Encyclopedia Astronautica
Lavochkin



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Lavochkin
Lavochkin, Semyon Alekseyevich (1900-1960) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of OKB-301 1937-1960

Lavochkin was named Chief Designer of OKB-301 in 1937. His bureau designed and built thousands of fighters during World War II. He was less successful in getting any of his post-war jet-engined prototypes into production. In any case the bureau had begun to concentrate on development of surface-to-air missiles. Lavochkin developed the S-25 system (SA-1) for the air defence of Moscow – the Soviet Union's first operational surface-to-air missile.

In 1953 SAM activities were spun off to a new design bureau under Grushin, Lavochkin's deputy. OKB-301 was given responsibility for development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. This, like the American Navaho, was considered at the time an obviously better technical solution than the untried intercontinental ballistic missile. Burya was flight tested successfully in 1957-1959 but not put into production due to the superiority of the less-costly invulnerable intercontinental ballistic missiles. Lavochkin died in 1960 at a time when the bureau had basically no projects left on its table. His bureau would be resurrected five years later and given responsibility for planetary unmanned space probes.

Born: 1900.09.11.
Died: 1960.06.09.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Bibliography
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..

Lavochkin Chronology


1953 January - . Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya; EKR.
  • Expert commission examined the EKR design - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Spacecraft: M-42. In 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental trisonic ramjet design, the EKR.The expert commission ifelt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev. Further, Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore a final government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles.

1953 April - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya.
  • USSR Council of Ministers approve R-7 ICBM, Buran and Burya intercontinental cruise missiles - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Summary: Informal go-ahead was given for Korolev to start design work on the R-7. In parallel, Myasishchev OKB-23 and Lavochkin OKB-301 began design of intercontinental ramjet cruise missiles..

1954 May 20 - . Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya.
  • Soviet government decree for full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Isayev; Glushko; Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Spacecraft: M-42; M-44. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 957-409 'On transfer of intercontinental cruise missile work to the Ministry of Aviation Industry' was issued. Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore the final government decree authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. Both missiles would use ramjet engines by Bondaryuk, astronavigation systems by R Chachikyan, inertial navigation systems by G Tolstoysov, and aerodynamics developed by TsAGI (Central Hydrodynamics Institute). Lavochkin's Burya would use rocket booster engines built by Glushko, while Myasishchev's Buran would use Isayev engines. Both missiles were to deliver a nuclear warhead over an 8,500 km range. But the warhead design specified for the Lavochkin missile had a total mass of 2,100 kg, while that for the Myasishchev missile weighed 3,500 kg.

1955 September - . Launch Vehicle: Burya.
  • Burya preliminary design completed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lavochkin. Program: Navaho. Summary: The Lavochkin team completed preliminary design of the intercontinental Mach 3 cruise missile..

1956 During the Year - . Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya.
  • Lavochkin begins construction of first Burya cruise missile. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Summary: Myasishchev was just completing project design of his Buran design, while Lavochkin was already completing construction of the first Burya..

1956 September - . Launch Vehicle: Burya.
  • Burya redesign - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lavochkin. Program: Navaho. Summary: Lavochkin experienced a major setback in when the payload requirement for the nuclear warhead was increased from 2,100 to 2,350 kg..

1957 November - . Launch Vehicle: Buran.
  • Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile cancelled. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Spacecraft: M-42. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On termination of work on the 40 Buran intercontinental cruise missile' was issued. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled. After successful flight tests of Lavochkin’s Burya missile, the Soviet leadership did not see any need for continued development of a parallel ramjet design. Following the cancellation, Myasishchev sought approval for test of an air-launched version.

1960 June 9 - .
1962 November 1 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Chelomei takes over Lavochkin and Myasishchev OKBs - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Khrushchev; Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: At Khrushchev's decision Chelomei takes over Lavochkin's OKB-301 and Myasishchev's OKB-23. Lavochkin had built objects 205, 207, 400 (SA-1,2,5); Chelomei UR-96 ABM-1..

November 1964 - . LV Family: N1; R-56; UR-700.
  • Korolev's admits that N1 cannot attain payload needed for single-launch mission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Kozlov; Khrushchev; Ustinov; Brezhnev; Yangel; Chelomei; Babakin; Lavochkin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: LK; Soyuz 7K-LOK; LK-700. Korolev speaks privately to Chertok. Kozlov has told him it will be impossible to build an N1 with the 93 tonne payload capability until the fourth flight article. The L3 concept was still the same as in the August decree - 2 cosmonauts aboard the LOK orbiter, one aboard the LK lander. Korolev asks Chertok to take 800 kg out of the weight budget for the L3. Chertok informs him that they are already 500 kg over the August budget. This is still without all the unknowns of the automated lunar landing being solved. Additional Details: here....

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