Encyclopedia Astronautica
Rukavishnikov



irukolai.jpg
Rukavishnikov
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
Rukavishnikov, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1932-2002) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 10, Soyuz 16, Salyut 6 EP-5-1.

Call sign: Saturn (Saturn). Rukavishnikov graduated from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute and was immediately swept into the burgeoning Soviet space industry. From 1957 to 1967 he was an engineer with the Korolev OKB, and in 1967 (aged 34) became a cosmonaut. He was a member of one of the two-man teams training for the L-1 (Zond) manned circumlunar mission, until it was cancelled in 1969. He was then to have been on the first Salyut space station crew but a docking problem forced his crew to land early in April 1971. When a second crew succeeded in boarding the station in June, Rukavishnikov was named to the third crew for a flight in August but that mission was cancelled following the death of the second crew on their return to Earth. Following further Salyut failures in 1972 and 1973, Rukavishnikov was named to a crew which performed a shake-down test of the ASTP modifications, in December 1974, on a non-docking 6-day orbital mission. In April 1979 he flew as commander of Soyuz-33, which failed to dock at Salyut-6 due to an engine malfunction.His last chance to visit a space station came in April 1984 when he was on the crew of Soyuz T-11. However, he was replaced due to an illness, and resigned from the cosmonaut corps (age 51). He returned to full-time work at the Korolev team, by now known as NPO-Energia (later RSC-Energia). Died of a heart attack.

Birth Place: Tomsk, Tomsk.
Status: Deceased.


Born: 1932.09.18.
Died: 2002.10.18.
Spaceflights: 3 .
Total time in space: 9.88 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Cosmonaut Category of persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia. More...

Associated Flights
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2 Crew: Bykovsky, Rukavishnikov. Planned second Soviet circumlunar flight. Cancelled after the success of the American Apollo 8. Backup crew: Klimuk. More...
  • Soyuz 10 Crew: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Intended first space station mission. Hard dock with station could not be achieved. Then stuck and could separate from the station only after repeated attempts. Toxic fumes in air supply during landing overcame one astronaut. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov.Support crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. More...
  • Soyuz 12 / DOS 1 Crew: Kolodin, Leonov, Rukavishnikov. If the Soyuz 11 crew had not perished during return to the earth, the Leonov crew would have been sent for a second visit to the Salyut 1 space station. A 30-day mission duration was planned. Backup crew: Gubarev, Sevastyanov, Voronov. More...
  • Soyuz 16 Crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz systems modified for Apollo-Soyuz docking in space. Backup crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov.Support crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. First docking between two spacecraft launched from different nations. Culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a US/Soviet common docking system. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov.Support crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Salyut 6 EP-2 Crew: Gubarev, Remek. First Czech astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Pelczak, Rukavishnikov. More...
  • Salyut 6 EP-5-1 Crew: Ivanov Georgi, Rukavishnikov. First Bulgarian astronaut. Manned two crew. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Aleksandrov Aleksandr, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz T-3A Crew: Lazarev, Polyakov, Strekalov. Planned but cancelled manned flight. Crew dissolved when Lazarev failed physical in early 1981. Backup crew: Isaulov, Potapov, Rukavishnikov. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • ASTP Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Meetings began in 1969 between Russian and American representatives on a joint manned space mission. Ambitious plans for use of Skylab or Salyut space stations were not approved. Instead it was decided to develop a universal docking system for space rescue. A working group was set up in October 1970 and in May 1972 the USA/USSR Agreement was signed with launch to take place in 1975. D Bushuev and G Lanin were the technical directors of the Soviet-designed EPAS docking system program. 1600 experiments were conducted in developing the system. More...
  • Salyut The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans. More...
  • Salyut 6 Mishin was authorised in December 1973 to build an improved design DOS-5 version of the Salyut station using Almaz facilities. Mishin's bureau borrowed the two docking port configuration of Chelomei's Almaz OPS-2 This station's second docking port would allow rotation of crews and resupply/refueling using unmanned Progress spacecraft. More...

Rukavishnikov Chronology


1966 September 2 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1967 January 17 - .
1967 January 31 - .
1967 October 15 - .
  • Meeting on crew selections for the L3 program. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich; Gagarin; Leonov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Popovich; Voronov; Khrunov; Gorbatko; Artyukhin; Kubasov; Makarov; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Attending are Kuznetsov, Gagarin, Khlebnikov. There are three training groups: Soyuz, L1, and L3. Mishin and the MOM are holding up further training of cosmonauts until the VVS agrees to accept Mishin's candidates from TsKBEM. In any case, Mishin's attitude is that 'automation in space is everything. Humans in space are only supposed to monitor the operation of automated systems'. L3 cosmonauts selected by the VVS are: Leonov, Bykovsky, Nikolayev, Popovich, Voronov, Khrunov, Gorbatko, Artyukhin, Kubasov, Makarov, and Rukavishnikov. The official requirements: balanced composition of a crew according to mass requirements (no more than 70 kg weight per cosmonaut), and the ability to monitor fully automated function of the L3. According to official documents, the crew's primary function is to guide the flight, but now Mishin intends that their primary role will be as subjects of psychological and physical observations to establish the adaptation of the human organism to space flight).

1968 September 23 - .
  • L1 lunar crew selections - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Leonov; Voronov; Bykovsky; Rukavishnikov; Popovich; Makarov. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1; Soyuz 7K-OK. Meeting of VVS, Mishin, and other designers at Fedosiya to review trials of the improved Soyuz parachute system. The Soyuz is cleared for manned flights. Mishin tells Leonov he will not support him in his bid to make the first lunar flight. Kamanin tells Leonov that of the three crews - Leonov-Voronov, Bykovsky-Rukavishnikov, Popovich-Makarov - the Bykovsky crew is favoured.

1968 September 28 - .
  • Cosmonaut exams are held for Beregovoi, Shatalov, and Volynov. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Shatalov; Volynov; Leonov; Makarov; Kuklin; Bykovsky; Rukavishnikov; Klimuk; Popovich; Sevastyanov; Voloshin. Program: Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 3; Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. The results will establish the order in which they will fly as Soyuz commanders. A 25-person board, consisting of spacecraft designers and cosmonauts, conduct the oral examinations. Each cosmonaut must answer five mandatory essay questions and select two two-part questions. All three are certified for flight and have a complete mastery of the Soyuz systems.

    Mishin and Kamanin meet and decide on L1 crews: Leonov-Makarov (with Kuklin as back-up); Bykovsky-Rukavishnikov (Klimuk back-up); and Popovich-Sevastyanov (Voloshin back-up). But that evening Leonov has yet another automobile accident. He hit a bus with his Volga at kilometre 24 near Shchelkovsky. This was his second accident in four months. Kamanin decides to prohibit him from driving automobiles for six months.


1969 May - .
1969 June 18 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Mishin and Kamanin select candidates for the lunar landing mission. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Leonov; Bykovsky; Voronov; Khrunov; Yeliseyev; Makarov; Rukavishnikov; Patsayev; Afanasyev, Sergei. Program: Lunar L3. They are Leonov, Bykovsky, Voronov, Khrunov, Yeliseyev, Makarov, Rukavishnikov, and Patsayev. Mishin expects a landing by the end of 1970; Kamanin thinks this is impossible. Afanasyev and Mishin propose modernisation of the N1, but this will take three to four years, by which time the booster will be essentially obsolete. The second launch of the N1 is set for 3 July. It would be a welcome miracle if it flew, but it still would not be enough to erase the American lead in the moon race.

1970 April 23 - .
  • Mishin proposes crews for Soyuz 10 and 11. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov; Shonin; Kubasov; Kolodin; Volynov; Feoktistov; Patsayev; Khrunov; Volkov; Sevastyanov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11. Two months after first raising the issue, Mishin has proposed crews for the flights to the DOS station, still planned to occur before the end of the year. Mishin is still pushing Feoktistov, who Kamanin believes is not only seriously ill, but immoral, being on his second wife. Kamanin now has 20 spacecraft crews, but they will have to wait six years or more for a trip to space at the current mission rate. Mishin's proposed DOS crews are as follows: 1 - Shatalov, Yeliseyev, Rukavishnikov; 2 - Shonin, Kubasov, Kolodin; 3 - Volynov, Feoktistov, Patsayev; 4 - Khrunov, Volkov, Sevastyanov.

1970 May 6 - .
1971 February 8 - .
  • Repercussions of Shonin incident. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Khrunov; Shonin; Yeliseyev; Kubasov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Kamanin has a meeting with Leonov and Shonin on the KIS incident. Shonin claims he was sober. Mishin calls. He says Khrunov and Shonin were not ready for training anyway; they had to be led by the nose the whole time. He would prefer that Yeliseyev, Kubasov, and Rukavishnikov be assigned to the mission.

1971 March 9 - .
  • Major DOS training exercise by first crew. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov; Anders. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. A major training session is held with Shatalov, Yeliseyev, and Rukavishnikov. They make a 15 hour simulated 'flight' aboard the DOS trainer from 09:15 to 22:45. All operations expected in a thirty-day mission to the station are gone through. This includes simulation of emergencies to test the reactions of both the crew and ground controllers. Kamanin receives a letter from Anders, thanking him for the tour of Star City. Representatives from the Swedish firm are in town to negotiate the contract for the TsF-18 18-metre radius centrifuge. Both Korolev and Mishin fought against the VVS getting such a centrifuge.

1971 March 20 - .
  • DOS crews arrives in Baikonur. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Shatalov's crew arrived at 09:00 aboard a Tu-104 and were ensconced in Room 14 of the Hotel Kosmonavt. Two further Tu-104's arrived 20 and 30 minutes later with the second and third crews. At 18:00 they all went to the MIK assembly hall to view the two Soyuz spacecraft and the station. There were electrical problems with the station, and they finally returned to the hotel at 24:00 without the problem having been resolved. Kamanin notes two films are to be screened tomorrow - a Bulgarian movie and the Soviet film 'Diplomat'.

1971 March 23 - .
  • Cosmonauts return to Moscow from Tyuratam. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. A four-story school burned down the previous night in Leninsk. The cosmonauts and space centre technicians watched the USA-USSR ice hockey match, which went from 23:00 until 02:00 the next morning. Kamanin returns to Moscow aboard a Tu-104. Aboard the flight the political intrigues surrounding selection of Kamanin's deputy are discussed.

1971 April 6 - .
1971 April 8 - .
  • Soyuz 10 crew preparations. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Summary: The DOS cosmonauts are working on their flight plans/logs at Area 17. Kamanin discusses the physical training of crews for long missions with Stepanov. They must do thirty minutes of vigorous exercise per day..

1971 April 9 - .
  • State Commission meets at new MIK. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. DOS-7K#1 will be ready on 19 April. The first crew is completely trained. During the day the engineers of the second and third crews train aboard the station. Afterwards the technicians fix the defects they have noted. The evening film is 'Beginning'. There are many high-level guests at Area 2. After the film the brass try out the training machines that will be used aboard the station - they tire quickly.

1971 April 11 - .
1971 April 15 - .
  • Salyut 1 erected on pad. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. The Proton booster is erected on the pad. The decision is made to proceed despite a prediction of 15 m/s winds -- the prediction turns out to be wrong. All of the big brass are present for the rollout. Afterwards Mishin visits the cosmonauts. He says all is ready for the first space station mission, and promises them the N1-L3 will be available soon for lunar missions.

1971 April 16 - .
  • Soyuz 10 closed out. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. Soyuz s/n 31 is completed. The crew are given a final look at it in the afternoon. They spend four hours in the powered-down spacecraft. Kamanin notes that Nikolayev and Sevastyanov do not look out after their physical condition even on the ground -- no wonder they were so sick after their flight! Afterwards all three crews go to the sauna together.

1971 April 17 - .
  • Soyuz 10 crew preparations. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. The day dawns warm at Baikonur (7 deg C at 7 am). The cosmonauts' morning is spent in a review of the space station's guidance and control systems. In the afternoon there is a briefing by officers of IAKM-VVS on use of the vacuum facility 'Polinom' during the flight. The cosmonauts are against use of the device.

1971 April 22 - .
1971 April 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 25.
  • Soyuz 10 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Support Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 31. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 1.99 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5172 . COSPAR: 1971-034A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Intended first space station mission; soft docked with Salyut 1. Launch nearly scrubbed due to poor weather. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it is said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land.

1971 April 23 - .
  • Soyuz 10 docking failure. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it was said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land. Additional Details: here....

1971 April 24 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz 10 - . Return Crew: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chertok; Mishin; Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Only a night landing on Soviet territory was possible, which meant the spacecraft could not be oriented for retrofire. The landing commission started planning for an emergency landing in South America, Africa, or Australia. But Shatalov reported the gyroscopes and orientation sensors were functioning well. He proposed that he orient on the dayside, spin up the gyro platform, and let the gyros orient the spacecraft on the nightside for retrofire. The plan is followed and the spacecraft was targeted for a landing area 80-100 km southwest of Karaganda.

    PVO radars pick up the capsule as it soars over the Caspian Sea, and a Mi-4 helicopter sights the parachute even before it thumps down, upright, on the steppes. During the landing, the Soyuz air supply became toxic, and Rukavishnikov was overcome and became unconscious. Nevertheless the crew safely landed at 23:40 GMT, 120 km NW of Karaganda. At the cosmodrome, Chertok is assigned to head a special commission to find the cause of the docking failure and correct it before the next mission can be launched. The VVS aircraft leaves at 07:00 for Moscow. Mishin was to accompany the VPK on their aircraft back, but he is drunk and has to go separately at 15:00. The Soyuz 10 crew reaches Chkalovsky Air Base at 14:00 on 26 April and proceed to Star City for further debriefings. Film and photos indicated that the docking system on the Salyut was not damaged, setting the stage for the Soyuz 11 mission.


1971 May 3 - .
  • EVA to Salyut discussed. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK; Salyut 1. The Soyuz 10 crew receive awards at the Kremlin. Rukavishnikov is made a Hero of the Soviet Union, which means he will receive 5,000 roubles, a Volga automobile, and other privileges. Kamanin calls Mishin later in the day. Mishin wants to send up a two-man crew in Soyuz 11, in space suits. One of them will make a spacewalk to examine the docking collar on the Salyut station prior to docking and remove the cover from the scientific sensor bay. Kamanin is infuriated. Seven to eight months ago the VVS had asked Mishin about the possibility of carrying at least one spacesuit aboard the Soyuz or Salyut and the possibility of making an EVA. He categorically rejected the idea. At that time he said it was practically impossible. There are insufficient oxygen reserves aboard the station for a full depressurisation. It would reduce the oxygen to a 75-day supply, and 45 to 50 days worth of reserves are required by mission rules. A cosmonaut meeting is called to discuss the matter. This reveals that DOS#2 is planned to have spacesuits and all of the equipment necessary for an EVA. But an EVA on Soyuz 11 is not possible. There EVA equipment and have not been manufactured. Two to three months would be required to fabricate the suits and equipment and to train for the EVA. Salyut 1 can only last 60 to 70 days. A Soyuz 12 mission in the first part of June could not be ready for an EVA. All in all it would be better to incorporate the EVA hardware into the first mission to a new DOS#2 station.

1971 May 4 - .
  • Soyuz 11 EVA pushed. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK; Salyut 1. At 10:00 the Soyuz 10 crew has the traditional post-flight meeting with the Central Committee, followed by speeches at 15:00 before the workers and engineers at TsKBEM. The truth about the flight is not revealed. Mishin is still pushing for an EVA on Soyuz 11; Kamanin tells him the idea is absurd. Kamanin fumes that Mishin still hasn't reliable solved the problem of automated space docking, on which he began work in 1962.

1971 May 6 - .
  • Almaz simulator delays. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut; Almaz. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. The Soyuz 10 cosmonauts hold a press conference. The truth behind the mission is concealed. Afterwards a simulator program review is held. Progress is being made, but all of the equipment needed for the simulators is not being funded. MAP is to deliver the Almaz simulator on 1 December 1971, but they can't guarantee it will include equipment that has to be delivered by a range of other ministries. Later a meeting is held on plans by the Moscow Soviet for a space museum. MOM, MAP, and VVS have to contribute to the final exposition plan.

1971 May 28 - .
1971 May 31 - .
  • Problems with Salyut station atmosphere. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Feoktistov; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Kamanin is advised that the atmosphere aboard Salyut 1 is now all right. He finds the news disturbing, since he was not informed until then that there was a problem! Feoktistov outlines the modifications made to Soyuz 11 compared to Soyuz 10 to the cosmonauts. The reinforcement of the docking ring system has added 10 kg to the spacecraft. Consumables are carried that increase the time for autonomous flight from three to four days.

1971 June 1 - .
1971 June 2 - .
  • Contingency planning for Soyuz 11. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. From 09:00 to 13:00 the Soyuz 11 cosmonauts and engineers discuss the best approaches for docking, contingency plans, and so on. A concrete solution is provided for every possible problem they might encounter aboard the station - bad air, water contaminated, stuck exit hatch, and so on.

1971 June 3 - .
  • Kubasov found not fit to fly aboard Soyuz 11. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. The cosmonauts play tennis in the morning. There are two dysentery cases in the staff at Area 2. Contact between the officers and workers at the centre is minimised. The Soyuz 11 crew undergoes their final medical checkups. A spot is found on Kubasov's lung in the x-ray. The doctors say it is the beginning of tuberculosis, and prohibit him from flying in space! Mishin, backed by Moscow, says that under mission rules, this means the Dobrovolsky back-up crew will have to fly in place of Leonov's crew. Kamanin feels uncomfortable with the decision, but can make no good argument for his preference - just replacing Kubasov on Leonov's crew with Volkov. The Launch Commission decides that Soyuz 11 is to be rolled out to the pad at 06:00 on 4 June, with launch at 07:39 on 6 June, with Dobrovolsky's crew aboard.

1971 June 4 - .
  • Backup crew named to fly Soyuz 11 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Soyuz 11 is on the launch pad, and which crew will fly is still being argued. Kamanin wants to simply have Volkov replace Kubasov on Leonov's crew. Mishin wants the complete backup crew to replace Leonov's crew. Others on the launch commission support Mishin. At 15:30 a team of physicians arrive from Moscow to verify the diagnosis of Kubasov. At 18:00 the final state commission meeting confirms the Dobrovolsky crew. At 19:00 a press conference is held - Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, and Volkov are publicly presented as the crew of Soyuz 11.

1971 June 5 - .
  • Leonov crew fights to be put back aboard Soyuz 11. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov; Krylov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Leonov and his crew meet with Kamanin at 10:00 and argue against flying the back-up crew. Kamanin tells him that they are not reacting in a correct manner to the decision. Afterwards Kamanin meets with Krylov at Area 17 to discuss the planned new three-story hotel, which will finally include some sports training facilities for the cosmonauts. By the evening ten VVS generals have arrived to see the launch -- no more than 2 or 3 really need to be there.

1971 June 15 - .
1971 August - .
1974 December 2 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 16 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov. Support Crew: Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 73-EPSA. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 16. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.93 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7561 . COSPAR: 1974-096A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz space craft's on-board systems which had been modernized to meet the requirements of the 1975 joint flight in accordance with the programme of the Soviet-United States experiment; conduct of scientific and technical investigations.

1974 December 8 - .
1975 July 15 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) - . Call Sign: Soyuz (Union ). Crew: Kubasov; Leonov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 75 (EPSA). Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Leonov; Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8030 . COSPAR: 1975-065A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 19 initial orbital parameters were 220.8 by 185.07 kilometres, at the desired inclination of 51.80, while the period of the first orbit was 88.6 minutes. On 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.

    After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.

    Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that an ultraviolet absorption experiment could be performed. With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways.


1978 March 2 - . 15:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 28 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Gubarev; Remek. Backup Crew: Pelczak; Rukavishnikov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 45. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gubarev; Remek; Pelczak; Rukavishnikov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-2; Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.93 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10694 . COSPAR: 1978-023A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivery to the Salyut-6 station of the first international 'Intercosmos' team consisting of A.A. Gubarev (USSR) and V. Remek (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments jointly developed by Soviet a nd Czechoslovak specialists.

1979 April 10 - . 17:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
1979 April 12 - .
1980 November - .
2002 October 18 - .
Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use