Zaikin, Dmitri Alekseyevich
(1932-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1969.
Graduated from Military Fighter Pilot School, Armavir and Frunse (now: Bishkek), 1955. Graduated from Zhukovsky Military Engineering Academy, Monino, 1968. Cosmonaut training April 1960 - 1961. Left on medical grounds (stomach ulcer) while training for Soyuz missions. Instructor and lead engineer at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Retired from active military duty in 1987. Worked thereafter as an electronic engineer within the TsPK. Retired in 1996.
Birth Place: Yekaterinova, Rostov.
More... - Chronology...
Cosmonaut Category of persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia. More...
Voskhod 2 Crew: Belyayev, Leonov. First space walk. Speed and altitude records. A disaster: astronaut unable to reenter airlock due to spacesuit stiffness; cabin flooded with oxygen; manual reentry, landed in mountains, crew not recovered until next day. Further Voskhod flights cancelled. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Khrunov, Zaikin. More...
Soyuz A-2 Crew: Bykovsky, Artyukhin. The planned second manned Soyuz circumlunar mission in 1965 would have been commanded by Bykovsky. The cosmonauts trained docking with the 9K and 11K rocket stages for months before the mission concept was dumped in August 1964. Backup crew: Zaikin, Gulyayev. More...
Voskhod 6 Crew: Khrunov, Voronov. Planned Voskhod flight that would include EVA with test of the UPMK 'jet belt'. Cancelled in spring 1966. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Kolodin.Support crew: Matinchenko, Zaikin. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Voskhod The Voskhods were adaptations of the single place Vostok spacecraft meant to conduct flights with up to three crew and for space walks in advance of US Gemini program. Work on the 3KV and 3KD versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began with the decree issued on 13 April 1964. In order to accommodate more than one crew, the seats were mounted perpendicular to the Vostok ejection seat position, so the crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. The Elburs soft landing system replaced the ejection seat and allowed the crew to stay in the capsule. It consisted of probes that dangled from the parachute lines. Contact with the earth triggered a solid rocket engine in the parachute which resulted in a zero velocity landing. More...
Becker, Joachim, "Space Facts Web Site", http://www.spacefacts.de/, Web Address when accessed: here.
1960 February 25 -
- Soviet Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 1 selected. - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Anikeyev; Belyayev; Bondarenko; Bykovsky; Filatyev; Gagarin; Gorbatko; Kartashov; Khrunov; Komarov; Leonov; Nelyubov; Nikolayev; Popovich; Rafikov; Shonin; Titov; Varlamov; Volynov; Zaikin. The group was selected to provide pilot astronauts for the Vostok manned spaceflight program.. Qualifications: Military jet aircraft pilots under 30 years of age; under 170 cm tall; under 70 kg in weight.. While the Americans sought mature test pilots for their first spaceflights, the Soviets recruited young pilots with the intent of training them for a career as spacemen. There were 3,000 applicants following interviews with medical doctor teams that toured Soviet air bases beginning in August 1959. 102 were called for physical and psychological tests. 8 of these were selected, but then Chief Designer Korolev said he wanted a pool three times larger than the American Mercury cadre. Of the 20 selected, 12 would fly in space. Of the 8 that did not, 1 died in a ground fire in training; 3 were dismissed for disciplinary reasons; and 4 left following injuries in training.
1961 April 4 -
- VVS General Staff certifies flight readiness of cosmonauts Gagarin, Titov, and Nelyubov. - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov; Rafikov; Filatyev; Zaikin; Moskalenko; Khrushchev; Korolev. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. They also, on the basis of the recent examinations and interviews, clear the rest of the cosmonaut trainees for flight except for Rafikov, Filatev, and Zaikin, who passed the examinations but had not yet completed all the tests and training. Moskalenko has given approval for a Soviet film team to go to Tyuratam and film preparations for the flight. At the Presidium meeting Khrushchev had questioned what would be done if the cosmonaut reacted poorly in the first minute of the flight. Korolev answered in his deep voice: 'Cosmonaut are extraordinarily trained, they know the spacecraft and flight conditions better than I and we are confident of their strength'. The flight is still seen as very risky - of seven Vostoks flown unmanned so far, five made it to orbit, three landed safely, but one did not. On the other hand, both recent Venera launch attempts reached low earth orbit.
1962 March 16 -
1963 September 17 -
1964 January 23 -
- Military Soviet on cosmonaut assignments - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Khrunov; Belyayev; Leonov; Komarov; Beregovoi; Nikolayev; Shonin; Demin; Kugno; Bykovsky; Zaikin; Artyukhin; Gulyayev; Popovich; Gorbatko; Ponomaryova; Kolodin; Titov; Shatalov; Solovyova; Zholobov. Program: Vostok; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz A-1; Soyuz A-2; Soyuz A-3; Soyuz A-4; Vostok 7; Vostok 8; Vostok 9; Vostok 10. Spacecraft: Vostok; Soyuz A. The General Staff of the VVS considers future cosmonaut assignments. The acceptance of Beregovoi into the active cosmonaut corps is hotly contested. He has passed all the tests, but is 43 years old, and the official maximum age for a cosmonaut is 35. Finally it is decided that on 25 January six cosmonauts will begin training for Vostok flights (Volynov, Khrunov, Belyayev, Leonov, Komarov, and Beregovoi). On 1 February four crews will begin training for Soyuz flights: Crew 1: Nikolayev, Shonin, Demin, Kugno; Crew 2: Bykovsky, Zaikin, Artyukhin, Gulyayev; Crew 3: Popovich, Gorbatko, Ponomaryova, Kolodin; Crew 4: Titov, Shatalov, Solovyova, Zholobov.
1965 January 13 -
- OKB-1 program review - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Gorbatko; Zaikin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. All systems development is complete, and the two boosters for Vykhod are ready. The launch of the pathfinder spacecraft with mannequins aboard will take place at the end of January, with the manned mission scheduled for March. Leonov's spacesuit is complete, but Zaikin's will not be finished until 5 February, and there will exist only the metal detail parts for Gorbatko's suit.
1965 January 15 -
- Cosmonaut examinations - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Gubarev; Demin; Dobrovolsky; Pitskhelauri; Belyayev; Leonov; Khrunov; Zaikin; Gorbatko. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Vostok. The 15 candidate-astronauts take their first phase examinations. 13 are rated outstanding, with Shatalov, Gubarev, and Demin doing the best. Two are rated only 'good' - Dobrovolskiy and Pitskherlauri. Dobrovolskiy was the worst, getting some answers completely wrong. For example, he said that the maximum thickness of Vostok's heat shield was 440 mm, when the correct answer was 140 mm; and identified Krug as a homing beacon on the search aircraft, rather than aboard the spacecraft. However overall everything went well, and all were considered to have passed. On this day Belyayev and Leonov complete their centrifuge training. Belyayev is 40 years old, and had little trouble with the centrifuge. Kamanin resolves to name Khrunov as a spacecraft commander in Belyayev's place, with a final crew being Khrunov-Leonov in case Belyayev cannot fly for some reason. Khrunov is available since Zaikin since the decision has been made to train Zaikin as Leonov's backup instead of Gorbatko.
1965 January 19 -
- Vykhod crews - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin; Beregovoi. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Faced with continuing pressure to fly Beregovoi on the Vykhod flight. Kamanin notes that the spacecraft requires short cosmonauts of minimum weight (Belyayev is 170 cm tall and weighs 72 kg; Leonov 172 cm and 78.2 kg; Gorbatko 168.5 cm and 69 kg; Khrunov 171 cm and 70.8 kg; and Zaikin 167 cm and 69.3 kg). By comparison Beregovoi is 180 cm tall and weights 84.5 kg.
1965 February 9 -
- Voskhod 2 crew selection. - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Zaikin; Khrunov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: The State Commission meets to consider Voskhod 2 crew assignments. Belyayev and Leonov are named the prime crew, with Zaikin and Khrunov as their back-ups. .
1965 February 11 -
- Cosmos 57 preparations - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Zaikin; Khrunov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. After a one-day diversion to Tashkent due to bad weather, Kamanin and the VVS delegation land at Baikonur. The weather is -10 deg C and heavy snow. It is reported from Moscow that Zaikin and Khrunov successfully operated the airlock at 37 km altitude in the TKB-60, and this time the Vega system finally worked. In the evening, as the others leave for a film, Kamanin looks out from his room in the cosmonaut dormitory at Area 17. He sees hundreds of new buildings in the snow, where none existed only five years ago. Baikonur is truly developing into a powerful space centre.
1965 March 3 -
- Voskhod-2 crew review. - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Zaikin; Khrunov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin reviews emergency procedures with the Voskhod-2 prime and backup crews, and finds their training fully complete - they are ready for flight. Re-entry with the airlock ring is a special concern. If the airlock has jettisoned normally, the ring will have a height of 27-40 mm above the surface of the spherical capsule; if it only partially jettisons, the rings could be as much as 70-80 mm high. In such a case the asymmetry of the ring on the upper heat shield might impart a rotation to the capsule. The drogue parachute can be safely deployed at up to 1.5 to 2.0 revolutions per second; beyond that there is real danger to the crew's survival. If the experiment with the Zenit capsule fitted with the ring is successful, that will provide some confidence. But if the Zenit is not launched or fails to return to earth, then in Korolev's opinion the flight should be delayed until the safety of re-entry with the ring can be demonstrated. However the majority of the State Commission disagrees with Korolev, and believe it will be safe to proceed with the Voskhod-2 flight even without the Zenit test.
1965 March 9 -
- Tyuratam - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Korolev; Belyayev; Leonov; Zaikin; Khrunov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin and the cosmonauts land at the airfield at 11:45, but have to wait until 12:10 for the arrival of Tyulin and Korolev for the official greeting. Korolev is ill but pushing himself hard. A dispute breaks out about crew assignments. At the last minute some want Khrunov to substitute for Belyayev. Korolev is clearly disgusted by such reversals after the prime crew has been set for months.
1965 March 10 -
1965 March 18 -
07:00 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC1
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
: Voskhod 11A57
. LV Configuration
: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-05.
- Voskhod 2 - .
Call Sign: Almaz (Diamond ). Crew: Belyayev; Leonov. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 4. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Rudenko; Korolev; Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 1274 . COSPAR: 1965-022A. Apogee: 475 km (295 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. First spacewalk, with a two man crew of Colonel Pavel Belyayev and Lt. Colonel Aleksey Leonov. During Voskhod 2's second orbit, Leonov stepped from the vehicle and performed mankind's first "walk in space." After 10 min of extravehicular activity, he returned safely to the spacecraft through an inflatable airlock.
This mission was originally named 'Vykhod ('Exit/Advance'). It almost ended in disaster when Leonov was unable to reenter the airlock due to stiffness of the inflated spacesuit. He had to bleed air from the suit in order to get into the airlock. After Leonov finally managed to get back into the spacecraft cabin, the primary hatch would not seal completely. The environmental control system compensated by flooding the cabin with oxygen, creating a serious fire hazard in a craft only qualified for sea level nitrogen-oxygen gas mixes (Cosmonaut Bondarenko had burned to death in a ground accident in such circumstances, preceding the Apollo 204 disaster by many years). Additional Details: here....
1965 April 13 -
- Voskhod crews - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Volynov; Katys; Beregovoi; Demin; Shatalov; Artyukhin; Solovyova; Ponomaryova; Khrunov; Gorbatko; Zaikin; Korolev; Keldysh; Vershinin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Kamanin meets with Marshall Rudenko to present his cosmonaut crew plans. For the experimental gravity flight he proposes Volynov-Katys (prime crew), Beregovoi-Demin, and Shatalov-Artyukhin (back-up crew). Rudenko wants Beregovoi's as the first crew, but Kamanin, sensing the Marshall is unsure in his position, pushes for Volynov. He then presents his plan for the next Voskhod EVA mission: Solovyova and Ponomaryova as the female prime crew, Khrunov and Gorbatko, and Zaikin as the male back-up crew. Kamanin says he already has Korolev, Keldysh, and Vershinin behind this plan. But Rudenko says he will decide this later - he has to take his daughter to the hospital.
1966 March 12 -
1966 April 26 -
- Soyuz simulators - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Leonov; Volynov; Shonin; Zaikin; Gagarin; Solovyova; Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Gorbatko; Popovich. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The simulators and partial-task trainers continue very much behind schedule. There is talk of moving responsibility for them from Darevskiy's bureau to OKB-1. Popovich's fitness for future flight and command assignments is questionable. Nevertheless, he will join Titov, Leonov, Volynov, Shonin, Zaikin, Gagarin, and Solovyova at the Zhukovskiy Academy, from which they will be expected to graduate with advanced degrees in engineering in October 1967. Nikolayev, Bykovsky, and Gorbatko will finish one or two years later, since they will be preoccupied with flight assignments on the 7K-OK.
1966 September 2 -
- Cosmonaut military program training groups - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Shonin; Beregovoi; Shatalov; Titov; Kuklin; Filipchenko; Popovich; Gubarev; Artyukhin; Gulyayev; Belousov; Kolesnikov; Belyayev; Matinchenko; Demin; Zaikin; Vorobyov; Lazarev. Program: Voskhod; Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3; Soviet Lunar Landing; Voskhod 3; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4; Soyuz s/n 5/6. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI; Spiral OS; Almaz OPS; Voskhod. Kamanin organises the cosmonauts into the following training groups:
- Voskhod: Volynov, Shonin, Beregovoi, Shatalov.
- Spiral: Titov, Kuklin, Filipchenko, Beregovoi, Shatalov.
- Soyuz VI: Popovich, Gubarev, Artyukhin, Gulyayev, Belousov, Kolesnikov
- Almaz: Belyayev, Shonin, Matinchenko, Demin, Zaikin, Vorobyev, Lazarev
1967 Early -
1968 December 15 -
- Cosmonauts graduate. - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Leonov; Popovich; Bykovsky; Khrunov; Gorbatko; Zaikin; Volynov; Shonin; Ponomaryova; Solovyova; Tereshkova; Kuznetsova; Yerkina; Titov; Gagarin. Nikolayev, Leonov, Popovich, Bykovsky, Khrunov, Gorbatko, Zaikin, Volynov, and Shonin all receive their diplomas from the Zhukovskiy Test Pilot Engineering Academy. Khrunov graduates with honours. All of them began training for a lunar landing on January 8. Titov and Gagarin will complete their studies for the diploma in May. Ponomareva and Solovyova willl graduate in the second half of 1968, leaving only Tereshkova, Kuznetsova, and Yerkina. Tereshkova has had her appendix removed in surgery at the Vishevskiy Centre. The surgery went well.
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