Encyclopedia Astronautica

Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
First Cosmonaut Grou
Titov, Gherman Stepanovich (1935-2000) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 2. Second person in orbit. Youngest person in space. Left cosmonaut team for brilliant career in the space forces after deciding his future spaceflight prospects were nil.

Call sign: Oryel (Eagle). Second human in orbit.

Titov completed military aviation training in 1957 and served as an Air Force pilot in the Second Leningrad Aviation Region. In 1960 he was selected in the first cosmonaut group and became the second man to orbit the earth in a one day flight in 1961. His boyish good looks and buoyant personality made him a worldwide heart throb after his flight. He liked women, drink, and fast cars, and took full advantage of his celebrity. This resulted in constant trouble with his chain of command over an endless succession of incidents with women and drunk-driving accidents. With the other flown cosmonauts he entered the Zhukovskiy Air Force Engineering Academy in 1962 for formal training as an engineering test pilot. During this period he headed the cosmonaut team training for flight of the Spiral spaceplane. He graduated from Zhukovskiy in 1968 but the chances for future spaceflights seemed slim. He had suffered space sickness on his first flight. This was later found to be common, but in the 1960's it was held against him. Furthermore it was clear that the Spiral was a dead-end programme that would never fly. Therefore he consciously selected a management career in the Soviet space forces.

He graduated from the General Staff Military Academy and was appointed Deputy Chief of the Space Command and Control units in August 1972. From June 1973 he was First Deputy Chief of GUKOS for Research, and First Deputy Commander of GUKOS from 1979 to 1991. In these positions he played a key role in the testing and qualification of numerous military space systems. Titov retired from the military in October 1992.

Birth Place: Verhnee Zhilino, Altay.
Status: Deceased.
Born: 1935.09.11.
Died: 2000.09.20.
Spaceflights: 1 .
Total time in space: 1.05 days.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
  • Cosmonaut Category of persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia. More...

Associated Flights
  • Vostok 1 Crew: Gagarin. First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Strap attaching service module failed to separate from capsule, leading to wild ride before it burned through during re-entry. Backup crew: Titov, Nelyubov. More...
  • Vostok 2 Crew: Titov. Second manned orbital flight. After 17.5 orbits, the spacecraft reentered and the cosmonaut landed safely. First astronaut to experience space sickness. Day-long flight was a huge blow to America, which had not even orbited a man in space yet. Backup crew: Nikolayev, Nelyubov. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Programs
  • Vostok World's first manned spacecraft, it was later developed into the Voskhod, and numerous versions of Zenit recoverable reconnaisance, materials, and biological research satellites which remained in service into the 21st Century. More...

Titov Chronology

1960 February 25 - .
  • Soviet Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 1 selected. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Anikeyev; Belyayev; Bondarenko; Bykovsky; Filatyev; Gagarin; Gorbatko; Kartashov; Khrunov; Komarov; Leonov; Nelyubov; Nikolayev; Popovich; Rafikov; Shonin; Titov; Varlamov; Volynov; Zaikin. The group was selected to provide pilot astronauts for the Vostok manned spaceflight program.. Qualifications: Military jet aircraft pilots under 30 years of age; under 170 cm tall; under 70 kg in weight.. While the Americans sought mature test pilots for their first spaceflights, the Soviets recruited young pilots with the intent of training them for a career as spacemen. There were 3,000 applicants following interviews with medical doctor teams that toured Soviet air bases beginning in August 1959. 102 were called for physical and psychological tests. 8 of these were selected, but then Chief Designer Korolev said he wanted a pool three times larger than the American Mercury cadre. Of the 20 selected, 12 would fly in space. Of the 8 that did not, 1 died in a ground fire in training; 3 were dismissed for disciplinary reasons; and 4 left following injuries in training.

1961 January 6 - .
  • Cosmonaut crew selections - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Popovich; Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov. Flight: Vostok 1. Summary: Six of the 20 cosmonauts have been selected by the VVS for final examinations and assignment to Vostok flight crews - Bykovsky, Nikolayev, Popovich, Gagarin, Nelyubov, Titov. The exams are set for 17-18 January..

1961 January 17 - .
  • Cosmonaut examinations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Popovich; Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov. Flight: Vostok 1. The Examination Commission consists of members from the VVS Air Force , AN Academy of Science, industry, and LII Flight Test Institute. The sessions are filmed. Each cosmonaut sits in a Vostok mock-up for 40 to 50 minutes and describes the equipment and the operations to be conducted in each phase of flight. Special emphasis is given in the examiners' questions on orientation of the spacecraft for manual retrofire and egress on land or water. For this phase, Gagarin, Titov, Nikolayev, and Popovich are rated 'outstanding' and Nelyubov and Bykovsky 'good'.

1961 January 18 - .
  • Cosmonaut examinations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Popovich; Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov. Flight: Vostok 1. The essay portion of the written examination consists of three questions, with the essay replies to be written out in 20 minutes. After handing in the essay, each cosmonaut is given three to five multiple choice questions. All six pass and are rated as ready to fly the Vostok 3KA. But which of the six is best suited to be the first man in space (at least publicly - one Vostok flight in 1960 would have resulted in the death of the cosmonaut). Gagarin, Titov, and Nelyubov are in the top echelon. Nikolayev is the quietest of the six. Bykovsky is less so, especially in internal meetings, but he says nothing important and doesn't contribute anything substantial. Popovich is a puzzle, his behaviour perhaps influenced by secret family problems.

1961 March 15 - .
  • IAKM Tour - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Agaltsov; Vershinin; Alekseyev, Semyon; Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok; Sokol SK-1. Chief of Staff F A Agaltsov visits the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine (IAKM) to review the six cosmonauts' training for flight. An 11-day trial is underway of the hot mock-up of the Vostok capsule's environmental control system. He also sees the dogs that have flown in space: Belka, Strelka, and Chernushka. Strelka has six 3-month-old puppies. Vershinin delivers a speech asking the cosmonauts to be morally prepared for spaceflight. The cosmonauts complain about the performance of Alekseyev's design bureau - of six spacesuits ordered, only three have been delivered (for Gagarin, Titov, and Nelyubov), and they haven't been able to train in parachute jumping in the suits yet.

1961 March 16 - .
  • Kuibyshev - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Nelyubov; Popovich; Titov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Yazdovskiy; Karpov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. The VVS contingent departs for Tyuratam in three Il-14's. The two with cosmonauts aboard stop at Kuibyshev to give the pilots a look at the recovery zone. Aboard the first aircraft are Kamanin, Gagarin, Nelyubov, and Popovich. Aboard the other are Titov, Bykovsky, and Nikolayev. At the VVS Sanatorium at Privolzhskiy on the Volga the cosmonauts relax, and play ping-pong, chess, and billiards. The cosmonauts, Kamanin, Yazdovskiy, and Karpov sleep together in a single large room. Kamanin finds it a lively group; only Gagarin is pale and quieter than the others. On 7 March his wife had their second daughter and only yesterday he brought them back from the hospital. It was tough on him to then have to leave them on his dangerous secret mission - to be the first man into space.

1961 March 17 - .
  • Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Nelyubov; Popovich; Titov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Korolev; Keldysh. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. The cosmonauts play chess and cards on the flight to Tyuratam. At the airfield, Korolev, Keldysh, and five film cameramen await the cosmonauts. Korolev and Keldysh warmly greet the cosmonauts, but categorically refuse to be filmed. Korolev asks each cosmonaut one or two technical questions. All are correctly answered. Korolev says he wants to ensure that each one of them is 'ready to fly today'. As of now, six Vostoks have been launched, of which four reached orbit, and two landed successfully (one of these albeit after an emergency separation from the third stage on a suborbital trajectory). Two have been unsuccessful, including one on-pad failure on 28 July 1960. Two hours after arrival the cosmonauts go to the MIK assembly hall to familiarise themselves with the launch vehicle and spacecraft. At 14:00 Kamanin meets with the cosmonauts to review the 'Cosmonaut's Manual'. They make several suggestions. They do not feel it is necessary to loosen the parachute harness during the one-orbit flight. They note that the gloves are tried on only 15 minutes before the launch, and not on the closing of the hatch as indicated by Alekseyev. They recommend that a shortened version of the manual should be on board the spacecraft for use in case of a manual re-entry. Communications will be mainly using the laryngeal microphone Incidents will be recorded in the ship's log. The cosmonauts should be able to manually activate the reserve parachute. Kamanin agrees with the latter, but there is no time to change it for the first flight.

1961 March 19 - .
  • Vostok launch delay - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gusev; Feoktistov; Yazdovskiy; Karpov; Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. The launch has been delayed to 24-25 March due to problems with L I Gusev's radio system aboard the spacecraft. A meeting of the cosmonauts at 10:00 reviews landing contingency plans that will bring the capsule down on the territory of the USSR. The best chances for such a landing are on orbits 1, 2, and 16, but it is also possible on orbits 4, 5, 6, and 7. A map will be aboard the capsule to show where and when to ignite the TDU retrorocket for each landing opportunity. Feoktistov was a great help in developing this visual aid. For about an hour Kamanin, Korolev, Yazdovskiy, Karpov, and Azbiyevich discuss long-range plans. Korolev is interested in the VVS position that they should be responsible for all military space activities. The reconnaissance satellite version of Vostok is discussed. Korolev says he plans to send a cosmonaut to the moon by 1965.

    Afterwards the cosmonauts develop the radio communications plan for the flight. During the 710-second ascent to orbit, and after landing, they are to use the UHF radio. The HF and UHF radios can be used from orbit, but only over the USSR. Plans for filming the cosmonaut in flight are also discussed.

1961 March 20 - .
  • Cosmonauts train in suits - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov; Ustinov; Rudnev. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok; Sokol SK-1. The cosmonauts practice donning the suits and adjusting the regulators. Kamanin muses on the need to convince the VVS leadership to support the TTZ for a new manned spacecraft, on the way to better organize the IP tracking stations, and how to obtain a leading role for the VVS in development of reconnaissance satellites. Otherwise, he believes the Russians will lose the space race to the Americans, who are launching 3 to 4 times more satellites. He notes that 22 Discoverers have been launched to develop an American reconnaissance satellite, and he comments on the Echo-1 passive communications balloon. The Americans are pushing to match the Soviet Union in launch vehicles and already surpass them in electronics, communications, and telemetry. Kamanin notes that communications with Venera 1 were lost when it was only 2 million kilometres from earth, while the US has already demonstrated communications with satellites out to 37 million kilometres. He admires the way the Americans have concentrated all of their efforts in one civilian space organization, with full-time managers for the effort. By comparison, the Soviets only have part-time managers, such as Ustinov, Rudnev, and so on. After the suit exercise the cosmonauts play chess and cards, but again Gagarin does not take part, and is deep in silent thought.

1961 March 21 - .
  • Spring at Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok; Sokol SK-1. It is a beautiful day. The cosmonauts discuss contingencies in case of a water landing. In fact their chances are slim. There are only two Soviet ships equipped with HF and UHF direction-finding equipment that could locate them. The NAZ ejection seat is not designed to float, and the spherical re-entry capsule is no better. Therefore the only option is a landing on the territory of the Soviet Union. In the evening Gagarin, Titov, and Nelyubov practice at the MIK - donning their suits, landing in the spacecraft cabin if that is necessary, getting out of the suit, communications operations, and so on. They are able to get the suit on in 20 minutes, and get it off in 15 minutes. Many space centre workers come to watch the exercises.

1961 March 22 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Flight preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov; Barmin; Keldysh; Korolev. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Between 10:00 and 12:00 Chief Designer of Launch Facilities Barmin meets with the cosmonauts. He reviews the launch mechanism. The rocket is suspended at the 'shoulders' of the strap-ons, on four swivelled supports. After the rocket has lifted 49 mm, it is free from these, and counterweights weighing dozens of tonnes will swing them back and away from the rising booster. At 12:00 Kamanin meets with Keldysh and Korolev. They agree with his position that the flight be announced as soon as the cosmonaut is safely in orbit.

1961 March 23 - .
  • Cosmonaut Bondarenko dies at age of 24. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov; Bondarenko. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. At Tyuratam in the morning, LII engineers brief the cosmonauts on correcting the Globus instrument in flight, which indicates their position over the earth. Korolev checks in for a few minutes to make sure the cosmonauts have everything they need. In the evening the news of the death of cosmonaut Bondarenko reaches the cosmodrome. He died on the tenth day of a 15-day endurance experiment in a pressure chamber at IAKM when a fire broke out in the pure-oxygen cabin. Kamanin blames his death on IAKM's poor organisation and control of the experiment.

1961 March 25 - .
  • Vostok rollout - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Voronin; Alekseyev, Semyon; Ustinov; Gagarin; Titov; Rudnev. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. At 08:54 a meeting is held, where it is decided the bad performance of Voronin and Alekseyev in completing their capsule subsystems will be reported to Ustinov and Rudnev. At 13:00 the booster is rolled out to the pad. At 18:00 Gagarin and Titov donn their space suits and practice riding the elevator up to the spacecraft, and entering the hatch. This is to give them a practical feel for the time it will actually take them to get aboard and complete checkout of the spacecraft and suit.

1961 March 25 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-15.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 5 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 2. Mass: 4,695 kg (10,350 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Goreglyad; Karpov; Kamanin; Yazdovskiy; Gagarin; Nelyubov; Popovich; Titov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Korolev; Kirillov; Voskresenskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 95 . COSPAR: 1961-Iota-1. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Carried dog Zvezdochka and mannequin Ivan Ivanovich. Ivanovich was again ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Zvezdochka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 25, 1961 7:40 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, designed to ensure man's life functions during flight in outer space and return to Earth. Additional Details: here....

1961 April 3 - .
  • Vostok first manned spaceflight authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrunov; Komarov; Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. The eleven cosmonauts not short-listed for early spaceflights are given a new screening examination. However only Khrunov and Komarov are interviewed before an urgent phone call is received from the General Staff: report at 13:00 with Gagarin, Titov, and Nelyubov, then proceed to a Communist Party meeting at 15:00 for the first flight decision. All concerned again confirm readiness for flight, and again Kamanin passes around his photo album, showing the Vostok's potential for military photoreconnaissance. Kamanin briefs the cosmonauts afterwards on the results of the NAZ ejection seat tests. There have been three successful ejections from the Il-28 aircraft, plus ejections from the re-entry capsule on the ground and from an altitude of 5 km. All tests were successful. The cosmonauts are aware of the remaining problems with the capsule but are confident it is safe for a one-orbit flight. Gagarin says that Parachutist Colonel Nikolai Konstantinovich Nikitin, their instructor, should inspect the cosmonaut's parachute at the pad. The cosmonauts have confidence in him, but he has made problems over the tests at Fedosiya. At 16:00 Korolev calls. The Central Committee has approved the flight. He leaves for Tyuratam for final launch preparations. The cosmonauts' confirmation of readiness for flight was recorded and played back to the committee. The resulitng decree 'On approval for launch of Vostok' provided the final authority to proceed with the first manned spaceflight.

1961 April 4 - .
  • VVS General Staff certifies flight readiness of cosmonauts Gagarin, Titov, and Nelyubov. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov; Rafikov; Filatyev; Zaikin; Moskalenko; Khrushchev; Korolev. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. They also, on the basis of the recent examinations and interviews, clear the rest of the cosmonaut trainees for flight except for Rafikov, Filatev, and Zaikin, who passed the examinations but had not yet completed all the tests and training. Moskalenko has given approval for a Soviet film team to go to Tyuratam and film preparations for the flight. At the Presidium meeting Khrushchev had questioned what would be done if the cosmonaut reacted poorly in the first minute of the flight. Korolev answered in his deep voice: 'Cosmonaut are extraordinarily trained, they know the spacecraft and flight conditions better than I and we are confident of their strength'. The flight is still seen as very risky - of seven Vostoks flown unmanned so far, five made it to orbit, three landed safely, but one did not. On the other hand, both recent Venera launch attempts reached low earth orbit.

1961 April 5 - .
  • Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov; Korolev; Gallay; Goreglyad. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Kamanin departs for the airport in the morning after a good breakfast. There was a fresh snowfall overnight, and Moscow looks beautiful. Three Il-14's wait to shuttle the six cosmonauts and other VVS staff to the launch centre. Gagarin and Nelyubov will fly in Kamanin's aircraft, and Titov and the others in General Goreglyad's. The third aircraft will carry the physicians and film team. The aircraft depart at fifteen-minute intervals, and the entire flight is in beautiful weather. Kamanin's Il-14 lands at Tyuratam at 14:30. Korolev, Gallay, and officers of the staff of the cosmodrome are there to greet them. Korolev requests additional last-minute training for the cosmonauts in manual landing of the spacecraft, suit donning, and communications, but Kamanin refuses. He sees no reason for any training not already agreed in the official plan. Korolev says rollout of the booster is planned for 8 April, followed by launch on 10 or 11 April. Everyone wants to know first - Gagarin or Titov? But Kamanin has not made a final decision yet. Gagarin shows hesitancy in accepting the automatic parachute deployment on the first flight, and only reluctantly agrees to the compromise solution. Titov is a stronger character, better able to hold up during a long duration mission, such as the one-day flight planned for the second mission. But the first into space will be the object of all of the attention from the news media and public. There is not a day that goes by that Kamanin does not think through the issue, without reaching a final conclusion. In the evening the cosmonauts go to the theatre, but the projectionist refuses to run the planned movie on orders of the base commander.

1961 April 6 - .
  • Vostok 1 State Commission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudnev; Korolev; Keldysh; Gagarin; Titov; Alekseyev, Semyon. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Rudnev arrives at the cosmondrome, and the first state commission meeting is held with Korolev and the technicians at 11:30. The oxygen regenerator is still not ready, and it is decided to fly with the old dehumidifier on the first flight, since only a 90 minute mission is planned anyway. The suit and all recovery systems worked perfectly on the 9 and 25 March mannequin flights, so the NAZ system is deemed ready for flight. After the meeting Rudnev and Makarov of the KGB go to work on the written orders that will be binding on the cosmonauts in case of accidental landing on foreign territory. Kamanin, Keldysh, and Korolev draw up the final draft of the announcements to be issued in case of normal orbital insertion and after successful landing. In the evening Gagarin and Titov try on their individual suits and Alekseyev checks the parachute systems. The cosmonauts return to the hotel at 11 pm.

1961 April 7 - .
  • Vostok 1 preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Moskalenko; Gagarin; Titov; Rudnev; Vershinin. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. At Area 2 the cosmonauts conduct three hours of training on manual landing, and activities after landing. All three accomplish the manual landing well. Then they have three hours of badminton for physical conditioning. Both Gagarin and Titov like the game, and they are filmed for posterity. In the evening Rudnev discusses adding a night shift in order to achieve launch on 11 to 12 April. Afterwards Vershinin is briefed, and told all is normal, heading for an 11/12 April launch. Vershinin replies that the Americans are planning to launch their first man into space on 28 April. Kamanin is confident, there will be no difficulty in beating them. He notes the Americans launched a Mercury capsule on 24 March, but there was an abort and the capsule sank in the Atlantic. In the evening the movies are 'Careful, Babushka' and 'Vostok-1'. Kamanin finds the film on the mission good. General Moskalenko calls - he wants a meeting with the cosmonauts on launch day. Kamanin is not opposed, but he needs to know a specific time - it will be a busy morning before the launch

1961 April 8 - .
  • Vostok 1 State Commission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Moskalenko; Yazdovskiy; Titov; Gagarin; Korolev; Keldysh. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Rudnev chairs the meeting, in which Kamanin recommends that Gagarin pilot the first manned spaceflight, with Titov as backup. A discussion follows on whether to have a representative from the FAI at the launch in order to obtain registration of the world record. Marshal Moskalenko and Keldysh are opposed - they don't want anyone from outside at the secret cosmodrome. It is decided to enclose the code to unlock the controls of the spacecraft in a special packet. Gagarin will have to break it open in order to get the code that will allow him to override the automatic system and orient the spacecraft manually for re-entry. An emergency ejection during ascent to orbit is discussed. It is decided that only Korolev or Kamanin will be allowed to manually command an ejection in the first 40 seconds of flight. After that, the process will be automatic. There is embarrassment when Moskalenko confronts Yazdovskiy: 'so why are you here, when you're a veterinarian and only handle dogs?' Kamanin has to explain that Yazdovskiy is actually a medical doctor. After the meeting, Kamanin reviews Titov's training in the spacecraft, which has gone well.

1961 April 9 - .
  • Vostok preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudnev; Moskalenko; Gagarin; Titov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. It is a pleasant spring day at Area 10. The cosmonauts play sports, games, and chess. Rudnev and Moskalaneko think the launch will not realistically happen until 14-15 April. Kamanin informs Gagarin and Titov of the selection of Gagarin to be the first man in space.

1961 April 10 - .
  • Vostok preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudnev; Moskalenko; Korolev; Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov; Popovich; Nikolayev; Bykovsky. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Sever. Kamanin plays badminton with Gagarin, Titov, and Nelyubov, winning 16 to 5. At 12:00 a meeting is held with the cosmonauts at the Syr Darya River. Rudnev, Moskalenko, and Korolev informally discuss plans with Gagarin, Titov, Nelyubov, Popovich, Nikolayev, and Bykovsky. Korolev addresses the group, saying that it is only four years since the Soviet Union put the first satellite into orbit, and here they are about to put a man into space. The six cosmonauts here are all ready and qualified for the first flight. Although Gagarin has been selected for this flight, the others will follow soon - in this year production of ten Vostok spacecraft will be completed, and in future years it will be replaced by the two or three-place Sever spacecraft. The place of these cosmonauts here does not indicate the completion of our work, says Korolev, but rather the beginning of a long line of Soviet spacecraft. Korolev predicts that the flight will be completed safely, and he wishes Yuri Alekseyevich success. Kamanin and Moskalenko follow with their speeches. In the evening the final State Commission meeting is held. Launch is set for 12 April and the selection of Gagarin for the flight is ratified. The proceedings are recorded for posterity on film and tape.

1961 April 11 - .
  • Vostok 1 countdown - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Korolev; Yazdovskiy; Feoktistov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. The booster is rolled out to the pad at 05:00. At 10:00 the cosmonauts meet with Feoktistov for a last review of the flight plan. Launch is set of 09:07 the next day, followed by shutdown and jettison of the lateral boosters of the first stage at 09:09, and orbital insertion at 09:18. The spacecraft will orient itself toward the sun for retrofire at 09:50. At 10:15 the first command sequence will be uploaded to the spacecraft, followed by the second at 10:18 and the third at 10:25. Retrofire of the TDU engine will commence at 10:25:47. The service module will separate from the capsule at 10:36 as the capsule begins re-entry. The capsule's parachute will deploy at 10:43:43 and at 10:44:12 the cosmonaut's ejection seat will fire. While the cosmonauts go through this, the booster has been brought upright on the pad, the service towers raised, and all umbilical connections made. Korolev, Yazdovskiy, and the others make a final inspection at the pad prior to the commencement of the countdown. At 13:00 Gagarin meets a group of soldiers, NCO's, and officers. After this Kamanin and the cosmonauts go to the cottage formerly occupied by Marshal Nedelin, where they will spend the last night before launch. They eat 'space food' out of 160 g toothpaste-type tubes for lunch - two servings of meat puree and one of chocolate sauce. Gagarin's blood pressure is measured as 115/60, pulse 64, body temperature 36.8 deg C. He then subjects to placement of the biosensors he will wear during the flight, and baseline measurements are taken for an hour and twenty minutes. He is very calm through all this. At 21:30 Korolev comes to the cottage, says good night to the cosmonauts, then goes back out to check on launch preparations. Gagarin and Titov go to bed after this. Kamanin stays up a while in the next room, listening to them talk to one another in the dark.

1961 April 12 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-16.
  • Vostok 1 - . Call Sign: Kedr (Cedar ). Crew: Gagarin. Backup Crew: Titov; Nelyubov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 3. Mass: 4,725 kg (10,416 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Keldysh; Rudnev; Karpov; Moskalenko; Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0750 days. Decay Date: 1961-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 103 . COSPAR: 1961-Mu-1. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Three press releases were prepared, one for success, two for failures. It was only known ten minutes after burnout, 25 minutes after launch, if a stable orbit had been achieved.

    The payload included life-support equipment and radio and television to relay information on the condition of the pilot. The flight was automated; Gagarin's controls were locked to prevent him from taking control of the ship. The combination to unlock the controls was available in a sealed envelope in case it became necessary to take control in an emergency. After retrofire, the service module remained attached to the Sharik reentry sphere by a wire bundle. The joined craft went through wild gyrations at the beginning of re-entry, before the wires burned through. The Sharik, as it was designed to do, then naturally reached aerodynamic equilibrium with the heat shield positioned correctly.

    Gagarin ejected after re-entry and descended under his own parachute, as was planned. However for many years the Soviet Union denied this, because the flight would not have been recognized for various FAI world records unless the pilot had accompanied his craft to a landing. Recovered April 12, 1961 8:05 GMT. Landed Southwest of Engels Smelovka, Saratov. Additional Details: here....

1961 August 6 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-17.
  • Vostok 2 - . Call Sign: Oryel (Eagle ). Crew: Titov. Backup Crew: Nikolayev; Nelyubov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Nikolayev; Nelyubov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 2. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.00 days. Decay Date: 1961-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 168 . COSPAR: 1961-Tau-1. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Second manned orbital flight. The Soviet Union successfully launched Vostok II into orbit with Gherman S. Titov as pilot. The spacecraft carried life-support equipment, radio and television for monitoring the condition of the cosmonaut, tape recorder, telemetry system, biological experiments, and automatic and manual control equipment. Flight objectives: Investigation of the effects on the human organism of a prolonged flight in orbit and subsequent return to the surface of the Earth; investigation of man's ability to work during a prolonged period of weightlessness. Titov took manual control of spacecraft but suffered from space sickness. He was equipped with a professional quality Konvas movie camera, with which ten minutes of film of the earth were taken through the porthole. Both television and film images were taken of the interior of the spacecraft. Like Gagarin, Titov experienced problems with separation of the service module after retrofire. Titov was never to fly again, after being assigned to the Spiral spaceplane, which turned out to be a dead-end project. A biography of him by Martin Caidin ('I Am Eagle') made him somewhat more accessible than Gagarin to the West.

1961 August 7 - .
  • Landing of Vostok 2 - . Return Crew: Titov. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 2. Summary: After 17.5 orbits, the spacecraft reentered on August 7 and landed safely at 7:18 GMT near Krasny Kut, Saratov. Titov made a separate parachute landing after riding his ejection seat out of the capsule..

1961 October 3 - .
  • Cosmonauts in the Crimea - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov. Summary: During a trip to Crimea that began on 14 September, Kamanin finds that Gagarin and Titov have been showing bad behaviour, drinking too much, and insulting others..

1961 October 17 - .
  • Titov at Party Conference - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Khrushchev; Gagarin. Titov attends in place of Gagarin. Kamanin's cover story is that Gagarin is in the hospital, suffering from exhaustion, and that he will confined to bed until 25 October. Everyone, from Khrushchev on down, is unhappy with this. Kamanin's enemies are using the situation to criticize VVS participation in the space program in general, and Kamanin personally. Without Gagarin, Titov is not seated in the Presidium, and the VVS loses an important lever of influence at the meeting.

1961 October 18 - .
  • Vostok 3 training - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Titov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 3. Spacecraft: Vostok; Sokol SK-1. Summary: Nikolayev conducts a three-day simulated spaceflight in his suit, in the spacecraft, including centrifuge runs at the beginning and end. Kamanin is furious about Titov's antics in Rumania, where he rode a motorcycle in a parade!.

1961 November 14 - .
  • Cosmonaut self-criticism - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov. Gagarin and Titov are criticised for their high living and consorting with loose women and prostitutes while in the Crimea and on the road. Gagarin is also brought to task for the ridiculous story he made up as to why his wife found him in the nurse's bedroom. Gagarin receives his FAI Medal at a public ceremony. The press asks where he got the scar on his face. He tells them that he was hit by a stone while playing with his daughter.

1962 January 27 - .
  • Titov returns from tour - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Gagarin. He has visited Indonesia and Burma. Tomorrow Gagarin leaves on a tour of Africa. There has been an 'incident' between Titov and his chauffeur Pomerantesva. She was born in 1918, has a child and is a good party member. Titov wanted her to drink with him at 2 am in the morning. It is obvious that the role of cosmonauts is much greater than planned - more academic training is needed. Therefore Kamanin decides to split the cosmonauts into two groups. One group will train for space in 1962 while the other goes to university. The groups will switch in the fall of 1963.

1962 February 17 - .
  • Immediate Vostok launches demanded - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ustinov; Nikolayev; Popovich; Titov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. Ustinov wants launch of two cosmonauts within a month to answer the American Glenn flight. Of seven candidates, Nikolayev and Popovich are most likely to be selected. Meanwhile Titov has more incidents. He has driven his Volga into a bus. This is his third accident within a year.

1962 March 1 - .
  • Plans for astronaut/cosmonaut meeting - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glenn; Gagarin; Titov. Glenn is in Washington, and meets the Secretary General of the United Nations, who mentions a plan of the Soviet ambassador to the UN. Gagarin and Titov might visit New York to address the United Nations on 19 March. This would provide an opportunity for the cosmonauts and US astronauts to meet.

1962 March 5 - .
  • Vostok 3/4 delayed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Nikolayev; Popovich; Nelyubov; Bykovsky. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Due to technical problems and the launch failure of a Zenit spy satellite, the launch of the dual Vostoks is pushed back to April. Therefore a trip to New York by the cosmonauts in March will not be possible. In any case the Presidium has decided against allowing them to address the United Nations.

1962 March 8 - .
  • FAI Submission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Flight: Vostok 2. Korolev's pressure has won the engineers over to a three-day flight for the next mission. Kamanin prepares the documents to be submitted to the FAI in Paris on Titov's flight. They say that Titov did not land in his capsule, which means that Titov's one day flight will not hold the official record for spaceflight duration - that will go to Glenn's four-hour flight instead...

1962 March 16 - .
1962 March 24 - .
  • Cosmonauts dismissed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Vershinin; Rafikov; Anikeyev. Vershinin approves the removal of Rafikov and Anikeyev from the cosmonaut group. In the night of 12-13 March they left the base without permission and went to the Moskva Restaurant Rafikov is not happy with his wife, and talks of divorce all the time. During holidays in Sochi last May he spent time with many women, and beat his wife when she complained about it. Titov, Rafikov, and Anikeyev have all come to the notice of the Chief of Staff.

1962 March 27 - .
  • Rafikov dismissed. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Gagarin; Rafikov; Anikeyev; Korolev; Nikolayev; Popovich. Rafikov is dismissed effective immediately. He says he is sorry, but believes that blame should be shared collectively. He says the escapades of Gagarin and Titov encouraged him and Anikeyev to do the same. He says that his wife and five-year-old son want to stay with him. His pleas are to no avail. Meanwhile the cosmonauts still support limiting the next flights in space to two days, but Korolev is training Nikolayev and Popovich for three days anyway.

1962 April 12 - .
  • First Cosmonautics Day - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. Summary: The Central Committee has cleared Kamanin and Titov to travel to New York in May. But Kamanin believes they should instead be in Russia at that time for the Vostok 3/4 launches..

1962 April 20 - .
  • Cosmonaut tours - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Gagarin; Nikolayev; Popovich. Summary: Titov is now to go to America, while Gagarin is in Austria and Japan. Nikolayev and Bykosvky head for from in-suit parachute training at Fedosiya..

1962 April 21 - .
  • Titov tour - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Johnson, Lyndon. Summary: Titov is to go to New York, San Francisco, Seattle, and meet Vice President Lyndon Johnson. He is to head back on 1 May..

1962 April 23 - .
  • Titov again - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Titov's arrogance knows no bounds, Kamanin fumes. He wants to be included in decision-making sessions, he wants to take his wife with him on the US tour, and he wants his own jet. Meanwhile, the Americans are starting a major H-bomb test campaign in the South Pacific.

1962 April 29 - .
  • Titov in New York - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Kamanin, Titov, and Titov's wife arrive in New York City. They tour the sights, hold a press conference at the United Nations, and see the film 'Flight of a Man to the Moon' at Radio City Music Hall. The people in the city seem to swarm like ants to Kamanin. He notes they received great applause at the UN.

1962 May 2 - .
  • Titov in Washington - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Kamanin and Titov are greeted by Ambassador Dobrynin (who Kamanin notes graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute and worked as an engineer at Yakovlev's design bureau)..

1962 May 3 - .
  • Titov meets Glenn - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Glenn; Kennedy; Johnson, Lyndon. Spacecraft: Mercury. They view the Redstone and Atlas rockets and a Mercury space capsule. Kamanin finds the Mercury very cramped, but notes that it is equipped with all the necessities. Glenn tells him it was possible for the astronaut to wear a parachute, but Glenn chose not to - he didn't believe he could really use it in an emergency anyway. Afterwards they were introduced to President Kennedy and Vice-President Johnson.

1962 May 4 - .
  • Titov in Baltimore - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; von Braun; Glenn. Spacecraft: Mercury; Vostok. Titov and Kamanin meet journalist Drew Pierson, who claims that five Soviet cosmonauts died before Gagarin flew. They are introduced to Wernher Von Braun. In the afternoon they go to a barbecue at Glenn's house in Virginia. Kamanin carefully notes the technical information he has gleaned: Glenn wore no parachute; the Mercury's solid fuel retrorockets fire in 28 seconds, much more quickly and with more force than the Vostok's low-thrust liquid propellant engine; it is planned to launch a modernised version of Mercury on a one-day flight by the end of 1962; the astronauts train in the centrifuge to 16 G's (versus 12 G's for the cosmonauts); the NASA manned space headquarters is moving to Texas; Mercury is only capable of water landings, no work has been done on land landings or equipping the capsule with an ejection seat; several Amerrican women are considered fit for spaceflight, and the first American woman could make a three-orbit flight in the second half of 1962.

1962 May 6 - .
  • Titov at Seattle World Fair - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Kamanin and Titov visit the space exhibit at the US pavilion, including Glenn's Mercury capsule. Kamanin proudly notes that the fair had 75,000 visitors on the day the cosmonaut was there, compared to 25,000 to 27,000 on an average day..

1962 May 7 - .
  • Titov sick - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Kamanin and Titov arrive in San Francisco, but Titov is taken ill. .

1962 May 9 - .
  • Titov interview with Seventeen magazine - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Titov, the teen idol, back in New York, gives an exclusive interview to the teenybopper rag..

1962 May 10 - .
  • Titov in New Jersey - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Kamanin and Titov tour a Ford automobile factory in New Jersey. Kamanin notices two students standing outside with a placard: 'Titov - Yes! USSR - No!'.

1962 May 12 - .
  • Titov heads home - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Kamanin and Titov return to the Soviet Union on the route Halifax-Gander-Prestwick-Moscow. Kamanin notes with satisfaction that on their 12-day tour Titov held 20 press conferences and delivered eight speeches. Most importantly, he managed to give excellent and politically acceptable replies to all of the reporters' questions.

1962 June 22 - .
  • Zenit booster failure damages pad, delays Vostok 3/4 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Gagarin; Titov; Vershinin; Keldysh. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. A briefing by engineer V A Smirnov predicts that the Americans will make a 17-18 revolution flight of the earth by the end of 1962. Kamanin disagrees, believing they will not achieve this until the second half of 1963. Another Zenit-2 spy satellite has failed to achieve orbit. The first had failed due to a third stage problem, and now the third attempt failed due to a first stage problem. It blew up 300 m from the pad, and did enough damage to put the launch complex out of operation for a month. Therefore the Vostok 3/4 launches cannot now take place until the end of July at the earliest.

    Kamanin has continued arguments over the reorganisation of VVS space units and the role of IAKM. Korolev has never supported a leading role for the VVS or Kamanin in the Soviet space program. He is complaining about the 'offences' of the VVS, Kamanin, and the cosmonauts. Korolev cites Gagarin's trauma and Titov's motor accidents. He believes cosmonauts should be selected only from OKB-1 engineers. He also believes the cosmonauts are wasting too much time on publicity tours. Vershinin and Keldysh are hearing all of these complaints.

1962 July 6 - .
  • Titov again - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Kamanin reports that Titov is driving his Volga all over the country at high speed..

1962 July 14 - .
  • Titov again - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Titov is involved in another automobile accident at 4 am in the morning. Kamanin tries to contact him, but he has gone to Kiev and won't return his calls. .

1962 August 3 - .
  • Titov again - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ponomaryova; Kuznetsova; Titov; Korolev. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Vostok. Kamanin learns that Ponomaryova and Kuznetsova spent all night in TItov's apartment at TsPK. 'Dumb girls' he intones. Kamanin travels in a Lvov bus from Area 10 to Area 2, a distance of 40 km. Driving a Volga automobile, the stretch can now be done in only thirty minutes on the newly paved road. Korolev and his engineers are hard at work. Spacecraft number 5 is already in final tests, with Spacecraft 6 one to two days behind it in the processing flow. The launches will be observed by all of the female cosmonauts and 4 to 8 of the new engineer-cosmonauts.

1962 August 8 - .
  • Additional Vostok missions; launch preparations. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Nikolayev; Popovich; Korolev; Gagarin; Titov. Program: Vostok; Soyuz. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4; Vostok 5; Vostok 6; Vostok 6A; Vostok 7; Vostok 8; Vostok 9. Spacecraft: Vostok; Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. Kamanin discusses with Rudenko the need for construction and flight of ten additional Vostok spacecraft. Korolev still plans to have the first Soyuz spacecraft completed and flying by May 1963, but Kamanin finds this completely unrealistic. The satellite is still only on paper; he doesn't believe it will fly until 1964. If the Vostoks are not built, Kamanin believes the Americans will surpass the Russians in manned spaceflight in 1963-1964. From 13:00 to 14:00 Nikolayev spends an hour in his spacesuit in the ejection seat. Kamanin finds many mistakes in the design of the ejection seat. There is no room for error in disconnect of the ECS, in release of the seat, and so on. At 17:00 the State Commission holds a rally to fete Gagarin and Titov in the square in front of headquarters. Kamanin finds the event very warm but poorly organised. At 19:00 Smirnov chairs the meeting of the State Commission in the conference hall of the MIK. Korolev declares the spacecraft and launch vehicle ready; Kamanin declares the cosmonauts ready. Nikolayev is formally named the commanding officer of Vostok 3, and Popovich of Vostok 4. Rudenko gets Popovich's name wrong - his second serious mistake. He had earlier called the meeting for the wrong time.

1962 August 17 - .
  • Vostok 3/4 post-flight - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Popovich; Gagarin; Titov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. The cosmonauts continue their post-flight medical examinations, but everyone is suffering from hangovers from the celebration the night before. There was a stupid incident, with some of the leaders blaming Nikolayev of bad behaviour. Most of the commission leaves in the evening. In the afternoon the new heroes of the cosmos - Gagarin, Titov, Nikolayev, and Popovich - are taken boating, to the acclaim of crowds on the shore.

1963 January 31 - .
  • Smirnov opposed to dual female Vostok flight. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Smirnov; Titov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6; Vostok 6A. Spacecraft: Vostok. Smirnov only wants to fly two, not four Vostoks this year. One male, and one female cosmonaut would be launched in a group flight. Correct approvals cannot be obtained in time for manufacture of four Vostoks until August of this year. Later Kamanin has another scene with Titov. The cosmonaut was drunk on a factory visit, and defied the militia when confronted.

1963 May 4 - .
  • Kamanin informed that a dual spaceflight has been decreed within the next 6 weeks. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Volynov; Leonov; Khrunov; Tereshkova; Korolev; Titov; Alekseyev, Semyon. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6. Only today is Kamanin informed that a dual flight has been decreed within the next 3 to 6 weeks. The women are ready, but Bykovskiy and Volynov need a few parachute jumps and training in the hot mock-up. Leonov and Khrunov need additional centrifuge training as well. Bykovskiy and Volynov should be ready by 30 May, and Leonov and Khrunov by 15 June. Therefore earliest possible launch date is 5 to 15 June. Alekseyev's bureau is as always the pacing factor. He can adapt one of the female ejection seats for Bykovskiy, but not for Volynov. The space suit for Leonov will only be completed by 30 May. Kamanin talks to Korolev about dumping Alekseyev's bureau in the future. Cosmonaut parachute trainer Nikitin agrees that Bykovskiy can complete his parachute qualification at Fedosiya on 9-10 May. Further bad behaviour by Titov is reported during a trip to Kiev. He insulted an officer ('I am Titov, who are you?') and then had general's wives intervene on his behalf to get him out of trouble.

1963 May 17 - .
  • Problems with Titov again. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Titov; Volynov. Flight: Vostok 5. Spacecraft: Sokol SK-1. Problems with Titov again. While on a road trip with a journalist, he left a satchel with sensitive and classified papers unattended in his car - documents from Korolev, secret state decrees by the Supreme Soviet, etc. At 12:30 Volynov took Bykovskiy's place in the hot mock-up. Examination of Bykovskiy's suit showed that it had been incorrectly assembled.

1963 June 6 - .
  • Launches of Vostok 5 and 6 delayed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Bykovsky. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6. Spacecraft: Vostok. Launches of Vostok 5 and 6 are delayed due to failure of the command radio line. There were many such failures during preparation of the spacecraft. It will take three to four days to fix. Kamanin inspects the site for the planned cosmonaut quarters on the Syr Darya river. It is located next to Khrushchev's houses (which he has handed over to Chelomei for quartering his people) and the television centre. The building will face east, with a view of the river and a wooded island. Bykovskiy is run through a first 'practice press conference' to teach him the correct responses to questions. The military officers want to minimise press contacts with the cosmonauts in any case. But the kids in the town are mad about the cosmonauts -- the chanted from 6 to 11 pm in the evening outside their quarters, and Kamanin has seen teenage girls stand in the rain for hours for a chance to see Titov (and he never even came out as promised).

1963 September 23 - .
  • First child born to someone who has been in space. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: A daughter is born to Titov. This is the first child born to someone who has been in space. .

1964 January 15 - .
  • Titov's promotion blocked. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Reorganisation of the TsPK cosmonaut training centre is discussed. Titov's position in the new hierarchy is contested. Kamanin is shown a KGB file on Titov, citing numerous transgressions. There is nothing new in the file..

1964 January 23 - .
1964 March 27 - .
  • Voskhod candidates - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Bykovsky; Popovich; Korolev; Keldysh. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin works out with the other ministries the criteria for the Voskhod crew. The commander will be a trained unflown cosmonaut. The others have to be civilians. The VVS will be responsible for training the passengers on a three-month schedule. Candidates will be considered from OKB-1, the Academy of Science, the IAKM (Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine) and the DOSAAF civilian flying organisation. After General staff review, it is decided the commander will be a flown cosmonaut (Titov, Bykovsky, or Popovich): that Korolev will submit six engineer-cosmonaut candidates from within OKB-1; that Korolev will co-ordinate submittal of a small group of physician-cosmonaut candidates; and that Keldysh will submit scientists from the Academy.

1964 April 8 - .
  • Press preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Popovich; Nikolayev; Tereshkova; Bykovsky. Summary: Kamanin meets with 'The Six' (flown cosmonauts) and prepares them for the onslaught of scheduled appearances and press conferences scheduled for the upcoming Cosmonautics Day (April 12). .

1964 April 23 - .
  • Voskhod crews - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Popovich; Titov; Volynov; Leonov; Khrunov; Belyayev; Komarov; Demin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Komarov has declared that nine cosmonauts are spaceflight-ready: Bykovsky, Popovich, Titov, Volynov, Leonov, Khrunov, Belyayev, Komarov, and Demin. One of these will command Voskhod, the other two seats will be occupied by a physician and an engineer or news correspondent. Kamanin is given only two to three months to prepare the passengers for spaceflight - something he reiterates is a dangerous adventure.

1964 June 27 - .
  • Titov scandal - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Titov is accused of being responsible for a very serious hit-and-run traffic accident. He is cleared of the more serious charges..

1964 July 2 - .
  • Voskhod and Soyuz crewing - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Benderov; Polyakov; Volynov; Katys; Komarov; Yegorov; Sorokin; Lazarev; Feoktistov; Titov; Beregovoi. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 1; Soyuz A-4. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz A. Benderov has been washed out of training after haemorrhaging excessively during centrifuge training, and Polyakov after reacting poorly to the barometric chamber. This leaves only seven cosmonauts in training for the first mission: Volynov, Katys, Komarov, Yegorov, Sorokin, Lazarev, and Feoktistov. The first six are qualified for flight, but Feoktistiov cannot be admitted for parachute or flight training; his visual acuity is only 0.3. Later the cosmonaut party collective meets to take up the problem of Titov. He has made many errors: he drives and flies too fast, he has bad marital relations. But he is known not only to the entire country, but to the whole world. To disgrace him would not reflect only on him, but on all of the cosmonauts and the Soviet Union. Therefore it is finally decided not to take any public action, but to switch him and Beregovoi in the training order for the fourth Soyuz flight.

    Later Finogenov, head of the VVS range at Vladimirovka, informs Kamanin that flight trials of the new combination parachute/soft landing system will be delayed at least two weeks after the failure of one of the parachute canopy rings in static test.

1964 July 3 - .
  • Zero gravity effects - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glenn; Shepard; Titov. Kamanin reads an interesting Tass report. An American doctor named Wagner has suggested that balance disorders that afflict Glenn, Shepard, and Titov may have been due to zero gravity. Kamanin says that the report his wrong, that Titov never had such problems after the flight. But he has wondered whether his changed personality - hyperactive, undisciplined, unable to sit still - might be due to some effect of zero gravity. Kamanin calls the VVS Chief Flight Surgeon, Khlebnikov, who advises him that no such effects were seen in any of the cosmonauts after flight, that there was no deviation from their physiological norms.

1964 July 17 - .
  • Titov affair - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Titov's case is heard before the military procurator. He is found not culpable in the death of Fomenkov, but Kamanin finds he is not truthful regarding his movements that day..

1964 August 1 - .
  • Titov interviewed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Titov is reviewed by VVS officers. He is unrepentant and insists he did nothing wrong. Kamanin recites his sins - he has become remote from the cosmonaut collective, his is hanging out with riffraff such as writers and artists, he doesn't come home at night, he drinks too much, drives too fast, is undisciplined... the list goes on and on. He is going to be put under strict medical control and be closely supervised in the future. Afterwards Kamanin calls Korolev, who confirms that the first manned Voskhod will be impossible by the end of August, and there are so many technical issues that he has no idea when the first Vykhod flight will occur. Kamanin notes the Ranger 7 flight, and that the Americans are also catching up with the Soviet Union in the field of lunar and planetary probes....

1964 August 17 - .
  • Cosmonauts on tour - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Bykovsky; Popovich; Tereshkova; Nikolayev. Since 14 August most of the cosmonauts have been out of town. Gagarin is in Leningrad, Titov and Bykovsky in Kiev, Popovich in Lipetsk (being trained on the MiG-21), the Voskhod crews in Arkhangelsk. Only Tereshkova and Nikolayev remain in Moscow. Then comes the news that Popovich has injured his leg in a fall on some stairs. The incident came after Popovich picked up two 15-year old girls in his Volga.

1964 November 3 - .
  • Cosmonauts dispersed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Yegorov; Feoktistov; Gagarin; Nikolayev; Popovich; Tereshkova; Titov; Bykovsky; Biryuzov. Kamanin receives a phone call from Serbin in the Central Committee, demanding that all nine flown cosmonauts be present at the unveiling of a space obelisk in Moscow the next day, and be on the podium at Red Square on 7 November. This is impossible - the cosmonauts are dispersed on vacation, cure, or public relations missions. Gagarin, Nikolayev, Popovich, and Tereshkova are in Sochi, and after discussion, it seems they will be able to get back by the next day. But Titov and Bykovsky are in Odessa, and it will take them three days to get back. The VVS leadership is contacted to arrange special flights, otherwise all nine could only be gathered by 9-10 November.

    Kamanin receives the decree creating the new TsUKOS military organisation that will direct Soviet spaceflight. He is sure such a resolution would never have passed had Biryuzov not been killed in the plane crash. The VVS retains only its existing role of cosmonaut training.

1964 November 4 - .
  • Space obelisk unveiling - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Yegorov; Feoktistov; Gagarin; Titov; Nikolayev; Popovich; Tereshkova; Bykovsky; Brezhnev. Gagarin, Titov, Nikolayev, Popovich, Tereshkova, and Bykovsky have all managed to make it to Moscow by plane, and they meet at TsPK at 13:00. Kamanin takes the unique opportunity of having them all together to discuss plans for their higher engineering education at the Zhukovskiy Academy, plans for construction of new quarters at the TsPK, and an overview of planned future missions based on recent resolutions. At 14:30 the group departs in four Volga automobiles for Moscow. The unveiling ceremony is at 16:00. Brezhnev, Kosygin, Mikoyan, and other bigwigs are there as well.

1965 April 28 - .
  • Cosmonauts tour Leningrad - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Komarov; Belyayev; Leonov; Glushko. Program: Voskhod. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: Kamanin, Gagarin, Titov, Komarov, Belyayev, and Leonov began a major public relations tour of Leningrad. With Glushko they visit the Petropavlovsk Fortress, where he conducted the first rocket experiments in 1931. .

1965 June 26 - .
  • Poor progress on space trainers - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dementiev; Titov; Smirnov. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5; Voskhod 6. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Spiral OS; TMK-E; TMK-1; LK-1. Titov and Kamanin visit LII to review the status of simulator construction. The engineers haven't had any time to even consider trainers for winged spacecraft. The Soyuz trainer will only be completed by July 1966, and the trainer for the new Voskhod configuration is still on paper only. Simulators for manned lunar or planetary flights have not even been discussed yet. It is clear that Kamanin is going to have to go up the chain of command to Dementiev and Smirnov to get resources allocated for the work to be accelerated.

1965 July - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
  • Spiral cosmonaut team formed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Dobrovolsky; Filipchenko; Kuklin; Matinchenko. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. In 1965 the advanced project of the Mikoyan Spiral aerospace system was approved. The ambitious work plan indicted operation of a regular earth-orbit-earth reusable transportation system by the mid-1970's. With Gherman Titov as its head, a Spiral cosmonaut training group was formed (Titov, Dobrovolskiy, Filipchenko, Kuklin, Matinchenko) to train to fly the spaceplane.

1965 September 2 - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
1965 October 22 - .
1965 November 15 - .
  • Gagarin letter impact - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Brezhnev; Gagarin; Smirnov; Titov; Nikolayev; Komarov; Leonov; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich. Brezhnev has finally read Gagarin's letter, and forwarded it to Smirnov for a full report. Smirnov in turn has asked the commanders of the military branches to convene a soviet to address the issues raised in the letter. Marshal Sudets meets with cosmonauts Gagarin, Titov, Nikolayev, Komarov, Leonov, as well as Kamanin and Kuznetsov. There is a consensus that a single military branch should handle space - either VSS, PVO, or RVSN - but many are opposed to that branch being the VVS. The consensus is that the mission should be given to the PVO.

1965 November 23 - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
  • Spiral spaceplane - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov; Brezhnev; Titov; Filipchenko; Matinchenko; Mikoyan. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Gagarin, Belyayev, and Leonov are preparing for a meeting with Brezhnev. Nothing controversial is to be raised. The real issue now is to develop a winged, manned orbital spacecraft, and a winged booster stage for space launches. This will be essential to future manned military activities. Mikoyan's MiG bureau has been working on the orbital spaceplane, and Tupolev the winged booster stage. Titov, Filipchenko, and Matinchenko and a few other cosmonauts will coordinate with Mikoyan on development of the spaceplane design.

1966 January 4 - .
  • Korolev visits Cosmonaut Training Center - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Popovich; Nikolayev; Tereshkova; Bykovsky; Komarov; Belyayev; Leonov; Brezhnev; Korolev. Korolev visits the centre, and spends more than six hours with the cosmonauts. However he says nothing about concrete flight plans. Afterwards Kamanin meets with Gagarin, Titov, Popovvich, Nikolayev, Tereshkova, Bykovsky, Komarov, and Belyayev (Leonov is at courses at the Academy). A profound pessimism prevails. Nothing has come of the letter to Brezhnev.

1966 January 18 - .
  • Korolev buried in Red Square - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Brezhnev; Gagarin; Titov; Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Komarov; Popovich. The urn with Korolev's ashes is placed in the Kremlin Wall by an honor guard of cosmonauts and the highest leaders of the state. Kamanin knows that the like of Korolev will not be seen again. There are dozens of Chief Designers, but none with the genius, talent, and drive of Korolev. Kamanin worries for the future in the space race with the Americans. Even in life, Korolev was never able to achieve more than one or two spaceflights per year. Now, in 1966, they are supposed to achieve four times that flight rate without him.

1966 February 1 - .
  • Titov and Spiral - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Titov has really turned himself around. Since being assigned to the Spiral spaceplane project, he has become newly motivated and involved with the project. He has obtained training on the MiG-21, with 120 flight hours per year required in support of the programme. All of this in parallel with academic studies at the Zhukovskiy Academy.

1966 March 29 - .
1966 April 26 - .
  • Soyuz simulators - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Leonov; Volynov; Shonin; Zaikin; Gagarin; Solovyova; Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Gorbatko; Popovich. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The simulators and partial-task trainers continue very much behind schedule. There is talk of moving responsibility for them from Darevskiy's bureau to OKB-1. Popovich's fitness for future flight and command assignments is questionable. Nevertheless, he will join Titov, Leonov, Volynov, Shonin, Zaikin, Gagarin, and Solovyova at the Zhukovskiy Academy, from which they will be expected to graduate with advanced degrees in engineering in October 1967. Nikolayev, Bykovsky, and Gorbatko will finish one or two years later, since they will be preoccupied with flight assignments on the 7K-OK.

1966 April 29 - .
  • Cosmonaut travels - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popovich; Titov; Leonov; Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Kamanin plans to make Popovich and Titov deputy commanders of cosmonaut detachments preparing for flight of the Soyuz 7K-OK and Spiral spaceplane. Leonov is back from a tour of France; Titov is preparing to go to Afghanistan, and Tereshkova to Armenia. But that night Titov does not come home - he is hanging out again with artists and other unacceptable types.

1966 May 6 - .
  • Voskhod 3 go-ahead - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Shonin; Beregovoi; Shatalov; Popovich; Titov; Gagarin; Nikolayev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin receives the order to prepare Volynov and Shatalov and their crews for a 20-27 May launch date. The commanders are understandably upset about the constant postponements. Later the continuing transgressions of Popovich and Titov are discussed with Gagarin and Nikolayev. Are they really fit to be detachment commanders?

1966 September 2 - .
1967 January 5 - .
  • Cosmonaut training status - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Brezhnev; Titov. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz; Almaz. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1; Almaz OPS; Soyuz VI. Crews are in training for Voskhod, Soyuz, Lunar L-1, Almaz, and 7K-VI missions. There will be 100 cosmonauts in training by February. Meanwhile the Americans have conducted 10 manned flights since the last Soviet manned flight in March 1965. The cosmonauts want Kamanin to be training 8 crews for L-1 translunar flights, but he only has 4 in training. He doesn't think it is worth to train more, since if one successful L-1 flight is conducted before the 50th Anniversary of the Soviet Union in November 1957, all subsequent flights will be cancelled. Additional Details: here....

1967 March 12 - .
  • Spiral and Soyuz training - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Nikolayev. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Spiral OS; Soyuz 7K-OK. Titov visits Kamanin on leave from test pilot duties at Vladimirovka. Titov will spend a year training as a test pilot on MiG-21, Su-7, and Su-9 aircraft. He flies well, and has matured and changed for the better over the last two years. Kamanin has talked to him 3 or 4 times about his future plans. Titov has bound his future with the Spiral spaceplane programme. Additional Details: here....

1967 November 25 - .
  • Titov in France. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Titov is on tour in France. Kamanin notes that Titov used to make many mistakes, but has now reformed..

1967 December - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
1968 January 19 - .
  • Gagarin and Titov visit Tereshkova in the hospital. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Tereshkova. Summary: In 1967, the average cosmonaut who had already flown in space spent 50 days on public relations activities and tours - a serious loss to them in terms of training for future missions..

1968 January 27 - .
  • Cosmonauts take case against Mishin to VVS high command. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Popovich; Belyayev; Leonov; Chelomei; Mishin; Ustinov; Afanasyev, Sergei. Program: Lunar L1; Almaz. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI; Almaz OPS. Kamanin, Gagarin, Titov, Popovich, Belyayev, and Leonov meet with Marshal Yakabovskiy. They inform him that Mishin is blocking further development of the 7K-VI military manned spacecraft and also trying to kill Chelomei's Almaz military space station. They get nowhere. The Marshal says that while he doesn't understand much about space himself, Ustinov had assured him that Mishin and Afanasyev were taking all measures necessary to correct the necessary material...

1968 March 13 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • L3 project plan. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Feoktistov. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK; LK. Titov is going to Italy, Feoktistov to Hungary. The 30 month program for the L3 lunar landing is settled. The cosmonauts already began training in January. The first LK lunar lander will be tested in low earth orbit in the second half of 1969. The first Soviet manned lunar landing cannot take place any earlier than 1970-1971. The resolution had set the date as 1967-1968, but the N1 and L3 will not be ready in time. The L3 is still conceptual, a purely paper spacecraft. The first N1 was to have been moved to the pad by March of this year, but it won't even make that milestone by May.

1968 April 27 - .
  • Kamanin proposes organising the cosmonauts into two detachments. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Titov; Popovich; Matinchenko; Belyayev. Nikolayev is to be commander of the first group, with Leonov as his deputy. Titov would command the second group, with Popovich as his deputy. But Kamanin doesn't consider any of them to be command officer material yet. The automobile accidents of Popovich, the mess that led to Matinchenko's dismissal, the bad performance of Belyayev in his duties as chief of staff of the VVS group at Baikonur - none of these men have any discipline!

1968 April 29 - .
  • Mishin '2+2' scenario for the next manned Soyuz flight. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Titov. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Mishin calls Kamanin and asks what he would think of a revised scenario for the next manned Soyuz flight. Mishin's '2+2' concept would call for four, instead of five cosmonauts, aboard two Soyuz capsules with transfer of only one cosmonaut by EVA. He gives Kamanin until 6 May to give his opinion on the change of plan. Titov is planning on selling his Volga automobile and buying a Moskovich.

1968 May 11 - .
  • Cosmonaut jet trainers. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Nikolayev; Leonov; Belyayev; Bykovsky; Popovich; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich. Holidays - in the first ten days of May, the civilians work only two days, while the military must work four. Kamanin assigns cosmonauts to the State Commission that will select the design for the Gagarin memorial obelisk. He then reviews cosmonaut pilot aircraft type qualifications. Titov is current on the Su-7, MiG-21, and several other high-performance aircraft. Nikolayev and Leonov are still certified to fly two or three MiG fighter types. Belyayev, Bykovsky, Popovich, Kutachov, and the others are only current on the L-29 trainer. The L-29 is 20 times more reliable than the MiG-21 or Su-7, and the MiG-15 trainer is 4x to 5x more reliable than the high performance types. In general the cosmonauts are against plans to move the air regiment to TsPK from Chkalovsky air field due to greater air space restrictions over Moscow.

1968 May 22 - .
  • Mishin pushes for '1+2' Soyuz mission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Mishin; Khrunov. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Titov is to tour. He will spend the next two days in Semipalatinsk, then go to Italy in the first week of June. He has been offered command of the second unit at TsPK, but says he doesn't want to be an administrator. He would rather pursue a career as a test pilot, at either OKB MiG or GNIKI VVS. Mishin is now pushing for a 1+2 Soyuz mission in August on safety grounds. He is also still pushing Khrunov as a spacecraft commander, even though Khrunov has no training in manual docking and it would take at least two months to train and qualify him.

1968 July 3 - .
  • VPK confirms Soyuz flight plans. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Titov; Popovich; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich; Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The VPK confirms the Soyuz flight plan - a 0+1 mission to be followed by a 1+3 mission with crew transfer. Chiefs of the cosmonaut detachments are confirmed and announced. Nikolayev will be Deputy Chief of TsPK; Bykovsky, Commander of the First Detachment of Cosmonauts; Titov, Commander of the Second Detachment, and Popovich, Deputy Commander of the Second Detachment. Kuznetsov, Belyayev, and Leonov are not happy with these appointments. The General Staff also approves creation of a fourth training detachment at TsPK, charged with flight, engineering, and experiment development - requiring an additional 200 staff.

1968 September 20 - .
  • Kamanin hold a cosmonaut meeting. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Titov; Beregovoi. Program: Lunar L1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Tereshkova is having political problems. Titov is to go to Mexico, although he still is making errors of judgement which make it questionable whether he can be trusted on foreign tours. Beregovoi is to complete his cosmonaut examinations on 27 September, and then will be certified for flight.

1968 September 27 - .
  • Cosmonauts on tour. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Leonov; Beregovoi. Program: Soyuz. Summary: Titov is in Mexico, Leonov is serving on the sculpture commission for Gagarin and space monuments. Beregovoi confides to a film crew that the members of the original cosmonaut group are opposed to his making a spaceflight..

1968 November 20 - .
  • Soviet manned circumlunar flight set for February - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Leonov. Program: Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. Titov still would prefer to be a test pilot, not a cosmonaut. The Soyuz group is scheduled to complete their training and to depart for the cosmodrome on 20 December for final preparations. Leonov's L1 group is to complete their training on 20 January 1969, then depart to the cosmodrome for a flight to the moon in February.

1968 December 15 - .
  • Cosmonauts graduate. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Leonov; Popovich; Bykovsky; Khrunov; Gorbatko; Zaikin; Volynov; Shonin; Ponomaryova; Solovyova; Tereshkova; Kuznetsova; Yerkina; Titov; Gagarin. Nikolayev, Leonov, Popovich, Bykovsky, Khrunov, Gorbatko, Zaikin, Volynov, and Shonin all receive their diplomas from the Zhukovskiy Test Pilot Engineering Academy. Khrunov graduates with honours. All of them began training for a lunar landing on January 8. Titov and Gagarin will complete their studies for the diploma in May. Ponomareva and Solovyova willl graduate in the second half of 1968, leaving only Tereshkova, Kuznetsova, and Yerkina. Tereshkova has had her appendix removed in surgery at the Vishevskiy Centre. The surgery went well.

1969 February 10 - .
1969 April 18 - .
  • Titov in trouble - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: There is an incident between Titov and a movie crew. This is the first such altercation he has had in three years but is still very serious..

1969 July 2 - .
  • Borman arrives in USSR - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Borman; Feoktistov; Titov; Shatalov. Borman arrives from Canada at 04:40 after further delay. His wife is worried that the weather in Novosibirsk might be called (it's 32 deg C there!). By 11:00 they are already packed onto a Tu-124 bound for Leningrad together with Feoktistov, Titov and his wife, Shatalov, and 30 foreign correspondents. There are hardly any Soviet correspondents - the government has ordered them not to cover the visit.

1969 July 3 - .
  • Grechko has agreed to the selection of 30 new cosmonauts - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Grechko, Andrei; Titov; Borman. Summary: Titov test flew a MiG-21. Borman visit is continuing according to plan..

1969 July 5 - .
  • Borman tours the officer's quarters at the Gagarin Centre. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Borman; Tereshkova; Shatalov; Beregovoi; Popovich; Volynov. Flight: Apollo 8; Soyuz 4/5. On the key day of his visit to Russia, Tereshkova shows Mrs Borman around, while Shatalov accompanies Mr Borman. Borman shows the cosmonauts a film on his Apollo 8 mission and answers questions. Then the Soviets show him exce3rpts from the films 'Road to Space' (on the Gagarin mission) and 'Four in Space' (on the Soyuz 4/5 mission). Beregovoi gives the Bormans a model of the Vostok, Popovich a photo album, and Titov guides them through the museum. In the evening twenty attend a dinner where toasts are exchanged in the Russian manner. Borman and Volynov exchange wristwatches. Borman presented Titov with the watch he received from President Johnson after the Gemini 7 mission - it is to be put in the museum. Eight hours are spent in total at Star City. Kamanin finds Borman to be disciplined and precise. He is at the same time a skilled orator, diplomat, and born politician.

1969 August 28 - .
  • Titov flew the MiG-21 again today. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: He is flying 30 hours per month now. Kamanin finds him a fine fellow with a great zest for life..

1969 October 27 - .
  • Cosmonauts tours. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Feoktistov; Tereshkova; Popovich; Khrunov; Titov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Kamanin assigns cosmonauts to upcoming foreign propaganda tours. Beregovoi and Feoktistov are to go to the United States, Tereshkova to Hungary, Popovich to France, Khrunov to Odessa. Titov will not be given this privilege because of his numerous automobile accidents, run-ins with the militia, and motorcycle habit.

1969 October 29 - .
  • Titov wants out of the cosmonaut corps - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Titov wants out of the cosmonaut corps after hearing of his being banned from foreign travel. He is suffering a heavy penalty for his indiscretions. He has been banned from driving an automobile or flying an aircraft for two years, and lost his honoraria..

1970 March 18 - .
  • Shonin on report - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Tereshkova; Shonin; Titov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Nikolayev and crew go to Sochi. Tereshkova is back from sick leave, and she goes there as well. Kamanin meets with Shonin, the topic: many bad reports he has received of Shonin's behaviour since Soyuz 6. He tells him to watch out, or he'll end up on a five-year flight suspension like Titov.

1970 April 7 - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
  • Spiral spaceplane programme stalled - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Goreglyad; Frolov; Titov; Mikoyan; Afanasyev, Sergei; Dementiev; Kutakhov. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Kamanin reviews the Spiral manned spaceplane program with Goreglyad, Frolov, and cosmonaut Titov. Work on the KLA orbiter began in 1961-1962. In the following eight years Kamanin has tried to push the leadership many times to accelerate the project, but without result. Still, the work is proceeding, albeit very slowly. Mikoyan has decided the first phase of the project will use rocket launch only - the air-breathing winged first stage will only be introduced later. Afanasyev has finally responded to the project, only to declare that the KLA must be not only for military missions, but serve as a transport shuttle for civilian space missions as well. Dementiev is holding the whole project up because he doesn't want to overburden the aircraft design bureaux and factories. And Kutakhov won't push the program without Dementiev's support.

1970 April 27 - .
  • Soyuz 9 book. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Summary: Kamanin works at his dacha on his proposed book on Soyuz 9 (to be ghost-written by Mikahil Debrov). Debrov will be in Japan in May, while Kamanin must go to Tyuratam for the Soyuz 9 mission. Titov is trying to get his flight ban lifted..

1970 July 27 - .
  • Titov in trouble again. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Titov has been in another automobile accident, and has again been prohibited from driving..

1970 July 31 - .
  • Titov's privileges at risk. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Kamanin meets with Titov. In his nine-year cosmonaut career, Titov has had ten major disciplinary incidents. Kamanin tells him this is the last time -- one more incident, and he will be removed from the General Staff Academy, stripped of his titles, and lose his benefits. He doesn't seem to take Kamanin seriously - to the world, he is still Cosmonaut#2, the second man in orbit...

1970 October 6 - .
  • Spiral spaceplane project review. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mikoyan; Dementiev; Grechko, Andrei; Zakharov; Krylov; Titov. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Meeting with the Spiral spaceplane cosmonaut training group. Mikoyan and Dementiev (son of the MAP Minister) have been working on this project for four years. Many in the leadership (Grechko, Zakharov, Krylov, etc) are against the concept and hinder the project in any way the can. Grechko considers it 'a fantasy' and Kutakhov does not support it energetically. Engineer-Colonel Sokolov-Sokolenik is the head of the unit (having replaced Titov, who is now in staff school). The United States has hundreds of flights on the X-15, which they have taken to 90 km altitude and 7000 km/hour airspeed. In the Soviet Union, all such work has been frozen for a decade.

2000 September 20 - .
  • Cosmonaut Gherman Stepanovich Titov dies at age of 65 -- Heart attack in a sauna. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 2. Second person in orbit. Youngest person in space. Left cosmonaut team for brilliant career in the space forces after deciding his future spaceflight prospects were nil..

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use