Encyclopedia Astronautica
Engle



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Engle
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
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STS-2
Astronauts Truly and Engle engaged in on-board activity
Credit: NASA
Engle, Joe Henry (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on X-15 Flight 138, X-15 Flight 143, X-15 Flight 153, STS-2, STS-51-I.

Born in Abilene, Kansas. Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University of Kansas. Entered the USAF in 1955. Served in fighter squadrons in the US, Italy, Denmark, and Spain. Graduated from USAF Experimental Test Pilot School in 1961 and selected as X-15 pilot in 1963. Selected as NASA astronaut in 1966 but did not fly in space again until 1981, after being bumped as Lunar Module pilot on Apollo 17 by geologist Jack Schmitt. Air National Guard Assistant to CINC, Space Command; aerospace and sporting goods consultant.

Official NASA Biography

NAME: Joe Henry Engle (Colonel, USAF)

NASA Astronaut

BIRTHPLACE AND DATE: Born August 26, 1932, Dickinson County, Kansas; home, Chapman, Kansas.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Blond hair; hazel eyes; height: 6 feet; weight: 165 pounds.

EDUCATION: Attended primary and secondary schools in Chapman, Kansas, and is a graduate of Dickinson County High School; received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the University of Kansas in 1955.

MARITAL STATUS: Married to the former Mary Catherine Lawrence of Mission Hills, Kansas.

CHILDREN: Laurie J., April 25, 1959; and Jon L., May 9, 1962.

RECREATIONAL INTERESTS: His hobbies include flying (including World War II fighter aircraft), big game hunting, backpacking, and athletics.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP).

SPECIAL HONORS: For flight testing of the NASA-USAF X-15 research rocket airplane, he received the: USAF Astronaut Wings (1964), USAF Distinguished Flying Cross (1964), AFA Outstanding Young USAF Officer of 1964, U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce -- Ten Outstanding, Young Men in America (1964), AIAA Lawrence Sperry Award for Flight Research (1966), and AIAA Pioneer of Flight Award (1965).

For flight testing of the Space Shuttle Enterprise during the Approach and Landing Test program in 1977, he received the: USAF Distinguished Flying Cross (1978), SETP Iven C. Kincheloe Award for Flight Test (1977) NASA Exceptional Service Medal, NASA Special Achievement Award, AFA David C. Schilling Award for Flight, AIAA Haley Space Flight Award for 1980, AAS Flight Achievement Award, and Soaring Society of America - Certificate of Achievement.

For the orbital test flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia during STS-2 in November 1981, he received the: Department of Defense Distinguished Service Medal; NASA Distinguished Service Medal; Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy; Thomas D. White Space Trophy; Robert J. Collier Trophy; Clifford B. Harmon International Trophy; Kansan of the Year, 1981; Distinguished Service Award, University of Kansas, 1982; Distinguished Engineering Service Award, University of Kansas, 1982; and DAR Medal of Honor, 1981.

EXPERIENCE: Engle was a test pilot in the X-15 research program at Edwards AirForce Base, California, from June 1963 until his assignment to the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Three of his 16 flights in the X-15 exceeded an altitude of 50 miles (the altitude that qualifies a pilot for astronaut rating). Prior to that time, he was a test pilot in the Fighter Test Group at Edwards.

He received his commission in the Air Force through the AFROTC Program at the University of Kansas and entered flying school in 1957. He served with the 474th Fighter Day Squadron and the 309th Tactical Fighter Squadron at George Air Force Base, California. He is a graduate of the USAF Experimental Test Pilot School and the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School.

He has flown over 140 different types of aircraft during his career (25 different fighters), logging more than 11,600 hours flight time -- 8,060 in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Engle is one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. He was back-up lunar module pilot for the Apollo 14 mission.

He was commander of one of the two crews that flew the Space Shuttle approach and landing test flights from June through October 1977. The Space Shuttle "Enterprise" was carried to 25,000 feet on top of the Boeing 747 carrier aircraft, and then released for its two minute glide flight to landing. In this series of flight tests, he evaluated the Orbiter handling qualities and landing characteristics, and obtained the stability and control, and performance data in the subsonic flight envelope for the Space Shuttle. Engle and Richard Truly flew the first flight of the Space Shuttle in the orbital configuration.

Engle was the back-up commander for STS-1, the first Shuttle orbital test flight of the Shuttle Columbia.

Engle was commander of the second orbital test flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November, 12, 1981. His pilot for this flight, STS-2, was Richard H. Truly. Despite a mission shortened from 5 days to 2 days because of a failed fuel cell, the crew accomplished more than 90% of the objectives set for STS-2 before returning to a landing on the dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, November 14, 1981. Major test objectives included the first tests in space of the 50-foot remote manipulator arm. Also, twenty-nine flight test maneuvers were performed during the entry profile at speeds from Mach 24 (18,500 mph) to subsonic. These maneuvers were designed to extract aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic data during hypersonic entry into the Earth's atmosphere.

Engle served as Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight at NASA Headquarters from March 1982 to December 1982. He retained his flight astronaut status and returned to the Johnson Space Center in January 1983.

On his next mission, Engle was commander of STS 51-I which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on August 27, 1985. His crew was Richard O. Covey (pilot), and three mission specialists, William F. Fisher, John M. Lounge, and James D. van Hoften. The mission was acknowledged as the most successful Space Shuttle mission yet flown. The crew deployed three communications satellites, the Navy SYNCOM IV-4, the Australian AUSSAT, and American Satellite Company's ASC-1. The crew also performed the successful on-orbit rendezvous and repair of the ailing 15,000 lb SYNCOM IV-3 satellite. This repair activity saw the first manual grapple and manual deployment of a satellite by a crew member. STS 51-I completed 112 orbits of the Earth before landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on September 3, 1985. With the completion of this flight Engle has logged over 224 hours in space.

Currently Air National Guard Assistant to CINC, U.S. Space Command; maintains Currency in F-16 ANG aircraft; also aerospace and sporting goods consultant.

NOVEMBER 1989

Characteristics

Departed Date: 1986-11-30. Marital Status: Married. Children: Two children. Education: Kansas;Edwards.

Birth Place: Abilene, Kansas.
Status: Inactive.


Born: 1932.08.26.
Spaceflights: 5 .
Total time in space: 9.38 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Astronaut Category of persons, applied to those trained for spaceflight outside of Russia and China. More...
  • NASA Group 5 - 1966 Requirement: pilot-astronauts for the Apollo Applications Program (then planned as 10 lunar landings after Apollo 11 and 30 Apollo flights to earth-orbit space stations). Nickname: The Original Nineteen More...

Associated Flights
  • X-15 Flight 138 Crew: Engle. Maximum Speed - 5522 kph. Maximum Altitude - 85527 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). More...
  • X-15 Flight 143 Crew: Engle. Maximum Speed - 5712 kph. Maximum Altitude - 82601 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). More...
  • X-15 Flight 153 Crew: Engle. Maximum Speed - 5718 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81230 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition). More...
  • Apollo 14 Crew: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with the lunar module failed for no apparent reason - mission saved when sixth was successful. Hike to Cone Crater frustrating; rim not reached. Backup crew: Cernan, Engle, Evans.Support crew: Chapman, McCandless, Pogue. More...
  • STS-2 Crew: Engle, Truly. First reuse of a manned space vehicle. First use of a remote manipulator in space. Second shuttle test flight. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right SRM aft field joint, the worst until the loss of the space shuttle Challenger. More...
  • STS-51-I Crew: Covey, Engle, Fisher William, Lounge, van Hoften. First retrieval, repair, and relaunch of a satellite in orbit (Leasat 3). Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4. Suffered primary O-ring erosion in two locations on the left-hand SRM nozzle joint. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • USAF American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. United States Air Force, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Apollo The successful US project to land a man on the moon. More...
  • STS The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's. More...

Bibliography
  • NASA Astronaut Biographies, Johnson Space Center, NASA, 1995-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Engle Chronology


1966 April 4 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 5 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand; Bull; Carr; Duke; Engle; Evans; Givens; Haise; Irwin; Lind; Lousma; Mattingly; McCandless; Mitchell; Pogue; Roosa; Swigert; Weitz; Worden. The group was selected to provide pilot-astronauts for the Apollo Applications Program (then planned as 10 lunar landings after Apollo 11 and 30 Apollo flights to earth-orbit space stations).. Qualifications: Qualified jet pilot with minimum 1,000 flight-hours, bachleor's degree in engineering or physical or biological sciences, under 35 years old, under 183 cm height, excellent health. US citizen.. 351 applications (including six women and a legless US Navy pilot). All 19, except X-15 astronaut Engle, would fly into space on Apollo or Skylab missions. Engle and six others would fly shuttle missions.

1971 January 31 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-509.
  • Apollo 14 - . Call Sign: Kitty Hawk. Crew: Mitchell; Roosa; Shepard. Backup Crew: Cernan; Engle; Evans. Support Crew: Chapman; McCandless; Pogue. Payload: Apollo CSM 110 / Apollo LM 8 / ALSEP / S-IVB-509. Mass: 29,230 kg (64,440 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mitchell; Roosa; Shepard; Cernan; Engle; Evans; Chapman; McCandless; Pogue. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4900 . COSPAR: 1971-008A. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 31.1200 deg. Period: 88.18 min. The Apollo 14 (AS-509) mission - manned by astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell - was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 4:03 p.m. EST January 31 on a Saturn V launch vehicle. A 40-minute hold had been ordered 8 minutes before scheduled launch time because of unsatisfactory weather conditions, the first such delay in the Apollo program. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection were similar to those of the previous lunar landing missions. However, during transposition and docking, CSM 110 Kitty Hawk had difficulty docking with LM-8 Antares. A hard dock was achieved on the sixth attempt at 9:00 p.m. EST, 1 hour 54 minutes later than planned. Other aspects of the translunar journey were normal and proceeded according to flight plan. A crew inspection of the probe and docking mechanism was televised during the coast toward the moon. The crew and ground personnel were unable to determine why the CSM and LM had failed to dock properly, but there was no indication that the systems would not work when used later in the flight.

    Apollo 14 entered lunar orbit at 1:55 a.m. EST on February 4. At 2:41 a.m. the separated S-IVB stage and instrument unit struck the lunar surface 174 kilometers southeast of the planned impact point. The Apollo 12 seismometer, left on the moon in November 1969, registered the impact and continued to record vibrations for two hours.

    After rechecking the systems in the LM, astronauts Shepard and Mitchell separated the LM from the CSM and descended to the lunar surface. The Antares landed on Fra Mauro at 4:17 a.m. EST February 5, 9 to 18 meters short of the planned landing point. The first EVA began at 9:53 a.m., after intermittent communications problems in the portable life support system had caused a 49-minute delay. The two astronauts collected a 19.5-kilogram contingency sample; deployed the TV, S-band antenna, American flag, and Solar Wind Composition experiment; photographed the LM, lunar surface, and experiments; deployed the Apollo lunar surface experiments package 152 meters west of the LM and the laser-ranging retroreflector 30 meters west of the ALSEP; and conducted an active seismic experiment, firing 13 thumper shots into the lunar surface.

    A second EVA period began at 3:11 a.m. EST February 6. The two astronauts loaded the mobile equipment transporter (MET) - used for the first time - with photographic equipment, tools, and a lunar portable magnetometer. They made a geology traverse toward the rim of Cone Crater, collecting samples on the way. On their return, they adjusted the alignment of the ALSEP central station antenna in an effort to strengthen the signal received by the Manned Space Flight Network ground stations back on earth.

    Just before reentering the LM, astronaut Shepard dropped a golf ball onto the lunar surface and on the third swing drove the ball 366 meters. The second EVA had lasted 4 hours 35 minutes, making a total EVA time for the mission of 9 hours 24 minutes. The Antares lifted off the moon with 43 kilograms of lunar samples at 1:48 p.m. EST February 6.

    Meanwhile astronaut Roosa, orbiting the moon in the CSM, took astronomy and lunar photos, including photos of the proposed Descartes landing site for Apollo 16.

    Ascent of the LM from the lunar surface, rendezvous, and docking with the CSM in orbit were performed as planned, with docking at 3:36 p.m. EST February 6. TV coverage of the rendezvous and docking maneuver was excellent. The two astronauts transferred from the LM to the CSM with samples, equipment, and film. The LM ascent stage was then jettisoned and intentionally crashed on the moon's surface at 7:46 p.m. The impact was recorded by the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 ALSEPs.

    The spacecraft was placed on its trajectory toward earth during the 34th lunar revolution. During transearth coast, four inflight technical demonstrations of equipment and processes in zero gravity were performed.

    The CM and SM separated, the parachutes deployed, and other reentry events went as planned, and the Kitty Hawk splashed down in mid-Pacific at 4:05 p.m. EST February 9 about 7 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. New Orleans. The Apollo 14 crew returned to Houston on February 12, where they remained in quarantine until February 26.

    All primary mission objectives had been met. The mission had lasted 216 hours 40 minutes and was marked by the following achievements:

    • Third manned lunar landing mission and return.
    • Use of mobile equipment transporter (MET).
    • Payload of 32,500 kilograms placed in lunar orbit.
    • Distance of 3.3 kilometers traversed on lunar surface.
    • Payload of 43.5 kilograms returned from the lunar surface.
    • Lunar surface stay time of 33 hours.
    • Lunar surface EVA of 9 hours 47 minutes.
    • Use of shortened rendezvous technique.
    • Service propulsion system orbit insertion.
    • Active seismic experiment.
    • Inflight technical demonstrations.
    • Extensive orbital science period during CSM solo operations.

1977 June 28 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 2 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (1 hour, 2 minutes).

1977 September 13 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 5 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Second free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 28 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1977 October 12 - . Launch Site: Edwards. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
  • Enterprise flight 7 - . Call Sign: Enterprise. Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Fourth free flight, ALT, first tail cone off, Edwards (2 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17.

1981 November 12 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-2.
  • STS-2 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Engle; Truly. Payload: Columbia F02 / DFI. Mass: 8,517 kg (18,776 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-2. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 2.26 days. Decay Date: 1981-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12953 . COSPAR: 1981-111A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 38.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Second shuttle test flight. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-1 experiments, Orbiter Experiments (OEX)..

1981 November 14 - .
  • Landing of STS-2 - . Return Crew: Engle; Truly. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Engle; Truly. Program: STS. Flight: STS-2. Summary: STS-2 landed at 21:23 GMT. .

1985 August 27 - . 10:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-27/51-I.
  • STS-51-I - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Covey; Engle; Fisher, William; Lounge; van Hoften. Payload: Discovery F06 / Syncom-4 4 [Orbus-7S] / Aussat A1. Mass: 19,952 kg (43,986 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey; Engle; Fisher, William; Lounge; van Hoften. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-I. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.10 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 15992 . COSPAR: 1985-076A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 351 km (218 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4; repaired Leasat 3. Payloads: Deploy ASC (American Satellite Company)-1 with Payload Assist Modue (PAM)-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-1 with PAM-D. Deploy Syncom IV-4 communications satellite with its unique stage. Retrieve Leasat-3 communications satellite, repair and deploy by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts. Physical Vapor Transport Organic Solids (PVTOS) experiment.

1985 September 3 - .
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