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1936 Chronology

During 1936 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. Launch Complex: Kummersdorf. LV Family: German Rocketplanes. Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • First test of liquid rocket engine intended for use on aircraft - . Nation: Germany. Spacecraft Bus: German Rocketplanes. Spacecraft: Junkers 'Junior'.

    A 300 kgf engine was installed in a Junkers 'Junior' aircraft fuselage at Kummersdorf. This was the first rocket engine installation in an aircraft. But the problem to be solved was how to ensure continuous operation of the engine during aircraft manoeuvres. The rocket team finally built a big carousel, capable of testing the engine installation at up to 5 G's.


February 1936 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A3.
  • A3 rocket tested. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Germans tested A-3 rocket with 1,500 kgf thrust which served as basis for military weapon specifications..

1936 February 12 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard K.
  • Last and best of the proving-stand tests of Goddard's K series of rockets. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Lift 623.5 lb for 4 sec; weight oxygen 25.5 lb; weight gasoline 13.5 lb; jet velocity greater than 4340 ft/sec. Average interval between K-series tests was 8 days..

1936 February 23 - . LV Family: ARS. Launch Vehicle: ARS.
  • US rocket mail test. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ley. Apogee: 0.20 km (0.12 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). F. W. Kessler, W. Ley, and N. Carver launched two mail-carrying "rocket airplanes" at Greenwood Lake, N.Y., which traveled about 1,000 feet..

1936 February 26 - .
  • Birth of Eduard Ivanovich Buinovski - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Buinovski. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1964..

1936 February 29 - .
  • Birth of Jack Robert Lousma - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lousma. American pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 3, STS-3..

1936 March 7 - .
  • Birth of Dr Loren Wilber Acton - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Acton. American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F..

1936 March 16 - .
  • Liquid Propellant Rocket Development published. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Robert H. Goddard's classic report on "Liquid Propellant Rocket Development," reviewing his liquid -fuel rocket research and flight testing since 1919, was published by the Smithsonian Institution..

1936 March 17 - .
  • Birth of Thomas Kenneth II 'Ken' Mattingly - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mattingly. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 16, STS-4, STS-51-C..

April 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Go-ahead to build Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany.

    The missile test range is to be a combined Army / Air Force test ground. Von Braun had found the location in December 1935, after his first choice - Briz on the island of Ruegen - was taken over by the Deutsch Arbeitsfront as a 'Kraft durch Freude' recreation camp. During his Christmas holiday, Von Braun toured the cost, and found Peenemuende. It seemed perfect - 400 km of ocean to the east for use as a missile shooting range, room along the path on the coast for tracking radars.


1936 May 1 - .
  • Von Braun enters Luftwaffe. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Wernher Von Braun joins the German Air Force and receives pilot training at Frankfurt/Oder and Stolp..

1936 May 11 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Goddard begins tests of his L Series of liquid fuel rockets. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard.

    These would run through August 9, 1938 and included 30 flight tests of 10-in.-diameter motors, in nitrogen-pressured rockets. The series was divided into three sections: A, B, and C. Section A covered development of a nitrogen-pressured flight rocket using 10 in, motors based on the K series and ran from May 11 to November 7, 1936 (L1-L7). Length of the L Series Section A rockets varied from 10 ft 11 in, to 13 ft 6 1/2 in.; diameter 18 in.; empty weight 120 to 202 lb; loaded weight 295 to 360 lb; weight oxygen about 78 lb; weight gasoline 84 lb; weight nitrogen, 4 lb.


1936 June 1 - .
  • Russian meteorological rocket flown. - . Nation: Russia. Russian liquid-propellant meteorological rocket, designed by M. K. Tikhonravov, successfully flown..

July 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A3.
  • A4 wind tunnel tests - . Nation: Germany.

    The tests showed that the A3 configuration was unstable in flight and that it was going to take a lot of trial and error to identify the correct aerodynamic shape for the supersonic missile. Therefore the decision was taken to go slow on development of the A4 until tests with the A3 were complete. The 25 tonne thrust engine would also have to be built and proven in ground tests to determine its actual characteristics before a lot of effort was put into final design and construction of the rest of the rocket. So a series of test launches of the A3 to test the A4 control and guidance systems were undertaken, while Test Stand I at Peenemuende was prepared for tests of the 25 tonne engine.


1936 July 14 - .
  • Birth of Robert Franklin 'Bob' Overmyer - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Overmyer. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-5, STS-51-B. US Marine Corps.

1936 July 31 - . Launch Site: Roswell. LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section A rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0600 km (0.0373 mi). Range: 0.0900 km (0.0559 mi). Rocket achieved altitude 200 ft above 80-ft tower; duration 5 sec; landed 300 ft from tower..

August 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: Paris Gun. Launch Vehicle: Paris Gun.
  • Ground broken at Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany.

    First objective is development of the A4 strategic ballistic missile, later dubbed the V-2. The missile is to deliver a one tonne high explosive payload to double the range of the Paris Gun of World War I (250 km - the Paris Gun could deliver a ten kg, 21 cm diameter shell to 125 km range). To provide a reserve, the missile was designed for a 1500 m/s burnout velocity, which resulted in a 275 km range. Accuracy was to be 2 to 3 per mille, versus typical artillery shell accuracy of 4 to 5 per mille. These requirements indicated a 25 tonne thrust engine, powering a 12 tonne missile, with a 2100 m/s exhaust velocity, burning 8 tonnes of propellant in 65 seconds. The requirement to transport the missile by rail limited the diameter to 1.6 m, which in turn led to a 14 m length. Span with the detachable tail fins was 3.5 m.

    Several major issues had to be solved during development. The first was what wing and body shapes would be stable at supersonic velocities. Another was building adequate ground facilities for the intensive tests needed to develop the 25 tonne thrust motor. For this purpose a static test facility was built at Peenemuende capable of handling 100 tonne thrust motors, seen as the next step after the A4. Another major problem was developing high-capacity pumps to deliver the liquid oxygen at a temperature of -185 deg C.


1936 September 1 - .
  • Tsien Hsue-shen enters CalTech - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Goddard, Tsien, von Karman. Program: Long March.

    Tsien Hsue-shen, at the urging of Theodore von Karman, begins graduate studies at the California Institute of Technology. He will continue there for nearly twenty years, first as a student, finally as the Goddard Professor, becoming one of the leading rocket scientists in the United States.


September 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First supersonic wind tunnel. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hermann, Rudolf.

    Following problems with testing of the A3 (a subscale version of the planned V-2) by Dr Hermann, Von Braun proposes to the Germany army that a supersonic wind tunnel be constructed at a cost he estimates as 300,000 Marks. Other parts of the Army are not supportive of the facility, but it is finally built, costing millions more than Von Braun estimated.


1936 September 27 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Nikolayevich Stepanov - . Nation: Russia, Ukraine. Related Persons: Stepanov, Yuri. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1985-1996..

1936 October 3 - . Launch Site: Roswell. LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section A rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0600 km (0.0373 mi). Rocket achieved 200 ft vertically in 5 sec, then combustion chamber burned through; weight oxygen 40 lb; weight gasoline 46 lb; weight nitrogen 4 lb; fell 20 ft from tower..

1936 October 7 - .
  • Birth of Gennadi Mikhailovich Kolesnikov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kolesnikov. Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1967..

1936 October 11 - .
  • Birth of Charles Gordon Fullerton - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fullerton. American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-3, STS-51-F..

1936 October 13 - .
  • Goddard designs dismissed. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Lt. John Sessums (AAC) visited Robert H. Goddard to officially assess military value of Goddard's work. He reported that there was little military value, but that rockets would appear useful to drive turbines..

1936 October 31 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Nikolayevich Gaidukov - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Gaidukov. Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1978. Retired due to medical reasons (injured during parachute training). Worked as an engineer until 1988, when he retired from all work for medical reasons..

1936 November 6 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Vladimirovich Sologub - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Sologub. Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1968..

1936 November 7 - . Launch Site: Roswell. LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Final flight of Goddard series L section A rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0600 km (0.0373 mi).

    Rocket equipped with a cluster of four combustion chambers, each 5.75 in. in diameter; length 13 ft 6.5 in.; altitude about 200 ft; fell near tower. The L series included four proving-stand tests and three flight test attempts, of which all were successful. Average interval between tests 25 days


1936 November 8 - .
  • Birth of Dr Edward George Gibson - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gibson, Edward. American scientist astronaut. Flew on Skylab 4..

1936 November 24 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Goddard series L section B liquid rocket tests. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard.

    These were check tests of 5 3/4-in.-diameter chambers with fuels of various volatilities; development of tilting cap parachute release; tests of various forms of exposed movable air vanes; test of retractable air vanes and parachute with heavy shroud lines. The series ran from November 24, 1930-May 19, 1937 (L8-L15).


December 1936 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. Launch Complex: Kummersdorf. LV Family: German Rocketplanes. Launch Vehicle: He-112.
  • Rocketplane stand tests completed at Kummersdorf - . Nation: Germany. During the year the team had proven installation of a 1000 kgf engine, installed in a He-112, at burn times of up to 90 seconds..

1936 December 14 - .
  • Birth of Dr Robert Alan Ridley 'Bob' Parker - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Parker. American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-35..

1936 December 18 - . Launch Site: Roswell. LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0010 km (0.0006 mi). Rocket was equipped with a pressure storage tank; rocket turned sharply to the right soon after it emerged from the tower, and proceeded at 150 angle above the horizontal until it landed 2000 ft from tower; noise heard at ranch house, 8 miles away..


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