Encyclopedia Astronautica
Lawrence



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Lawrence
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
Lawrence, Wendy Barrien (1959-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-67, STS-86, STS-91, STS-114. US Navy ocean engineer.


NASA Official Biography

NAME: Wendy B. Lawrence (Commander, USN)
NASA Astronaut

PERSONAL DATA:
Born July 2, 1959, in Jacksonville, Florida. She enjoys running, rowing, triathlons and gardening. Her father, Vice Admiral William P. Lawrence (USN, retired), resides in Crownsville, Maryland. Her mother, Anne Haynes, resides in Alvadore, Oregon.

EDUCATION:
Graduated from Fort Hunt High School, Alexandria, Virginia, in 1977; received a bachelor of science degree in ocean engineering from U.S Naval Academy in 1981; a master of science degree in ocean engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in 1988.

ORGANIZATIONS:
Phi Kappa Phi; Association of Naval Aviation; Women Military Aviators; Naval Helicopter Association.

SPECIAL HONORS:
Awarded the Defense Superior Service Medal, the NASA Space Flight Medal, the Navy Commendation Medal and the Navy Achievement Medal. Recipient of the National Navy League's Captain Winifred Collins Award for inspirational leadership (1986).

EXPERIENCE:
Lawrence graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1981. A distinguished flight school graduate, she was designated as a naval aviator in July 1982. Lawrence has more than 1,500 hours flight time in six different types of helicopters and has made more than 800 shipboard landings. While stationed at Helicopter Combat Support Squadron SIX (HC-6), she was one of the first two female helicopter pilots to make a long deployment to the Indian Ocean as part of a carrier battle group. After completion of a master's degree program at MIT and WHOI in 1988, she was assigned to Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Light THIRTY (HSL-30) as officer-in-charge of Detachment ALFA. In October 1990, Lawrence reported to the U.S. Naval Academy where she served as a physics instructor and the novice women's crew coach.

NASA EXPERIENCE:
Selected by NASA in March 1992, Lawrence reported to the Johnson Space Center in August 1992. She completed one year of training and is qualified for assignment as a mission specialist on future Space Shuttle missions. Her technical assignments within the Astronaut Office have included: flight software verification in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL); Astronaut Office Assistant Training Officer. She flew on STS-67 in March 1995. She served as Director of Operations for NASA at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, with responsibility for the coordination and implementation of mission operations activities in the Moscow region for the joint U.S./Russian Shuttle/Mir program. She is currently in training for a 4-month stay on the Russian Space Station Mir in September 1997. She will launch aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis as part of the STS-86 crew.

Lawrence flew as the ascent/entry flight engineer and blue shift orbit pilot on STS-67 in March 1995. This mission was the second flight of the ASTRO observatory, a unique complement of three telescopes. During this record-setting 16-day mission, the crew conducted observations around the clock to study the far ultraviolet spectra of faint astronomical objects and the polarization of ultraviolet light coming from hot stars and distant galaxies. Mission duration was 399 hours and 9 minutes.

JANUARY 1997

Birth Place: Jacksonville, Florida.
Status: Inactive.


Born: 1959.07.02.
Spaceflights: 4 .
Total time in space: 51.16 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Flights
  • STS-67 Crew: Durrance, Gregory William, Grunsfeld, Jernigan, Lawrence, Oswald, Parise. First shuttle mission connected to the Internet. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes. More...
  • Mir NASA-5 Crew: Wolf. Wolf relieved Foale as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Thomas Andrew. More...
  • STS-86 Crew: Bloomfield, Chretien, Lawrence, Parazynski, Titov Vladimir, Wetherbee. Flyaround focused on the damaged Spektr Module to determine the location of the puncture in its hull. More...
  • STS-91 Crew: Chang-Diaz, Gorie, Kavandi, Lawrence, Precourt, Ryumin. First shuttle flight with super light-weight external tank. Final shuttle-Mir mission. Recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from Mir and took Russian space chief Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour. More...
  • STS-120A Crew: Halsell, Poindexter, Lawrence, Sellers, Wilson, Foreman. Flight delayed, then completely reorganized with a different crew and different orbiter after the Columbia disaster. STS-120 would have delivered to the station the second of three station connecting modules, Node 2. More...
  • STS-114 Crew: Collins Eileen, Kelly, Noguchi, Robinson, Thomas Andrew, Lawrence, Camarda. Shuttle return to flight. Primary objective was to verify fixes made to external tank to prevent foam and ice shedding that killed STS-107 crew. Also resupplied ISS, which had to rely on smaller Progress logistics flights while the shuttle was grounded. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • USN American agency overseeing development of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. USN Joint Task Force 7, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • ISS Finally completed in 2010 after a torturous 25-year development and production process, the International Space Station was originally conceived as the staging post for manned exploration of the solar systrem. Instead, it was seemed to be the death knell of manned spaceflight. More...
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • STS The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's. More...

Bibliography
  • NASA Astronaut Biographies, Johnson Space Center, NASA, 1995-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Lawrence Chronology


1992 December 5 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 14 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Barry; Brady; Coleman; Gernhardt; Grunsfeld; Horowitz; Jett; Kregel; Lawrence; Linenger; Linnehan; Lopez-Alegria; Parazynski; Rominger; Scott, Winston; Smith, Steven; Tanner; Thomas, Andrew; Weber. The group was selected to provide pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights.. Qualifications: Pilots: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics. Advanced degree desirable. At least 1,000 flight-hours of pilot-in-command time. Flight test experience desirable. Excellent health. Vision minimum 20/50 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 vision; maximum sitting blood pressure 140/90. Height between 163 and 193 cm.

    Mission Specialists: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics and minimum three years of related experience or an advanced degree. Vision minimum 20/150 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20. Maximum sitting blood pressure of 140/90. Height between 150 and 193 cm.. Four pilots and 15 mission specialists, nine civilians and ten military. Chosen from 2054 applicants, 87 of which screened in December 1991/January 1992. Five additional international astronauts.


1995 March 2 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-67.
  • STS-67 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Durrance; Gregory, William; Grunsfeld; Jernigan; Lawrence; Oswald; Parise. Payload: Endeavour F08 / ASTRO-2 Fwd. Mass: 13,116 kg (28,915 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Durrance; Gregory, William; Grunsfeld; Jernigan; Lawrence; Oswald; Parise. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-67. Spacecraft: Endeavour. Duration: 16.63 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23500 . COSPAR: 1995-007A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 28.4500 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes.(attached to Endeavour).Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy (ASTRO) 2; Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE); Protein Crystal Growth—Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) 03; Protein Crystal Growth—Single-Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) 02; Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Minilab/Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. Experiments (CMIX) 03; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; two getaway special experiments.

1995 March 18 - .
1997 September 26 - . 02:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-86.
  • STS-86 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Wetherbee; Bloomfield; Titov, Vladimir; Parazynski; Chretien; Lawrence; Wolf. Payload: Atlantis F20 / Spacehab-DM. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Wetherbee; Bloomfield; Titov, Vladimir; Parazynski; Chretien; Lawrence; Wolf. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-86; Mir NASA-5; Mir NASA-4; Mir EO-24. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 10.81 days. Decay Date: 1997-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 24964 . COSPAR: 1997-055A. Apogee: 381 km (236 mi). Perigee: 354 km (219 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Atlantis was launched on a mission to the Russian Mir space station. The TI rendevous terminal initiation burn was carried out at 17:32 GMT on September 27, and Atlantis docked with the SO (Docking Module) on the Mir complex at 19:58 GMT. The crew exchange was completed on September 28, with David Wolf replacing Michael Foale on the Mir crew. On October 1 cosmonaut Titov and astronaut Parazynski conducted a spacewalk from the Shuttle payload bay while Atlantis was docked to Mir. They retrieved four MEEP (Mir Environmental Effects Payload ) exposure packages from Mir's SO module and installed the Spektr solar array cap. The MEEP experiments had been attached to the Docking Module by astronauts Linda Godwin and Rich Clifford during Shuttle mission STS-76 in March 1996. In addition to retrieving the MEEP, Parazynski and Titov were to continue an evaluation of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), a small jet-backpack designed for use as a type of life jacket during station assembly.

    Atlantis undocked from Mir at 17:28 GMT on October 3 and conducted a flyaround focused on the damaged Spektr Module to determine the location of the puncture in its hull. The Mir crew pumped air into the Spektr Module using a pressure regulator valve, and the Shuttle crew observed evidence that, as expected, the leak seemed to be located at the base of the damaged solar panel. Final separation of Atlantis from Mir took place around 20:28 GMT. After two landing attempts were waved off on October 5 due to heavy cloud cover, the crew fired the engines to deorbit at 20:47 GMT on October 6 and landed at Kennedy Space Center at 21:55.


1997 October 6 - .
1998 June 2 - . 22:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-91.
  • STS-91 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Precourt; Gorie; Lawrence; Chang-Diaz; Kavandi; Ryumin. Payload: Discovery F24 / Spacehab. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Precourt; Gorie; Lawrence; Chang-Diaz; Kavandi; Ryumin. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-91; Mir NASA-6; Mir EO-25. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.83 days. Decay Date: 1998-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25356 . COSPAR: 1998-034A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. The final shuttle-Mir mission, STS-91 recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from the Mir station and took Russian space chief and ex-cosmonaut Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour of the ageing station. This was the first test of the super lightweight Aluminium-Lithium alloy external tank, designed to increase shuttle payload to the Mir / International Space Station orbit by 4,000 kg. At 22:15 GMT Discovery entered an initial 74 x 324 km x 51.6 deg orbit, with the OMS-2 burn three quarters of an hour later circulising the chase orbit. Discovery docked with the SO module on Mir at 17:00 GMT on June 4. NASA equipment was retrieved from the station, and Discovery undocked at 16:01 GMT on June 8, and landed on Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 18:00 GMT on June 12.

1998 June 12 - .
2004 February 19 - .
2005 July 26 - .
2005 July 26 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-114.
  • STS-114 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Collins, Eileen; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Thomas, Andrew; Lawrence; Camarda. Payload: Discovery F31 / Raffaello. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Collins, Eileen; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Thomas, Andrew; Lawrence; Camarda. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-114; ISS EO-11. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 13.90 days. Decay Date: 2005-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 28775 . COSPAR: 2005-026A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 313 km (194 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Return to flight after loss of Columbia. Delayed extensively as NASA attempted to fix the external tank foam-shedding problem that resulted in the loss of Columbia (first planned for September 12, 2004, the launch slipped to March; May 14, 15 and 22; July 13, 2005). Discovery safely reached orbit at a total mass of 121,485 kg, but extensive video coverage detected external tank foam shedding during ascent. Discovery docked at the Pirs module of the ISS on 28 July 28 at 11:18 GMT. Following replenishment of the station (using the Raffaello MPLM-6 module with 8240 kg of supplies), a series of spacewalks verified the integrity of the shuttle's heat shield and tested repair techniques, Discovery undocked from the ISS at 07:24 GMT on 6 August and landed safely on Runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base at 12:11 GMT on 9 August. However the shuttle fleet was immediately grounded again while NASA attempted to find a permanent fix to the external tank foam woes.

2005 July 27 - .
2005 July 27 - .
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2005 July 28 - .
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2005 July 29 - .
2005 July 29 - .
2005 July 30 - .
  • STS-114 MCC Status Report #10 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips; Collins, Eileen; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Lawrence; Camarda. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-11; STS-114. Transfers of additional water and supplies to the International Space Station will continue Sunday as the crew aboard Space Shuttle Discovery begins Flight Day 6. The STS-114 mission was formally extended by one day as mission managers Saturday decided to spend one more day docked to the ISS. Additional Details: here....

2005 July 30 - .
  • STS-114 MCC Status Report #09 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Krikalyov; Phillips; Collins, Eileen; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Thomas, Andrew; Lawrence; Camarda. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-11; STS-114. Space Shuttle Discovery's heat protective tiles and thermal blankets have been pronounced fit for entry after engineers reviewed the imagery and other data to judge their health. Analysis remains on the reinforced carbon-carbon wing leading edges and the protruding gap fillers identified earlier. Aerodynamics experts are evaluating the effect on surface heating that the gap fillers may cause to decide whether any work is necessary to reduce their size. Additional Details: here....

2005 July 31 - .
2005 July 31 - .
2005 August 1 - .
  • STS-114 MCC Status Report #14 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Krikalyov; Phillips; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Thomas, Andrew; Lawrence. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-11; STS-114. Summary: The Space Shuttle Discovery and International Space Station crews will continue transferring equipment and supplies between the two vehicles today. They will also review updated tasks for the third planned spacewalk of the mission.. Additional Details: here....

2005 August 1 - .
  • STS-114 MCC Status Report #13 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Krikalyov; Phillips; Collins, Eileen; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Thomas, Andrew; Lawrence; Camarda. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-11; STS-114. STS-114 mission managers Monday gave the go-ahead for astronauts to remove two protruding gap fillers in Discovery's heat shield during a Wednesday space walk. Soichi Noguchi and Steve Robinson will attempt to simply pull the thin fabric fillers from between tiles in the forward area of the orbiter's underside. If the pull method is unsuccessful, the two will have tools to cut the material flush with the surface. Additional Details: here....

2005 August 2 - .
2005 August 2 - .
  • STS-114 MCC Status Report #15 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Krikalyov; Phillips; Collins, Eileen; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Thomas, Andrew; Lawrence. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-11; STS-114. Space Shuttle mission managers Tuesday cleared Discovery's wing leading edge heat shield for re-entry as they methodically deal with concerns over the protruding tile gap fillers. The mission management team also discussed a "puffed out" insulating blanket outside the commander's cockpit window and has decided it poses no risk of overheating during entry. Engineers will continue to analyze whether it could pose a debris problem if it came loose during aerodynamic flight. Additional Details: here....

2005 August 3 - .
2005 August 3 - .
2005 August 4 - .
  • STS-114 MCC Status Report #19 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Krikalyov; Phillips; Collins, Eileen; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Lawrence. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-11; STS-114. Space Shuttle Discovery's heat shield is cleared for the return to Earth early Monday after mission managers decided today that a fourth spacewalk to deal with a puffed out thermal blanket is unnecessary. Wind tunnel tests overnight at NASA's Ames Research Center in California showed little chance of any significant debris coming from the blanket at supersonic speeds. Further engineering analysis showed any debris released from the blanket was unlikely to hit structures on Discovery. Additional Details: here....

2005 August 4 - .
  • STS-114 MCC Status Report #20 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Krikalyov; Phillips; Collins, Eileen; Kelly; Noguchi; Robinson; Thomas, Andrew; Lawrence; Camarda. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-11; STS-114. Now in their eleventh day of the mission and with three successful spacewalks behind them, the STS-114 crew of Space Shuttle Discovery is slated to begin preparations for undocking and the final day with their International Space Station counterparts. Their activities for the day include final equipment transfers, stowage and return of the robotic arm, boom and cargo container to the Shuttle payload bay. Additional Details: here....

2005 August 5 - .
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2005 August 9 - . 12:11 GMT - .
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