Encyclopedia Astronautica
Atlas D

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 113,050/2,347 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Cost $ : 14.210 million.

Status: Out of production.
Gross mass: 113,050 kg (249,230 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 2,347 kg (5,174 lb).
Height: 21.20 m (69.50 ft).
Diameter: 3.05 m (10.00 ft).
Span: 4.90 m (16.00 ft).
Thrust: 363.22 kN (81,655 lbf).
Specific impulse: 309 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 215 s.
Burn time: 303 s.
Number: 252 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • XLR105-5 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 363.2 kN. Atlas D. Atlas Sustainer. Gas generator, pump-fed. Shared turbopumps for booster engines. Isp=309s. First flight 1958. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Atlas D American intercontinental ballistic missile. Rocket used both as a space launcher and ICBM. More...
  • Atlas C Able American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas C first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage. More...
  • Atlas Able American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas with upper stage based on Vanguard second stage. More...
  • Atlas Centaur American orbital launch vehicle. First test version of Atlas with Centaur upper stage. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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