Encyclopedia Astronautica
X-34A-2


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/300 kg. Thrust 44.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 348 seconds.

Cost $ : 2.000 million.

Status: Development ended 1996.
Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
Height: 4.00 m (13.10 ft).
Diameter: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).
Span: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).
Thrust: 44.10 kN (9,914 lbf).
Specific impulse: 348 s.
Burn time: 325 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • FastTrack Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 44.1 kN. Design concept. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center prototype experimental engine that led to Fastrac low-cost engine for X-34. Isp=348s. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • X-34A American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. The original X-34A was a three-stage vehicle consisting of the Orbital Sciences L-1011; which air-launched the X-34A reusable rocketplane; which space-launched the rocket-powered third stage; which would take a small payload to orbit. Only the third stage would be expendable. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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