Encyclopedia Astronautica
Sriharikota PSLV


PSLV, GSLV launch complex. PSLV pad

Longitude: 80.2346 deg.
Latitude: 13.7334 deg.
First Launch: 1993.09.20.
Last Launch: 2007.01.10.
Number: 12 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.03.17. Remote sensing of the Earth for natural resources management applications. More...
  • Tubsat German communications technology satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Tubsat-A) to 2007.01.10 (Maroc-Tubsat). Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites. More...
  • Kitsat South Korean technology satellite. 2 launches, 1993.09.26 (Oscar 23) to 1999.05.26 (Kitsat-3). South Korean indigenous 50-kg-class small satellite series, developed originally with technology transfer from Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. More...
  • GSat Indian communications satellite bus. First launch 2001.04.18. More...
  • PROBA European earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2001.10.22. Proba (PRoject for On-Board Autonomy, 1) was a European Space Agency technology development minisatellite with a mass of 94 kg. More...
  • TES Indian military surveillance satellite. One launch, 2001.10.22. TES was an imaging satellite equipped with cameras and instruments to test military reconnaissance satellite technology. More...
  • BIRD German earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2001.10.22. More...
  • METSAT Indian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2002.09.12. METSAT was an Indian (ISRO) meteorological, geostationary satellite designed to simultaneously obtain atmospheric cloud cover, water vapor, and temperature data. More...
  • Pehuensat Argentinan technology satellite. One launch, 2007.01.10. Experimental satellite developed by the Universidad Nacional del Comahue and AMSAT-LU. The satellte remained attached to the PSLV's Dual Launch Adapter. More...
  • SRE Indian re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 2007.01.10. Indian experimental subscale Discoverer-type re-entry capsule. A testbed for a projected $ 3 billion Indian project to orbit a manned spacecraft by 2014. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • PSLV Indian third-generation launch vehicle, large enough to carry polar-orbiting earth resources satellites. More...
  • GSLV Indian mixed-propulsion orbital launch vehicle for geosynchronous satellites using a Lox/LH2 upper stage developed from Russian technology. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Sriharikota India's primary space launch center, located on the east coast of the peninsula with a firing sector over the Bay of Bengal. In use from 1971 to present. More...

Sriharikota PSLV Chronology


1993 September 20 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-D1. FAILURE: Software error caused vehicle to go off course.. Failed Stage: G.
  • IRS-1E - . Payload: IRS-1E. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. COSPAR: F930920A.

1994 October 15 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-D2.
  • IRS-P2 - . Mass: 870 kg (1,910 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23323 . COSPAR: 1994-068A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 818 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.6700 deg. Period: 101.29 min. Summary: Remote sensing; sun-synch orbit..

1996 March 21 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-D3.
  • IRS-P3 - . Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 23827 . COSPAR: 1996-017A. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: LEO .

1997 September 29 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C1.
  • IRS-1D - . Payload: IRS-P3. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 24971 . COSPAR: 1997-057A. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 742 km (461 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.50 min.

1999 May 26 - . 06:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C2.
  • Kitsat-3 - . Nation: Korea South. Agency: ISRO. Manufacturer: KAIST. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: Kitsat. USAF Sat Cat: 25756 . COSPAR: 1999-029A. Apogee: 727 km (451 mi). Perigee: 707 km (439 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 99.10 min.
  • OceanSat 1 (IRS-P4) - . Payload: IRS-P4. Mass: 1,036 kg (2,283 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Sea satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 25758 . COSPAR: 1999-029C. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi). Perigee: 721 km (448 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Summary: Remote sensing satellite with Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and a Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR).
  • DLR-Tubsat - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. USAF Sat Cat: 25757 . COSPAR: 1999-029B. Apogee: 733 km (455 mi). Perigee: 712 km (442 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. DLR-Tubsat carried on the experimental work of Tubsat-A and -B. The satellite measured 32x32x32 cm and had a mass of 44.8 kg. The dechnology demonstrator conducted earth observation with 6 m resolution and conducted attitude control experiments. It was still in operation as of 2003.

2001 April 18 - . 10:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-D1.
  • GSAT-1 - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,530 kg (3,370 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26745 . COSPAR: 2001-015A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 33,825 km (21,017 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,387.00 min. Experimental Rural Communications satellite. Launch delayed following pad abort on March 28. First launch of the Indian GSLV launch vehicle. GSat 1 was an Indian, 1500 kg scaled-dow) test model of a future geosynchronous communications spacecraft with a 440 N ISRO liquid apogee motor, and S-band and C-band ommunications transponders, similar to the Insat-2 satellites. The motor for the cryogenic, hydrogen-oxygen upper stage had been purchased from Russia but the design had never flown in space before. The stage cut off without providing the required delta-V - preliminary analysis revealed a shortfall of 0.5% in the thrust. An attempt was made to reach a usable orbit using the station-keeping motor of the GSAT satellite itself. After a series of burns, GSat 1 ran out of propellant - 10 kg more fuel would have been required to reach a stationary orbit. In the end, the parameters of the drifting (about 13 deg/day) orbit were period 23 hours, apogee 35,665 km, perigee 33,806 km, and inclination 0.99 deg. The fully functional transponders and transmitters on board were deactivated on instructions of the International Telecommunications Union. As of 4 September 2001 located at 54.88 deg E drifting at 13.212 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 50.16W drifting at 12.778E degrees per day.

2001 October 22 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C3.
  • TES - . Mass: 1,108 kg (2,442 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: TES. USAF Sat Cat: 26957 . COSPAR: 2001-049A. Apogee: 592 km (367 mi). Perigee: 533 km (331 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.90 min. Launch delayed from July 20. The PS4 upper stage deployed the 1108 kg Indian TES (Technology Experiment Satellite) into a sun-synchronous orbit at 05:09:10 GMT. TES was an imaging satellite equipped with cameras and instruments to test military reconnaissance satellite technology. It was probably based on the IRS remote sensing satellite and carried a one-meter resolution panchromatic camera. India decided to develop an independent indigenous reconnaissance satellite capability after the 1999 incursion of Pakistani troops into disputed territory in Kashmir caught it by surprise. TES was developed by ISRO, the Indian Space Research Organization.
  • BIRD - . Mass: 1,108 kg (2,442 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: BIRD. USAF Sat Cat: 26959 . COSPAR: 2001-049C. Apogee: 529 km (328 mi). Perigee: 509 km (316 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. BIRD (Bispectral IR Detector) was a 94 kg German research minisatellite testing a new sensor for Earth imaging studies, detecting forest fires and other hot spots and studying vegetation changes. BIRD was released by the PS4 upper stage 40 seconds after the primary TES satellite payload had been deployed. The technology demonstrator was to help in the design a major remote sensing array of infrared detectors.
  • PROBA - . Mass: 1,108 kg (2,442 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: PROBA. USAF Sat Cat: 26958 . COSPAR: 2001-049B. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 553 km (343 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Proba (PRoject for On-Board Autonomy, 1) was a European Space Agency technology development minisatellite with a mass of 94 kg. It carried a radiation detector, an IR spectrometer, debris impact detectors, Earth imaging cameras, and an experimental spacecraft processor for spacecraft autonomy experiments. The satellite was built by Verheart in Belgium using the MiniSIL bus developed by SI of England, and was controlled from Belgium. After release of the TES and BIRD satellites, the PS4's upper stage small RCS engines raised the orbit to 553 x 676 km, and PROBA was ejected at 0520 GMT.

2002 September 12 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C4.
  • METSAT - . Payload: Metsat 1. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ISRO. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Metsat. USAF Sat Cat: 27525 . COSPAR: 2002-043A. Apogee: 35,809 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. METSAT 1 was an Indian (ISRO) meteorological, geostationary satellite that was launched by an upgraded, four-stage PSLV-C4 rocket. The satellite was manoeuvred from the transfer orbit to a geostationary postion at 37 E longitude on September 16, and then was parked at 74 E longitude on September 24. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.00E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

2003 May 8 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-D2.
  • GSAT-2 - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,825 kg (4,023 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 27807 . COSPAR: 2003-018A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Experimental Rural Communications. Launch delayed from original target of late 2001, then October 2002, then February 2003. The satellite carried four C-band transponders, two Ku-band transponders and a Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) payload operating in S-band and C-band for forward link and return link respectively. GSAT-2 also carried four piggyback experimental payloads: Total Radiation Dose Monitor (TRDM), Surface Charge Monitor (SCM), Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) and Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment (CRABEX). As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 47.97E drifting at 0.005E degrees per day.

2003 October 17 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C5.
  • ResourceSat 1 (IRS-P6) - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: IRS. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 28051 . COSPAR: 2003-046A. Apogee: 836 km (519 mi). Perigee: 813 km (505 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.40 min. Summary: The satellite was to replace IRS-1C and IRS-1D, and carried three cameras for remote sensing, the highest resolution one being the 6-meter LISS-4 imager. The sensors were designed for agricultural remote sensing applications..

2004 September 20 - . 10:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-F01.
  • GSAT-3 / Edusat - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 28417 . COSPAR: 2004-036A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Gsat-3 / Edusat was the first Indian satellite built exclusively for the educational sector. It was mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for India. Edusat was launched into a geosynchronous transfer orbit by its launch vehicle. Edusat was to reach geostationary orbit by firing, in stages, its on board Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM). In geostationary orbit the satellite was to be co-located with Kalpana-1 and Insat-3C satellites at 74 deg East longitude.

    Compared to earlier satellites in the Insat series, Edusat used several new technologies. The spacecraft was built around the I-2K standardised spacecraft bus. It had a multiple spot beam antenna with a 1.2 m reflector to direct Ku band spot beams, a dual core bent heat pipe for thermal control, high efficiency multi-junction solar cells and an improved thruster configuration for optimised propellant use for orbit and orientation maintenance. The satellite used radiatively cooled Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube Amplifiers and a dielectrically loaded C-band demultiplexer for its communication payloads. Edusat carried five Ku-band transponders providing spot beams, one Ku-band transponder providing a national beam and six Extended C-band transponders with a national coverage beam. It was to join the Insat system that already provided more than 130 transponders in C-band, Extended C-band and Ku-band for a variety of telecommunication and television services.

    First operational flight of launch vehicle. Launch delayed from July, August and September 10. Dry mass 820 kg. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 73.92E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


2007 January 10 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-C7.
  • SRE-1 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Spacecraft: SRE. Decay Date: 2007-01-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 29711 . COSPAR: 2007-001C. Apogee: 643 km (399 mi). Perigee: 620 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. India's Space Recovery Experiment-1 India's SRE-1 first lowered to its orbit to 485 km x 643 km on January 20. A 10-minute deorbit burn began at 03:30 GMT on January 22, with re-entry beginning at 04:07 and a successful splashdown at 04:16 GMT in the Bay of Bengal near 13.3 N / 81.4E. The capsule was successfully recovered by the Indian Navy. The capsule returned two microgravity payloads as well as proving basic technologies for any eventual Indian manned space program. It was also announced that the capsule could be used to orbit further microgravity payloads at low cost to customers.
  • LAPAN Tubsat - . Mass: 56 kg (123 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. USAF Sat Cat: 29709 . COSPAR: 2007-001A. Apogee: 638 km (396 mi). Perigee: 620 km (380 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Summary: Experimental satellite developed with assistance from TUB (Berlin Technical University. It carried a 5-meter-resolution surveillance camera..
  • Cartosat-2 - . Mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 29710 . COSPAR: 2007-001B. Apogee: 644 km (400 mi). Perigee: 629 km (390 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. The satellite was the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing satellite series and was capable of providing scene-specific spot imagery. The panchromatic camera provided imagery with a spatial resolution of better than one metre and a swath of 9.6 km. Data from the satellite was to be used for detailed mapping.
  • Pehuensat - . Mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Pehuensat. USAF Sat Cat: 29712 . COSPAR: 2007-001D. Apogee: 641 km (398 mi). Perigee: 621 km (385 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Summary: Experimental satellite developed by the Universidad Nacional del Comahue and AMSAT-LU. The satellte remained attached to the PSLV's Dual Launch Adapter..

2011 April 20 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • X-Sat - . Nation: India. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37389 . COSPAR: 2011-015C. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 803 km (498 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.10 min. Summary: Nanyang Technological University Singapore satellite; carried a 10-meter-resolution multispectral imager..
  • Resourcesat 2 - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: India. Program: IRS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 37387 . COSPAR: 2011-015A. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 820 km (500 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Surveillance satellite. Carried the LISS-4 camera, a 6-meter-resolution imager, which was to be used for both military reconnaissance and civilian remote sensing. It also carried the lower resolution LISS-3 (23 m resolution) and AWIFS (56 m resolution), and an AIS Automatic Identification System payload for Comdev of Canada for tracking ships at sea.
  • Youthsat - . Nation: India. Class: Science. Type: Science satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37388 . COSPAR: 2011-015B. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 803 km (498 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Summary: Carried experiments to study solar-terrestrial relationships..

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