Encyclopedia Astronautica
Chapman



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Chapman
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
Chapman, Philip Kenyon (1935-) Australian scientist astronaut, 1967-1972.

Educated Sydney; MIT.

Official NASA Biography

NAME: Philip Kenyon Chapman (Sc.D.)
NASA Astronaut (former)

PERSONAL DATA: Born March 5, 1935, in Melbourne, Australia. He is married and has a son and a daughter. His hobby is oil painting, and he also enjoys skiing, swimming, sailing, and playing squash.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Parramatta High School in Parramatta, N.S.W., Australia; received a bachelor of science degree in Physics and Mathematics from Sydney University in 1956; and from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a master of science degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1964 and a Doctorate of Science in Instrumentation in 1967.

ORGANIZATIONS: Senior member of the American Astronautical Society; and member of the Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition (ANARE) Club, the American Association Society, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the British Polar Medal.

EXPERIENCE: Chapman served with the Royal Australian Air Reserve from 1953 to 1955. From 1956 to 1957, her worked for Philips Electronics Industries Proprietary Limited in Sydney, Australia. He then joined the Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition (IGY) serving for two years as an auroral/radio physicist.

From 1960 to 1961, he was an electro-optics staff engineer in flight simulators for Canadian Aviation Electronics Limited in Dorval, Quebec. His next assignment was a staff physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he worked in electro-optics, inertial systems, and gravitational theory until the summer of 1967.

He has logged 1000 hours flying time in jet aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Dr. Chapman was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in August 1967. After initial academic training and a 53-week course in flight training at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, he was involved in preparations for lunar missions, serving in particular as mission scientist for the Apollo 14 mission. Because of the lack of spaceflight opportunities for scientist-astronauts in the 1967 intake, Dr. Chapman left NASA in July 1972. He is now with Arthur D. Little Company, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts.

DECEMBER 1975

Birth Place: Melbourne.
Status: Inactive.


Born: 1935.03.05.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Astronaut Category of persons, applied to those trained for spaceflight outside of Russia and China. More...
  • NASA Group 6 - 1967 Requirement: additional scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and earth-orbit space station missions. Nickname: The Excess Eleven. More...

Associated Flights
  • Apollo 14 Crew: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with the lunar module failed for no apparent reason - mission saved when sixth was successful. Hike to Cone Crater frustrating; rim not reached. Backup crew: Cernan, Engle, Evans.Support crew: Chapman, McCandless, Pogue. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MIT American manufacturer of spacecraft. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Apollo The successful US project to land a man on the moon. More...

Bibliography
  • NASA Astronaut Biographies, Johnson Space Center, NASA, 1995-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Chapman Chronology


1967 August 4 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 6 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Allen; Chapman; England; Henize; Holmquest; Lenoir; Llewellyn; Musgrave; O Leary; Parker; Thornton, Bill. The group was selected to provide additional scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and earth-orbit space station missions.. Qualifications: Doctorate in natural sciences, medicine, or engineering. Under 35 years old, under 183 cm height, excellent health. US citizen or willing to become a naturalized citizen.. In response to the poor result of the first scientist-astronaut selection, NASA went ahead with a second round of selections. 923 people applied, of which 69 selected by the National Academy of Sciences for NASA physical and mental evaluation. By the time the new astronauts reported, ambitious Apollo Applications plans had been scrapped, leading to their nickname 'The Excess Eleven'. Seven stayed on through the 1970's and finally got to fly aboard the space shuttle.

1971 January 31 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-509.
  • Apollo 14 - . Call Sign: Kitty Hawk. Crew: Mitchell; Roosa; Shepard. Backup Crew: Cernan; Engle; Evans. Support Crew: Chapman; McCandless; Pogue. Payload: Apollo CSM 110 / Apollo LM 8 / ALSEP / S-IVB-509. Mass: 29,230 kg (64,440 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mitchell; Roosa; Shepard; Cernan; Engle; Evans; Chapman; McCandless; Pogue. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4900 . COSPAR: 1971-008A. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 31.1200 deg. Period: 88.18 min. The Apollo 14 (AS-509) mission - manned by astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell - was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 4:03 p.m. EST January 31 on a Saturn V launch vehicle. A 40-minute hold had been ordered 8 minutes before scheduled launch time because of unsatisfactory weather conditions, the first such delay in the Apollo program. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection were similar to those of the previous lunar landing missions. However, during transposition and docking, CSM 110 Kitty Hawk had difficulty docking with LM-8 Antares. A hard dock was achieved on the sixth attempt at 9:00 p.m. EST, 1 hour 54 minutes later than planned. Other aspects of the translunar journey were normal and proceeded according to flight plan. A crew inspection of the probe and docking mechanism was televised during the coast toward the moon. The crew and ground personnel were unable to determine why the CSM and LM had failed to dock properly, but there was no indication that the systems would not work when used later in the flight.

    Apollo 14 entered lunar orbit at 1:55 a.m. EST on February 4. At 2:41 a.m. the separated S-IVB stage and instrument unit struck the lunar surface 174 kilometers southeast of the planned impact point. The Apollo 12 seismometer, left on the moon in November 1969, registered the impact and continued to record vibrations for two hours.

    After rechecking the systems in the LM, astronauts Shepard and Mitchell separated the LM from the CSM and descended to the lunar surface. The Antares landed on Fra Mauro at 4:17 a.m. EST February 5, 9 to 18 meters short of the planned landing point. The first EVA began at 9:53 a.m., after intermittent communications problems in the portable life support system had caused a 49-minute delay. The two astronauts collected a 19.5-kilogram contingency sample; deployed the TV, S-band antenna, American flag, and Solar Wind Composition experiment; photographed the LM, lunar surface, and experiments; deployed the Apollo lunar surface experiments package 152 meters west of the LM and the laser-ranging retroreflector 30 meters west of the ALSEP; and conducted an active seismic experiment, firing 13 thumper shots into the lunar surface.

    A second EVA period began at 3:11 a.m. EST February 6. The two astronauts loaded the mobile equipment transporter (MET) - used for the first time - with photographic equipment, tools, and a lunar portable magnetometer. They made a geology traverse toward the rim of Cone Crater, collecting samples on the way. On their return, they adjusted the alignment of the ALSEP central station antenna in an effort to strengthen the signal received by the Manned Space Flight Network ground stations back on earth.

    Just before reentering the LM, astronaut Shepard dropped a golf ball onto the lunar surface and on the third swing drove the ball 366 meters. The second EVA had lasted 4 hours 35 minutes, making a total EVA time for the mission of 9 hours 24 minutes. The Antares lifted off the moon with 43 kilograms of lunar samples at 1:48 p.m. EST February 6.

    Meanwhile astronaut Roosa, orbiting the moon in the CSM, took astronomy and lunar photos, including photos of the proposed Descartes landing site for Apollo 16.

    Ascent of the LM from the lunar surface, rendezvous, and docking with the CSM in orbit were performed as planned, with docking at 3:36 p.m. EST February 6. TV coverage of the rendezvous and docking maneuver was excellent. The two astronauts transferred from the LM to the CSM with samples, equipment, and film. The LM ascent stage was then jettisoned and intentionally crashed on the moon's surface at 7:46 p.m. The impact was recorded by the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 ALSEPs.

    The spacecraft was placed on its trajectory toward earth during the 34th lunar revolution. During transearth coast, four inflight technical demonstrations of equipment and processes in zero gravity were performed.

    The CM and SM separated, the parachutes deployed, and other reentry events went as planned, and the Kitty Hawk splashed down in mid-Pacific at 4:05 p.m. EST February 9 about 7 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. New Orleans. The Apollo 14 crew returned to Houston on February 12, where they remained in quarantine until February 26.

    All primary mission objectives had been met. The mission had lasted 216 hours 40 minutes and was marked by the following achievements:

    • Third manned lunar landing mission and return.
    • Use of mobile equipment transporter (MET).
    • Payload of 32,500 kilograms placed in lunar orbit.
    • Distance of 3.3 kilometers traversed on lunar surface.
    • Payload of 43.5 kilograms returned from the lunar surface.
    • Lunar surface stay time of 33 hours.
    • Lunar surface EVA of 9 hours 47 minutes.
    • Use of shortened rendezvous technique.
    • Service propulsion system orbit insertion.
    • Active seismic experiment.
    • Inflight technical demonstrations.
    • Extensive orbital science period during CSM solo operations.

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