Encyclopedia Astronautica

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,000/30,000 kg. Thrust 833.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Masses estimated based on performance, propellant load.

Status: Status, Pioneer Rocketplane, 199.
Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb).
Thrust: 833.00 kN (187,265 lbf).
Specific impulse: 350 s.
Burn time: 300 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-120 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 833 kN. Zenit stage 2. In production. Isp=350s. High altitude engine used in the Zenit second stage. First production Russian engine to be test fired in the United States (3 test burns were made). First flight 1985. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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