Encyclopedia Astronautica
Nova GD-F-1


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,977,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 148,031.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 335 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange.

No Engines: 4.

Status: Study 1963.
Gross mass: 9,977,000 kg (21,995,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 680,000 kg (1,490,000 lb).
Height: 54.30 m (178.10 ft).
Diameter: 18.30 m (60.00 ft).
Span: 26.20 m (85.90 ft).
Thrust: 148,031.00 kN (33,278,692 lbf).
Specific impulse: 335 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 310 s.
Burn time: 203 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • L-7.70 Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 37,007 kN. Study 1963. Engines used in recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Isp=335s. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nova GD-F American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using new 3.5 million kgf Lox/Kerosene engines in first stage. Recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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