Encyclopedia Astronautica
Bolden



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Bolden
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
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STS-61-C
Astronaut Charles Bolden in pilots station prior to entry
Credit: NASA
Bolden, Charles Frank Jr 'Charlie' (1946-) African-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C, STS-31, STS-45, STS-60.

In 2002, Bolden was nominated by President Bush to be NASA's deputy administrator but in the wake of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks and the impending war in Afghanistan, this nomination was withdrawn to allow Bolden to continue his military service. Bolden retired from the Marine Corps after a 34-year military career with the rank of Major General in 2003, then became the president and chief operating officer of American PureTex Water Corporation and Pure Tex Water Works. He also served as senior vice president of TechTrans International, a language service company which served primarily as a subcontractor to NASA JSC to support joint Russian/US space programmes. On 17 Dec 2004 Bolden joined the GenCorp Inc board of directors.

Official NASA Biography

NAME: Charles F. Bolden, Jr. (Colonel, USMC)

NASA Astronaut

BIRTHPLACE AND DATE: Born August 19, 1946, in Columbia, South Carolina. His mother, Ethel M. Bolden, resides in Columbia.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Black hair; brown eyes; 5 feet 7 inches; 155 pounds.

EDUCATION: Graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina, in 1964; received a bachelor of science degree in electrical science from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, and a master of science in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1977.

MARITAL STATUS: Married to the former Alexis (Jackie) Walker of Columbia, South Carolina.

CHILDREN: Anthony Che, June 9, 1971; Kelly M., March 17, 1976.

RECREATIONAL INTERESTS: He enjoys racquetball, running, soccer, swimming, and first day cover collecting.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Marine Corps Association, the Montford Point Marine Association, the U.S. Naval Institute, and Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. Lifetime member of the Naval Academy Alumni Association, the University of Southern California General Alumni Association.

SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Air Medal, the Strike/Flight Medal (8th award), the University of Southern California (Ebonics Support Group) Outstanding Alumni Award (1982), National Technical Association Honorary Fellow (1983), Honorary Doctor of Science Degree from the University of South Carolina (1984), Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Winthrop College (1986), the NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1988), and the University of Southern California Alumni Award of Merit (1989), and an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Johnson C. Smith University (1990).

EXPERIENCE: Bolden accepted a commission as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps following graduation from Annapolis in 1968. He underwent flight training at Pensacola, Florida, Meridian, Mississippi, and Kingsville, Texas, before being designated a naval aviator in May 1970. He flew more than 100 sorties into North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, in the A-6A Intruder, while assigned to VMA(AW)-533 at Nam Phong, Thailand, June 1972 - June 1973. Upon returning to the United States, Bolden began a two-year tour as a Marine Corps officer selection officer and recruiting officer in Los Angeles, California, followed by three years at the Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, California. In June 1979, he graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland, and was assigned to the Naval Air Test Center's Systems Engineering and Strike Aircraft Test Directorates. While there, he served as an ordnance test pilot and flew numerous test projects in the A-6E, EA-6B, and A-7C/E airplanes.

He has logged more than 5,000 hours flying time.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in May 1980, Bolden became an astronaut in August 1981, qualified for assignment as a pilot on future Space Shuttle flight crews. His technical assignments to date include: Astronaut Office Safety Officer, Technical Assistant to the Director of Flight Crew Operations, Special Assistant to the Director of the Johnson Space Center, Astronaut Office Liaison to the Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance Directorates of the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Kennedy Space Center, Chief of the Safety Division at JSC, and Lead Astronaut for Vehicle Test and Checkout at the Kennedy Space Center. A veteran of three space flights, Bolden served as pilot on STS 61-C (January 12-18, 1986) and STS-31 (April 24-29, 1990), and was the mission commander on STS-45 (March 24 - April 2, 1992).

On his first mission Bolden was pilot on the crew of STS-61C, aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. During the six-day flight crew members deployed the SATCOM KU satellite and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing. STS 61-C launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January 12. The mission was accomplished in 96 orbits of Earth, ending with a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on January 18, 1986.

He next served as pilot on the crew of STS-31, aboard Space Shuttle Discovery, which launched on April 24, 1990, from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. During the five-day mission, crew members deployed the Hubble Space Telescope, and conducted a variety of middeck experiments. They also used a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in cabin and cargo bay cameras, for Earth observations from their record-setting altitude over 400 miles. Following 75 orbits of the earth in 121 hours, STS-31 Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on April 29, 1990.

More recently, Bolden commanded a crew of seven on STS-45 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Launched on March 24 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-45 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. During the nine-day mission, the crew operated the twelve experiments that constituted the ATLAS-1 (Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science) cargo. ATLAS-1 obtained a vast array of detailed measurements of atmospheric chemical and physical properties, which will contribute significantly to improving our understanding of our climate and atmosphere. In addition, this was the first time an artificial beam of electrons was used to stimulate a man-made auroral discharge. Following 143 orbits of Earth, STS-45 Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on April 2, 1992.

With the completion of his third mission, Bolden has logged over 481 hours in space.

On April 28, 1992, Colonel Bolden was appointed Assistant Deputy Administrator, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C

APRIL 1992

Characteristics

Departed Date: 1994-06-27. Marital Status: Married. Children: Two children. Education: Annapolis;Caltech;Patuxent.

Birth Place: African, South Carolina.
Status: Inactive.


Born: 1946.08.19.
Spaceflights: 4 .
Total time in space: 28.36 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Astronaut Category of persons, applied to those trained for spaceflight outside of Russia and China. More...
  • NASA Group 9 - 1980 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: 19+80 - The two European astronauts in the group were not considered by the Americans to be part of the 'official' group. This led to a scene at graduation. More...

Associated Flights
  • STS-61-C Crew: Bolden, Cenker, Chang-Diaz, Gibson, Hawley, Nelson, Nelson Bill. Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Second politician in space; he bumped Jarvis to later launch on which he was killed. Launch scrub saved crew from death due to undetected jammed SSME valve. Experienced nozzle joint O-ring erosion. More...
  • STS-61-J Crew: Young, Bolden, McCandless, Hawley, Sullivan. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Hubble space telescope. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. More...
  • STS-31 Crew: Bolden, Hawley, McCandless, Shriver, Sullivan. Deployed HST (Hubble Space Telescope). More...
  • STS-45 Crew: Bolden, Duffy, Foale, Frimout, Leestma, Lichtenberg, Sullivan. First Belgian astronaut. Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. More...
  • STS-60 Crew: Bolden, Chang-Diaz, Davis, Krikalyov, Reightler, Sega. First flight of a Russian cosmonaut aboard an American spacecraft. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Backup crew: Titov Vladimir. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Programs
  • STS The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's. More...

Bibliography
  • NASA Astronaut Biographies, Johnson Space Center, NASA, 1995-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Bolden Chronology


1980 May 19 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 9 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bagian; Blaha; Bolden; Bridges; Chang-Diaz; Cleave; Dunbar; Fisher, William; Gardner, Guy; Grabe; Hilmers; Leestma; Lounge; O Connor; Richards; Ross; Smith; Spring; Springer. The group was selected to provide pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights.. Qualifications: Pilots: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics. Advanced degree desirable. At least 1,000 flight-hours of pilot-in-command time. Flight test experience desirable. Excellent health. Vision minimum 20/50 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 vision; maximum sitting blood pressure 140/90. Height between 163 and 193 cm.

    Mission Specialists: Bachelor's degree in engineering, biological science, physical science or mathematics and minimum three years of related experience or an advanced degree. Vision minimum 20/150 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20. Maximum sitting blood pressure of 140/90. Height between 150 and 193 cm..


1986 January 12 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-32/61-C.
  • STS-61-C - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Bolden; Cenker; Chang-Diaz; Gibson; Hawley; Nelson; Nelson, Bill. Payload: Columbia F07 Satcom-K 1 [PAM-D2]. Mass: 14,724 kg (32,460 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Cenker; Chang-Diaz; Gibson; Hawley; Nelson; Nelson, Bill. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-61-C. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 6.09 days. Decay Date: 1986-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 16481 . COSPAR: 1986-003A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-1 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Materials Science Laboratory, Comet Halley Active Monitoring Experiment (CHAMP), Hitchhiker (HH) Goddard (G)-1, thirteen getaway specials (GAS), student experiment, Initial Blood Storage Equipment (lBSE), Characterization of Space Motion Sickness (SMS).

1986 January 18 - .
1986 August - .
1990 April 24 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-31R.
  • STS-31 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bolden; Hawley; McCandless; Shriver; Sullivan. Payload: Discovery F10 / Hubble Space Telescope. Mass: 13,005 kg (28,671 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Hawley; McCandless; Shriver; Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-31. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 5.05 days. Decay Date: 1990-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 20579 . COSPAR: 1990-037A. Apogee: 615 km (382 mi). Perigee: 585 km (363 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 96.70 min. Deployed HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Payloads: Deployment of Hubble Space Telescope, IMAX camera in payload bay and in crew compartment, Protein Crystal Growth III-03, Investigation Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing- 01, Air Force Maui Optical Site-05, Radiation Monitoring Equipment III-01, Student Experiment 82-16, and Ascent Particle Monitor 01.

1990 April 29 - .
1992 March 24 - . 13:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-45.
  • STS-45 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Bolden; Duffy; Foale; Frimout; Leestma; Lichtenberg; Sullivan. Payload: Atlantis F11 / Atlas 1 Fwd. Mass: 8,020 kg (17,680 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Duffy; Foale; Frimout; Leestma; Lichtenberg; Sullivan. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-45. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 8.92 days. Decay Date: 1992-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 21915 . COSPAR: 1992-015A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV)-4, Getaway Special Experiment G-229, Space Tissue Loss (STL)-1, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Visual Function Tester (VFT)-lI, Cloud Logic To Opti-mize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-Il, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl).

1992 April 2 - .
1994 February 3 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-60.
  • STS-60 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bolden; Chang-Diaz; Davis; Krikalyov; Reightler; Sega. Backup Crew: Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Discovery F18 / GBA-6. Mass: 13,006 kg (28,673 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bolden; Chang-Diaz; Davis; Krikalyov; Reightler; Sega; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-60. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.30 days. Decay Date: 1994-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22977 . COSPAR: 1994-006A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 56.4000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 1 and SPACEHAB 02. Getaway special bridge assembly experiments: Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL), Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS), University of Bremen Satellite (BREMSAT), G-514, G-071, and G-536. Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

1994 February 11 - .
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