Encyclopedia Astronautica
Jupiter


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 54,431/5,443 kg. Thrust 758.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Cost $ : 7.830 million.

Status: Retired 1963.
Gross mass: 54,431 kg (119,999 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 5,443 kg (11,999 lb).
Height: 18.28 m (59.97 ft).
Diameter: 2.67 m (8.75 ft).
Span: 2.67 m (8.75 ft).
Thrust: 758.71 kN (170,565 lbf).
Specific impulse: 282 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 248 s.
Burn time: 182 s.
Number: 12 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • S-3 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Juno II, Saturn A-2 studies of 1959. Isp=282s. First flight 1958. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Jupiter American intermediate range ballistic missile. The Jupiter IRBM was developed for the US Army. By the time development was complete, the mission and the missile was assigned to the US Air Force, which had its own nearly identical missile, the Thor. Jupiters were stationed in Turkey and Italy in the early 1960's, but withdrawn in secret exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet R-5 missiles from Cuba. The Jupiter was used as the first stage of the relatively unsuccessful Juno II launch vehicle, and proposed for the Juno III and Juno IV. Jupiter tooling and engines were used to build the much larger Juno V / Saturn I launch vehicle. More...
  • Juno II American orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jupiter IRBM. Basic 4 stage vehicle consisted of 1 x Jupiter + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 + 1 x RTV Motor More...
  • Juno II (3) American intermediate range ballistic missile. Three stage version consisting of 1 x Jupiter + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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