Encyclopedia Astronautica
Schmitt



ischmitt.jpg
Schmitt
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
Schmitt, Dr Harrison Hagan 'Jack' (1935-) American geologist astronaut. Flew on Apollo 17. Twelvth person and only geologist to walk on the moon.

Educated CalTech; Harvard. Total EVA Time: 0.97 days. Number of EVAs: 6.

NAME: Harrison H. Schmitt

BIRTHPLACE AND DATE: Schmitt was born July 3, 1935, in Santa Rita, New Mexico.

EDUCATION: Bachelor of Science degree in science from the California Institute of Technology in 1957. Doctorate of Philosophy in Geology from Harvard University in 1964.

EXPERIENCE: Schmitt worked with the Norwegian Geological Survey on the west coast of Norway and for the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico and Montana. He also worked two summers as a geologist in Alaska. Schmitt was involved in photo and telescopic mapping of the moon with the U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Center at Flagstaff, Arizona, when NASA selected him in June 1965 in its first group of scientist-astronauts.

Because he was not a pilot, he attended a 53-week course in flight training at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, receiving his Air Force jet pilot wings and later his Navy helicopter wings. While training for a moon mission, Schmitt provided Apollo flight crews with detailed instruction in lunar navigation, geology and feature recognition. He also assisted in the integration of scientific activities into Apollo missions and helped analyse lunar soil samples returned by the astronauts.

Schmitt originally was assigned to the Apollo 18 crew, but when that flight was cancelled, he was moved up to Apollo 17 under pressure from the scientific community. He became the only scientist to set foot on the moon.

Apollo 17 was launched December 7, 1972, and three days later Schmitt and Commander Gene Cernan landed their Lunar Module in Taurus-Littrow, while Ron Evans orbited overhead in the Command Module. Schmitt and Cernan made three Lunar Rover traverses over as many days. On December 19, the last men on the moon came home, splashing down in a safe landing in the Pacific Ocean.

Schmitt resigned from NASA in 1975 to run for the U.S. Senate in his home state of New Mexico. He was elected November 2, 1976, and served one six-year term. In his last two years, he was chairman of the Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space. He then became an independent consultant in science, technology, and public policy in Albuquerque, New Mexico.


Birth Place: Santa Rita, New Mexico.
Status: Inactive.


Born: 1935.07.03.
Spaceflights: 1 .
Total time in space: 12.58 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Astronaut Category of persons, applied to those trained for spaceflight outside of Russia and China. More...
  • NASA Group 4 - 1965 Requirement: scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and Apollo applications earth-orbit space station missions. Nickname: The Scientists. More...

Associated Flights
  • Apollo 15 Crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. First use of lunar rover on moon. Beautiful images of crew prospecting at edge of Hadley Rille. One of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but survivable splashdown. Backup crew: Brand, Gordon, Schmitt. More...
  • Apollo 17 Crew: Cernan, Evans, Schmitt. Final Apollo lunar landing mission. First geologist to walk on the moon. Backup crew: Duke, Roosa, Young. More...
  • Apollo 18 Crew: Gordon, Brand, Schmitt. Apollo 18 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in the moon's Schroter's Valley, a riverlike channel-way. The original February 1972 landing date was extended when NASA cancelled the Apollo 20 mission in January 1970.Support crew: Allen, Henize, Parker. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Apollo The successful US project to land a man on the moon. More...

Schmitt Chronology


1965 June 28 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 4 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott; Gibson, Edward; Graveline; Kerwin; Michel; Schmitt. The group was selected to provide scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and earth-orbit space station missions.. Qualifications: Doctorate in natural sciences, medicine, or engineering. Under 35 years old, under 183 cm height, excellent health. US citizen.. 1,351 applicants. The National Academy of Science was responsible for the final selection. NASA planned to select up to twenty, but the quality of the applicants was considered so poor that only six were named. Of those, four would fly in space. Geologist Schmitt would walk on the moon on the last Apollo mission, and only after pressure from the scientific community. The other three would fly on Skylab. Only Garriot would fly twice, supplementing his 59 days on Skylab with a ten-day shuttle mission.

1971 July 26 - . 13:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-510.
  • Apollo 15 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Irwin; Scott; Worden. Backup Crew: Brand; Gordon; Schmitt. Payload: Apollo CSM 112/LM 10/ ALSEP/ LRV-1/PFS 1/S-IVB-510. Mass: 30,343 kg (66,894 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Irwin; Scott; Worden; Brand; Gordon; Schmitt. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 12.30 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 5351 . COSPAR: 1971-063A. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 29.6800 deg. Period: 87.84 min. Apollo 15 (AS-510) with astronauts David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden, and James B. Irwin aboard was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 9:34 a.m. EDT July 26. The spacecraft and S-IVB combination was placed in an earth parking orbit 11 minutes 44 seconds after liftoff. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection (insertion into the trajectory for the moon) were similar to those of previous lunar landing missions. Translunar injection was at about 12:30 p.m., with separation of the CSM from the LM/S-IVB/IU at 12:56 p.m. At 1:08 p.m., onboard color TV showed the docking of the CSM with the LM.

    S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system burns sent the S-IVB/IU stages toward the moon, where they impacted the lunar surface at 4:59 p.m. EDT July 29. The point of impact was 188 kilometers northeast of the Apollo 14 landing site and 355 kilometers northeast of the Apollo 12 site. The impact was detected by both the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 seismometers, left on the moon in November 1969 and February 1971.

    After the translunar coast, during which TV pictures of the CSM and LM interiors were shown and the LM communications and other systems were checked, Apollo 15 entered lunar orbit at 4:06 p.m. EDT July 29.

    The LM-10 Falcon, with astronauts Scott and Irwin aboard, undocked and separated from the Endeavor (CSM 112) with astronaut Worden aboard. At 6:16 p.m. EDT July 30, the Falcon landed in the Hadley-Apennine region of the moon 600 meters north-northwest of the proposed target. About two hours later, following cabin depressurization, Scott performed a 33-minute standup EVA in the upper hatch of the LM, during which he described and photographed the landing site.

    The first crew EVA on the lunar surface began at 9:04 a.m. July 31. The crew collected and stowed a contingency sample, unpacked the ALSEP and other experiments, and prepared the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) for operations. Some problems were encountered in the deployment and checkout of the LRV, used for the first time, but they were quickly resolved. The first EVA traverse was to the Apennine mountain front, after which the ALSEP was deployed and activated, and one probe of a Heat Flow experiment was emplaced. A second probe was not emplaced until EVA-2 because of drilling difficulties. The first EVA lasted 6 hours 33 minutes.

    At 7:49 a.m. EDT August 1, the second EVA began. The astronauts made a maintenance check on the LRV and then began the second planned traverse of the mission. On completion of the traverse, Scott and Irwin completed the placement of heat flow experiment probes, collected a core sample, and deployed the American flag. They then stowed the sample container and the film in the LM, completing a second EVA of 7 hours 12 minutes.

    The third EVA began at 4:52 a.m. August 2, included another traverse, and ended 4 hours 50 minutes later, for a total Apollo 15 lunar surface EVA time of 18 hours 35 minutes.

    While the lunar module was on the moon, astronaut Worden completed 34 lunar orbits in the CSM operating scientific instrument module experiments and cameras to obtain data concerning the lunar surface and environment. X-ray spectrometer data indicated richer abundance of aluminum in the highlands, especially on the far side, but greater concentrations of magnesium in the maria.

    Liftoff of the ascent stage of the LM, the first one to be televised, occurred at 1:11 p.m. EDT August 2. About two hours later the LM and CSM rendezvoused and docked, and film, equipment, and 77 kilograms of lunar samples were transferred from the LM to the CSM. The ascent stage was jettisoned and hit the lunar surface at 11:04 p.m. EDT August 2. Its impact was recorded by the Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Apollo 15 seismometers, left on the moon during those missions. Before leaving the lunar orbit, the spacecraft deployed a subsatellite, at 4:13 p.m. August 4, in an orbit of 141.3 by 102 kilometers. The satellite would measure interplanetary and earth magnetic fields near the moon. It also carried charged-particle sensors and equipment to detect variations in lunar gravity caused by mascons (mass concentrations).

    A transearth injection maneuver at 5:23 p.m. August 4 put the CSM on an earth trajectory. During the transearth coast, astronaut Worden performed an inflight EVA beginning at 11:32 a.m. August 5 and lasting for 38 minutes 12 seconds. He made three trips to the scientific instrument module (SIM) bay of the SM, twice to retrieve cassettes and once to observe the condition of the instruments in the SIM bay.


1972 December 7 - . 05:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-512.
  • Apollo 17 - . Call Sign: America. Crew: Cernan; Evans; Schmitt. Backup Crew: Duke; Roosa; Young. Payload: Apollo CSM 114/LM 12/ ALSEP/ LRV-3/S-IVB-512. Mass: 30,342 kg (66,892 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Evans; Schmitt; Duke; Roosa; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 12.58 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 6300 . COSPAR: 1972-096A. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 28.5260 deg. Period: 87.83 min. Apollo 17 (AS-512), the final Apollo manned lunar landing mission, was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 12:33 a.m. EST December 7. Crew members were astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmitt. The launch had been delayed 2 hours 40 minutes by a countdown sequencer failure, the only such delay in the Apollo program caused by a hardware failure.

    All launch vehicle systems performed normally in achieving an earth parking orbit of 170 by 168 kilometers. After checkout, insertion into a lunar trajectory was begun at 3:46 a.m.; translunar coast time was shortened to compensate for the launch delay. CSM 114 transposition, docking with LM-12, and LM ejection from the launch vehicle stage were normal. The S-IVB stage was maneuvered for lunar impact, striking the surface about 13.5 kilometers from the preplanned point at 3:27 p.m. EST December 10. The impact was recorded by the passive seismometers left on the moon by Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16.

    The crew performed a heat flow and convection demonstration and an Apollo light-flash experiment during the translunar coast. The scientific instrument module door on the SM was jettisoned at 10:17 a.m. EST December 10. The lunar orbit insertion maneuver was begun at 2:47 p.m. and the Apollo 17 spacecraft entered a lunar orbit of 315 by 97 kilometers. After separation of the LM Challenger from the CSM America and a readjustment of orbits, the LM began its powered descent and landed on the lunar surface in the Taurus-Littrow region at 2:55 p.m. EST on December 11, with Cernan and Schmitt.

    The first EVA began about 4 hours later (6:55 p.m.). Offloading of the lunar roving vehicle and equipment proceeded as scheduled. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package was deployed approximately 185 meters west northwest of the Challenger. Astronaut Cernan drove the lunar roving vehicle to the experiments deployment site, drilled the heat flow and deep core holes, and emplaced the neutron probe experiment. Two geological units were sampled, two explosive packages deployed, and seven traverse gravimeter measurements were taken. During the 7-hour 12-minute EVA, 14 kilograms of samples were collected.

    The second extravehicular activity began at 6:28 p.m. EST December 12. Because of geological interest, station stop times were modified. Orange soil was discovered and became the subject of considerable geological discussion. Five surface samples and a double core sample were taken in the area of the orange soil. Three explosive packages were deployed, seven traverse gravimeter measurements were taken, and observations were photographed. Samples collected totaled 34 kilograms during the 7 hours and 37 minutes of the second EVA.

    The third and final EVA began at 5:26 p.m. EST December 13. Specific sampling objectives were accomplished. Samples - including blue-gray breccias, fine-grained vesicular basalts, crushed anorthositic rocks, and soils - weighed 66 kilograms. Nine traverse gravimeter measurements were made. The surface electrical properties experiment was terminated. Before reentering the LM, the crew selected a breccia rock to dedicate to the nations represented by students visiting the Mission Control Center. A plaque on the landing gear of the lunar module, commemorating all of the Apollo lunar landings, was then unveiled. After 7 hours 15 minutes, the last Apollo EVA on the lunar surface ended. Total time of the three EVAs was approximately 22 hours; the lunar roving vehicle was driven 35 kilometers, and about 115 kilograms of lunar sample material was acquired.

    While Cernan and Schmitt were exploring the lunar surface, Evans was conducting numerous scientific activities in the CSM in lunar orbit. In addition to the panoramic camera, the mapping camera, and the laser altimeter, three new scientific instrument module experiments were included in the Apollo 17 orbital science equipment. An ultraviolet spectrometer measured lunar atmospheric density and composition; an infrared radiometer mapped the thermal characteristics of the moon; and a lunar sounder acquired data on the subsurface structure.

    Challenger lifted off the moon at 5:55 p.m. EST December 14. Rendezvous with the orbiting CSM and docking were normal. The two astronauts transferred to the CM with samples and equipment and the LM ascent stage was jettisoned at 1:31 a.m. December 15. Its impact on the lunar surface about 1.6 kilometers from the planned target was recorded by four Apollo 17 geophones and the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 seismometers emplaced on the surface. The seismic experiment explosive packages that had been deployed on the moon were detonated as planned and recorded on the geophones.

    During the coast back to earth, Evans left the CSM at 3:27 p.m. EST December 17 for a 1-hour 7-minute inflight EVA and retrieved lunar sounder film and panoramic and mapping camera cassettes from the scientific instrument module bay. The crew conducted the Apollo light- flash experiment and operated the infrared radiometer and ultraviolet spectrometer.

    Reentry, landing, and recovery were normal. The command module parachuted into the mid-Pacific at 2:25 p.m. EST December 19, 6.4 kilometers from the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. Ticonderoga. The crew was picked up by helicopter and was on board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga 52 minutes after the CM landed. All primary mission objectives had been achieved.


1972 December 12 - . 23:54 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 17-1 - . Crew: Cernan; Schmitt. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Schmitt. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Summary: Explored lunar surface near LM and deployed ALSEP unmanned scientific station equipment..

1972 December 13 - . 23:28 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 17-2 - . Crew: Cernan; Schmitt. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.32 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Schmitt. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo LRV. Summary: Drove in lunar rover to South Massif..

1972 December 14 - . 22:25 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 17-3 - . Crew: Cernan; Schmitt. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.30 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Schmitt. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo LRV. Summary: Drove in lunar rover to North Massif..

1972 December 15 - .
  • EVA Apollo 17-5 - . Crew: Cernan; Schmitt. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0007 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Schmitt. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Summary: Threw excess equipment out of LM before lift-off..

1972 December 15 - .
  • EVA Apollo 17-4 - . Crew: Cernan; Schmitt. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0014 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Schmitt. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Summary: Threw excess equipment out of LM before lift-off..

1972 December 17 - . 20:27 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 17-6 - . Crew: Evans; Schmitt. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0458 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Evans; Schmitt. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Deep space retrieval of film cartridges from Service Module..

1972 December 19 - .
  • Landing of Apollo 17 - . Return Crew: Cernan; Evans; Schmitt. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Evans; Schmitt. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 17. Reentry, landing, and recovery were normal. The Apollo 17 command module parachuted into the mid-Pacific at 19:25 GMT, 6.4 kilometers from the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. Ticonderoga. The crew was picked up by helicopter and was on board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga 52 minutes after the CM landed. Manned exploration of the moon had ended.

1973 July - .
  • Apollo 18 (cancelled) - . Crew: Gordon; Brand; Schmitt. Support Crew: Allen; Henize; Parker. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon; Brand; Schmitt; Allen; Henize; Parker. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 18. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The most likely landing site was the crater Gassendi. Before the cancellation, astronaut-geologist Schmitt was pressing for a more ambitious landing in Tycho or the lunar farside. NASA cancelled Apollo 18 and 19 on 2 September 1970 because of congressional cuts in FY 1971 NASA appropriations. Pressure from the scientific community resulted in geologist Schmitt flying on Apollo 17, the last lunar mission, bumping Joe Engle from the lunar module pilot slot.

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