spelda adapter, followed by Astra 3A. Astra 3A was a Boeing BSS-376HP, with a mass of 1495 kg full and about 750 kg empty. It joined Luxembourg-based SES Astra's fleet. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 153.96E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

2002 August 21 - . 22:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. Launch Pad: SLC41. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas V 401. LV Configuration: Atlas V 401 AV-001.
  • Hot Bird 6 - . Mass: 3,905 kg (8,609 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 27499 . COSPAR: 2002-038A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. This was the maiden flight of the Atlas 5 EELV. Launch delayed from May 9, July 8 and 29, August 6 and 12 due to both payload and booster delays. Hot Bird 6 was a European (EUTELSAT) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 4.9-ton Hot Bird 6 (a Spacebus 3000B3) was to provide digital radio and television coverage to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East through its 28 Ku-band and four Ka-band transponders after being parked over 13° E longitude. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 12.95E drifting at 0.012E degrees per day.

2002 August 28 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V155 (513).
  • Atlantic Bird 1 - . Mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Alenia. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 27508 . COSPAR: 2002-040A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from August 27. Atlantic Bird was a European (EUTELSAT) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 2.7-ton (1550 kg dry with 1150 propellant), 5 kW satellite was to provide voice, video, and Internet services to Europe and the eastern part of America through its 24 transponders after being parked over 12.5° W. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 12.49W drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.
  • MSG 1 - . Mass: 2,010 kg (4,430 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: MSG. USAF Sat Cat: 27509 . COSPAR: 2002-040B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 1.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from August 27. MSG 1 (Meteosat Second Generation 1) was a European (EUMETSAT consortium) geostationary weather satellite. After first being parked over 10° E longitude for six months it was later to be moved to zero degree longitude. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 3.50W drifting at 0.015W degrees per day.

2002 September 12 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C4.
  • METSAT - . Payload: Metsat 1. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Metsat. USAF Sat Cat: 27525 . COSPAR: 2002-043A. Apogee: 35,809 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. METSAT 1 was an Indian (ISRO) meteorological, geostationary satellite that was launched by an upgraded, four-stage PSLV-C4 rocket. The satellite was manoeuvred from the transfer orbit to a geostationary postion at 37° E longitude on September 16, and then was parked at 74° E longitude on September 24. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.00E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

2002 October 17 - . 04:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/17S40. LV Configuration: Proton-K/17S40 (DM2) 409-01.
  • Integral - . Mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Astronomy. Type: Gamma ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Integral. USAF Sat Cat: 27540 . COSPAR: 2002-048A. Apogee: 153,435 km (95,339 mi). Perigee: 9,283 km (5,768 mi). Inclination: 53.4000 deg. Period: 4,310.60 min. Summary: INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) was a European (ESA) astrophysics satellite. The orbit had a very high apogee to escape magnetospheric radiation..

2002 November 20 - . 22:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Pad: SLC37B. LV Family: Delta IV. Launch Vehicle: Delta IV Medium+ (4.2). LV Configuration: Delta 4M+(4,2) D4-1 (293) 4240.
  • Eutelsat W5 - . Payload: W1A. Mass: 3,170 kg (6,980 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 27554 . COSPAR: 2002-051A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Maiden flight of the Delta 4 EELV booster, delayed due to development problems from January and November 2001, April 30, July 15, August 31, October 9, November 3, 16 and 19. EUTELSAT W5 was a European (EUTELSAT Consortium) geostationary communication spacecraft. EUTELSAT W5 was to provide voice, video, and Internet services to all countries in western Europe, central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent through its 24 Ku-band transponders after being parked over 70.5° E longitude. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 70.55E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

2002 November 25 - . 23:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 408-02. FAILURE: The Block DM upper stage failed to ignite for its second burn, leaving the satellite in parking orbit.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Astra 1K - . Mass: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. Decay Date: 2002-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 27557 . COSPAR: 2002-053A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 244 km (151 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Delayed from December 2001 and July 15, August 16 and 25. Astra 1K was to be a European (Luxembourg-based) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 5.0-ton, 13-kW spacecraft was the most massive of civilian communications spacecraft ever launched. Its 52 Ku-band and two Ka-band transponders could cover 1,100 channels and were to replace three earlier Astra satellites. However the DM-3 upper stage, after operating successfully to place itself and the satellite in parking orbit, failed to ignite for transfer orbit injection, leaving the spacecraft stranded in parking orbit. In an effort to prevent imminent re-entry, the spacecraft was raised to a circular orbit at an altitude of 290 km. Three options were considered: force re-entry over the Pacific Ocean; retrieval by a US shuttle; or use of all the fuel aboard the satellite to attempt to move it to a geostationary orbit at 19.2° E longitude. The decision was taken in December to deorbit the spacecraft, resulting in a huge insurance loss and bringing into question both continued use of the Block D series of upper stages and the 'bigger is better' comsat philosophy.

2002 December 11 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5ECA V157 (517). FAILURE: The Ariane 5 core's Vulcain-2 engine began failing at T+178 seconds. The rocket veered off course and the destruct signal was sent.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Hot Bird 7 - . Mass: 3,350 kg (7,380 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. COSPAR: F20021211A. Summary: Maiden flight of Ariane 5 EC-A. Delayed from October, November 20 and 28. Hot Bird 7, a Eutelsat geostationary communications satellite, was lost in the failed first flight of the Ariane 5 EC-A. Value of the lost satellite was Euro 250 million..

2003 April 1 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Maxus. LV Configuration: Maxus MAXUS 5.
  • Maxus 5 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SSC; ESA. Apogee: 701 km (435 mi). Summary: Suborbital microgravity payload. Launch delayed from 31 March..

2003 June 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG/Fregat E15000-005/ST11.
  • Mars Express (F-1) / Mars Orbiter / Beagle 2 - . Mass: 1,120 kg (2,460 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars Express. USAF Sat Cat: 27816 . COSPAR: 2003-022A. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Europe's first probe to Mars. Mars Express had a mass of 637 kg dry, including science payload and Beagle separation device, together with 480 kg of propellant and the 69 kg Beagle 2 lander, for a total of 1186 kg. In addition to this a 37 kg adapter remained attached to the Fregat upper stage. Mars Express was placed into a 1.014 x 1.531 AU x 0.2 deg orbit around the Sun, following a course correction on June 5. The launch was first moved forward from June 1 and May 31 to May 23. Then delayed to June 6, then moved forward to June 2.

2003 September 10 - .
  • Cassini makes course correction. - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Cassini. The Cassini probe to Saturn made a course correction burn at 2000 UTC, changing its velocity by 0.12m/s. At the time Cassini was 1284 million km from the Sun, in an orbit of 1.4462 AU x 9.2769 AU with an inclination of 0.81 deg to the ecliptic plane and the correction altered the orbit by about ten parts per million. On September 14 Cassini was 137 million km from Saturn; Saturn's nominal gravitational sphere of influence is 55 million km in radius and Cassini was to reach that point on 2004 March 10, 2004. The probe was to make a 2000 km flyby of the Saturnian moon Phoebe on June 11, 2004.

2003 September 27 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V162.
  • SMART-1 - . Mass: 370 kg (810 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Space probe technology. Spacecraft: SMART-1. USAF Sat Cat: 27951 . COSPAR: 2003-043x. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.0900 deg. Period: 1,436.06 min. European Space Agency satellite which was to use ion drive and gravity assists to reach lunar orbit. The spacecraft made its third lunar resonance gravity assist on October 12, 2004. The continued gravitational effect of the Moon resulted in lunar capture on November 15, 2004,, when SMART-1 entered a 4962 x 51,477 km orbit around the Moon inclined at 81 degrees to the lunar equator.
  • E-Bird - . Payload: BSS-376HP. Mass: 1,525 kg (3,362 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 27948 . COSPAR: 2003-043B. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0500 deg. Period: 1,436.06 min. Last flight of the Ariane 5G. Launch delayed from July 15, August 22 and 28, September 3. The e-Bird was to service high-speed access networks providing both forward and return links via satellite. The spacecraft carried 20 active Ku-band transponders, each powered by a 33-watt traveling wave tube amplifier. The Ku-band transponders were connected to four spot beams that would provide coverage over Europe and Turkey. The spacecraft was to operate at 33 degrees East longitude, and had a contract life of 10 years.

2003 September 30 - .
  • SMART-1, Ion Engine Turn On, Successful - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: SMART-1.

2003 December 25 - .
  • Mars Express, Mars Orbit Insertion, Successful - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Mars Express.

2004 January 28 - .
2004 March 2 - . 07:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5Gp. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G+ V158 (518).
  • Rosetta - . Mass: 3,065 kg (6,757 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Comet. Type: Comet probe. Spacecraft: Rosetta. USAF Sat Cat: 28169 . COSPAR: 2004-006A. Summary: Launch delayed from January 13, 2003, February 26 and 27, 2004..

2004 March 15 - . 23:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton-M/Briz-M 535-03.
  • W3A - . Payload: Eurostar 3000S. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 28187 . COSPAR: 2004-008A. Apogee: 35,811 km (22,251 mi). Perigee: 35,761 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Moved from Ariane 5. The satellite was to provide a full range of telecommunications applications including digital DVB broadcasting, multimedia, broadband access and pay-per-use bandwidth for corporate networks over a large zone covering Europe and Africa, for a minimum of 12 years. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 6.95E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.

2004 November 15 - .
  • SMART-1, Moon Orbit Insertion, Successful - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: SMART-1.

2004 November 22 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Maxus. LV Configuration: Maxus MAXUS 6.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SSC; ESA. Apogee: 706 km (438 mi).

2005 February 12 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5 EC-A V164 City of Bremen.
  • Maqsat-B2 - . Mass: 3,622 kg (7,985 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Kayser-Threde. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Maqsat. USAF Sat Cat: 28543 . COSPAR: 2005-005B. Apogee: 35,409 km (22,002 mi). Perigee: 258 km (160 mi). Inclination: 6.7000 deg. Period: 624.90 min. Summary: Maqsat was a test payload built by Kayser-Threde to study the Ariane 5ECA launch environment. Remained attached to the upper stage..

2005 May 10 - .
  • Mars Express, Deployment of MARSIS Instrument, first Boom, Successful - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Mars Express.

2005 June 13 - .
  • Mars Express, second Deployment of MARSIS Instrument, Successful - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: Mars Express.

2005 August 1 - .
  • SMART-1, End of Primary Mission - . Nation: Europe. Spacecraft: SMART-1.

2005 October 8 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot. FAILURE: The first stage burned to depletion due to a missing command in the software sequence. This resulted in the second stage failing to separate.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • CryoSat - . Mass: 717 kg (1,580 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft: CryoSat. COSPAR: F20051008A. Summary: ESA Earth Explorer 1 mission failed to orbit. The satellite was to have used radar altimetry for environmental survey of polar ice with great accuracy. Delayed from November 2004, March 25, June 24, July 11, September 15 and 27, 2005..

2005 October 27 - . 06:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 104.
  • SSETI Express - . Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SSETI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSETI Express. USAF Sat Cat: 28894 . COSPAR: 2005-043E. Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Perigee: 682 km (423 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.70 min. Summary: Student-built technology satellite sponsored by the European Space Agency. It ejected three 1-kg Cubesats after separating from the booster, but then itself lost power less than 14 hours later..

2005 November 9 - . 03:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG/Fregat Zh15000-010.
  • Venus Express - . Mass: 1,270 kg (2,790 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venus Express. USAF Sat Cat: 28901 . COSPAR: 2005-045A. Launch delayed from October 26. The Soyuz placed the probe and Fregat upper stage into a 30 km x 190 km x 51.6 deg orbit around the earth. At apogee the Fregat stage made a 50 m/s maneuver to circularize the orbit. At the appropriate moment in this parking orbit, the Fregat fired again, then separated from the now Venus-bound probe at 05:11 GMT. Venus Express passed lunar orbit on November 10 at 10:10 GMT and went into a 0.702 AU x 0.993 AU x 0.26 deg inclination solar orbit. It was to brake itself into a 250 km x 326,550 km x 89.7 deg orbit around Venus on 11 April 2006 at 08:40 GMT. Two maneuvers would put in its final 24-hour Venus orbit of 282 x 66,911 km x 90.0 deg on 30 April. This was selected to synchronise the satellite with tracking stations on earth, while the planet slowly revolves below its perigee point over the following several months.

2005 December 21 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5GS. LV Configuration: Ariane 5GS V169.
  • MSG 2 - . Mass: 2,034 kg (4,484 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eumetsat. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: MSG. USAF Sat Cat: 28912 . COSPAR: 2005-049B. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Delayed from mid-February, March 15, June 2005. Meteosat Second Generation spin-stabilized weather satellite. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 0.11W drifting at 0.024W degrees per day..

2005 December 28 - . 05:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG/Fregat Zh15000-015.
  • Giove-A - . Payload: GSTB-V2/A / Heavily modified Surrey MiniSat-400. Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: MiniSat-400. USAF Sat Cat: 28922 . COSPAR: 2005-051A. Apogee: 23,360 km (14,510 mi). Perigee: 23,314 km (14,486 mi). Inclination: 56.2000 deg. Period: 849.60 min. Summary: Delayed from September, October, December 26. Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element, a prototype for the Galileo European navigation satellite network. Giove carried carried two rubidium atomic clocks and a large L-band phased array antenna..

2006 March 11 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5 EC-A V170.
  • Hot Bird 7A - . Payload: SB-3000B3. Mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Alenia. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 28946 . COSPAR: 2006-007B. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Hot Bird 7A had a dry mass of 1740 kg and a solar panel span of 36.9m. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 13.03E drifting at 0.010E degrees per day..

2006 April 11 - .
2006 April 11 - .
  • Venus Express arrives at Venus - . Nation: Europe. The 53-minute orbit insertion burn begain at 07:10 GMT and left VEx the spacecraft in a highly elliptical polar orbit around Venus with an apoapsis of 350,000 km. A series of further engine burns would place the satellite in a 257 x 70,463 km orbit by 23 April..

2006 May 2 - . 06:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Maxus. LV Configuration: Maxus MAXUS 7.
  • Maxus 7 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: SSC; ESA. Apogee: 702 km (436 mi). Suborbital microgravity mission. Kaiser-Threde developed a new payload service system for MAXUS 7, providing 2 independent TV-links with 2 high power HF transmitters and GPS. The recovery system was a BAL ORSA system, modified by Kaiser-Threde, including parachute from DLR.

2006 July 4 - .
2006 August 4 - . 21:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton-M/Briz-M 535-14.
  • Hot Bird 8 - . Mass: 4,875 kg (10,747 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 29270 . COSPAR: 2006-032A. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Ku-band communications direct broadcast satellite to supplement Eutelsat constellation of Hot Birds. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 13.03E drifting at 0.010E degrees per day..

2006 October 19 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz ST. LV Configuration: Soyuz-2-1A/Fregat Zh15000-003/ST16.
  • Metop-A - . Mass: 4,093 kg (9,023 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: RKA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Metop. USAF Sat Cat: 29499 . COSPAR: 2006-044A. Apogee: 817 km (507 mi). Perigee: 817 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.00 min. European polar weather satellite equipped with high-resolution visible and infrared cameras, a microwave sounder, ozone monitors, a GPS atmospheric sounding device, a wind scatterometer, and a search and rescue package. First launch of the Soyuz 2 version of the venerable Soyuz launch vehicle. The main change in this first version of the new booster was a digital control system. Problems with this system delayed the launch repeatedly.

2007 September 14 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz-U 098.
  • YES-2 - . Payload: Young Engineers Satellite. Mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: ESTEC. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: YES. COSPAR: 2007-040x. YES-2/Fotino space tether for re-entry experiment. The YES-2 tether was deployed from the Nauka module at the front end of Foton at 04:47 on 25 September, and releaed at 07:20 after reaching only 8.5 km of the planned 30 km tether length. The 5 kg Fotino reentry capsule separated from the MASS data support system at the end of the tether at around 07:30. The idea was to toss the Fotino against the direction of orbital motion to push it into a lower orbit and re-entry without the need for a retrorocket. Unfortunately the final outcome of the experiment remained unknown.

2008 April 26 - . 22:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
  • GIOVE B - . Mass: 530 kg (1,160 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Starsem. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Galileo Navsat. USAF Sat Cat: 32781 . COSPAR: 2008-020A. Apogee: 23,244 km (14,443 mi). Perigee: 23,104 km (14,356 mi). Inclination: 56.0000 deg. Period: 842.60 min. Second European Galileo navigation system test satellite. The booster placed the Giove/Fregat stack on a suborbital trajectory. The Fregat stage then burned to enter a a 170 km parking orbit. The stage burned at least twice more before releasing the satellite into its operational orbit.

2009 February 11 - . 22:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Hot Bird 10 - . Mass: 4,875 kg (10,747 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Arianespace. Program: Eutelsat. Spacecraft: Eurostar 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 33750 . COSPAR: 2009-008B. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min.

2009 March 17 - . 14:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • GOCE - . Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: KVR. Spacecraft: GOCE. USAF Sat Cat: 34602 . COSPAR: 2009-013A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 96.6000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Gravity-Field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer. Carried a gravity gradiometer..

2009 April 3 - . 16:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton/Briz M s/n P344.
  • Eutelsat W2A - . Payload: Spacebus 4000Cr. Mass: 5,900 kg (13,000 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ILS. Program: Eutelsat. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 34710 . COSPAR: 2009-016A. Apogee: 35,808 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Ku, S and C-band communications payload; stationed at 1.7 deg East..

2009 May 14 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
2009 November 2 - . 01:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot.
  • SMOS - . Nation: Europe. Agency: KVR. Spacecraft: Proteus. USAF Sat Cat: 36036 . COSPAR: 2009-059A. Apogee: 760 km (470 mi). Perigee: 759 km (471 mi). Inclination: 98.4000 deg. Period: 100.00 min. Summary: Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission, obtaining climate-related data using a microwave aperture-synthesis interferometer..
  • PROBA-2 - . Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: KVR. Spacecraft: MiniSil. USAF Sat Cat: 36037 . COSPAR: 2009-059B. Apogee: 729 km (452 mi). Perigee: 709 km (440 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Project for On-Board Autonomy technology satellite..

2009 November 24 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton/Briz M s/n P349.
  • Eutelsat W7 - . Payload: Spacebus 4000C4. Mass: 5,627 kg (12,405 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ILS. Program: Eutelsat. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 36101 . COSPAR: 2009-065A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite, replacing SESAT-1 in broadcasting and data services to Russia and Africa..

2010 April 8 - . 13:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n D-14.
  • Cryosat 2 - . Mass: 720 kg (1,580 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Cryosat. USAF Sat Cat: 36508 . COSPAR: 2010-013A. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi). Perigee: 713 km (443 mi). Inclination: 92.0000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Satellite carried a Ku-band radar to study the thickness of the polar ice caps. Launched to fulfill mission of Cryosat 1, which failed to reach orbit in 2005..

2010 October 28 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA.
  • Eutelsat W3B - . Payload: Spacebus 4000. Mass: 5,370 kg (11,830 lb). Nation: Europe. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 37206 . COSPAR: 2010-056A. Apogee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Perigee: 262 km (162 mi). Inclination: 1.8000 deg. Period: 631.90 min.

2010 December 26 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M.
  • Ka Sat - . Payload: KA-SAT . Mass: 6,150 kg (13,550 lb). Nation: Europe. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 37258 . COSPAR: 2010-069A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Ka band communications with 80 spot beams; 6150 kg loaded / 3200 kg unfuelled..

2011 February 16 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ES.
  • Johannes Kepler ATV 2 - . Payload: ATV 2. Mass: 19,712 kg (43,457 lb). Nation: Europe. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-26; ISS EO-25. Spacecraft: ATV. Duration: 125.00 days. Decay Date: 2011-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 37368 . COSPAR: 2011-007A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 343 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: ISS resupply; second European Space Agency Automated Transfer Vehicle. Docked with the ISS Zvezda module on 25 February. Undocked on 21 June at 14:46 GMT. Retrofire the same day at 20:04 GMT sent it to burn up over the Pacific Ocean..

2011 September 24 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiritimati. Launch Platform: Odyssey. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL.
  • Atlantic Bird 7 - . Nation: Europe. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 37816 . COSPAR: 2011-051A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Eutelsat's communications satellite. First mission by Sea Launch from the Odyssey floating launch platform after emerging from bankruptcy..

2011 October 7 - . 08:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3B. LV Configuration: CZ-3B(E).
  • Eutelsat W3C - . Payload: Spacebus 4000C3. Mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Nation: Europe. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 37836 . COSPAR: 2011-057A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite..

2011 October 21 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELS. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Galileo-PFM - . Nation: Europe. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Galileo Navsat. USAF Sat Cat: 37846 . COSPAR: 2011-060A. Apogee: 23,307 km (14,482 mi). Perigee: 23,234 km (14,436 mi). Inclination: 54.7000 deg. Period: 846.80 min. Summary: First Galileo navigation satellites launched to establish an autonomous European navigation satellite constellation. First Soyuz booster launch from the new Ensemble de Lancement Soyuz pad in Kourou..
  • Galileo-FM2 - . Nation: Europe. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Galileo Navsat. USAF Sat Cat: 37847 . COSPAR: 2011-060B. Apogee: 23,274 km (14,461 mi). Perigee: 23,228 km (14,433 mi). Inclination: 54.7000 deg. Period: 845.90 min.

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