Encyclopedia Astronautica
Hammaguira Brigitte


VE, SSBS, MSBS, Diamant launch complex. Brigitte, CIEES B2

Longitude: -3.0357 deg.
Latitude: 30.8935 deg.
First Launch: 1963.03.05.
Last Launch: 1967.02.15.
Number: 32 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Asterix French technology satellite. One launch, 1965.11.26. First French satellite. Launched from Hammaguir (Algeria) in order to test the "Diamant" launching vehicle for the first time. More...
  • D French earth geodetic satellite. 8 launches, 1966.02.17 (Diapason) to 1975.09.27 (Aura). Small French science and technology satellites used on early Diamant launch vehicle tests. More...
  • Diadem French earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1967.02.08 (Diademe 1) and 1967.02.15 (Diademe 2). French geodetic satellites. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Agate The Agate was the first of the 'precious stone' series of French rockets leading to the Diamant satellite launcher. The single-stage vehicle used the NA801 Mammouth solid propellant rocket developed originally for the SSBT program. The purpose of the fin-stabilised unguided rocket was to test the recoverable instrument pod planned for later missile tests. The Agate R / VE110RR version was used to develop recovery procedures at sea. More...
  • Aigle VE10A The VE10A used an improved, lightened version of the Stromboli booster. More...
  • Emeraude VE121 French orbital launch vehicle. Emeraude was a step toward larger liquid propellant launch vehicles, building on the Veronique and Vesta experience. It burned 12.8 tonnes nitric acid/turpentine pressure-fed propellants in 91 seconds. Tthe engine was gimbaled for pitch and yaw control, with aerodynamic fins controlling roll. In anticipation of the next step, Saphir, a dummy Topaze stage topped the vehicle to confirm aerodynamic characteristics. The first three launches were failures due to propellant sloshing. This was remedied in the later tests. More...
  • Saphir French orbital launch vehicle. Saphir was the penultimate step in the 'precious stones' series. The variants of the two-stage vehicle were designed to allow testing of radio-controlled guidance (VE231P), inertial guidance (VE231G), and warhead separation and re-entry of an ablative RV (VE231R). Addition of a third stage would transform Saphir into the Diamant satellite launcher. More...
  • Diamant A French orbital launch vehicle. Diamant development could be done relatively quickly using stages and systems being developed for strategic missiles. In May 1962 CNES selected DMA as program manager, with SEREB as the prime contractor. The Diamant orbital launch vehicle was created by replacing the payload of the existing Saphir test vehicle with a new third stage. Prior to any all-up satellite launch attempt the P064 third stage was flight tested on the smaller suborbital Rubis test vehicle. This evolutionary approach paid off. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Hammaguira The constellation of launch complexes and nuclear weapons test sites established by France in Algeria began with the Special Weapons Test Center (CIEES). This began operations at Colomb-Bechar, Algeria, on April 24, 1947. Development of the larger Veronique series required a new facility. This went into operation at Hammaguir, 120 km southwest of Colomb-Bechar, in May 1952. The evacuation of these launch sites was a condition of the final agreement signed in March 1962 that ended the Algerian Civil War. The sites continued in use until finally turned over to the Algerian government on 1 July 1967. French missile test activities moved to Biscarosse, in France, and orbital launches to Kourou, in French Guiana. Hammaguira was known to have been used for at least 271 launches from 1952 to 1967. More...

Hammaguira Brigitte Chronology


1963 March 5 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: VE. Launch Vehicle: Aigle VE10A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: VE. Launch Vehicle: Agate.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1963 May 21 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: VE. Launch Vehicle: Agate.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1964 June 15 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Emeraude VE121. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 June 17 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Emeraude VE121. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 October 20 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Emeraude VE121. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 November 2 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: VE. Launch Vehicle: Aigle VE10A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1965 February 27 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Emeraude VE121.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 13 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Emeraude VE121.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 July 5 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 P1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 July 10 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 P2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1965 October 9 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 P3.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,150 km (710 mi).

1965 October 23 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: SSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S112. LV Configuration: SSBS S112 2601.
  • Essai 1 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1965 November 3 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: SSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S112. LV Configuration: SSBS S112 2602.
  • Essai 2 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1965 November 26 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Diamant A. LV Configuration: Diamant A No. 1.
  • Asterix 1 - . Payload: A 1. Mass: 42 kg (92 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Asterix. USAF Sat Cat: 1778 . COSPAR: 1965-096A. Apogee: 1,697 km (1,054 mi). Perigee: 527 km (327 mi). Inclination: 34.3000 deg. Period: 107.50 min. Summary: First French satellite. French scientific satellite 'A-I'. Launched from Hammaguir (Algeria) in rder to test the 'Diamant' launching vehicle for the first time..

1966 February 17 - . 08:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Diamant A. LV Configuration: Diamant A No. 2.
  • Diapason - . Payload: D-1A. Mass: 19 kg (41 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: D. USAF Sat Cat: 2016 . COSPAR: 1966-013A. Apogee: 2,484 km (1,543 mi). Perigee: 502 km (311 mi). Inclination: 34.1000 deg. Period: 115.80 min. Summary: Scientific satellite 'D-I' launched from Hammaguir (Algeria)..

1966 March 13 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 G1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 March 18 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 G2.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 March 28 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 R2.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 April 5 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 R1.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 May 26 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M112.
  • Essai 1 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1966 June 1 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M112.
  • Essai 2 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1966 June 23 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 R4.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 October 5 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 R3.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 October 28 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 G3.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 November 2 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 G4.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 December 2 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 R5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1966 December 13 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 R6.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 January 19 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 G5.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 January 27 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Saphir. LV Configuration: Saphir VE231 G6.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 February 8 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Diamant A. LV Configuration: Diamant A No. 3. FAILURE: Partial Failure - injected into too low an orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Diademe 1 - . Payload: Diademe D-1C. Mass: 23 kg (50 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Diadem. USAF Sat Cat: 2674 . COSPAR: 1967-011A. Apogee: 1,084 km (673 mi). Perigee: 545 km (338 mi). Inclination: 40.0000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Summary: Orbit too low. Launch time of Diadem I was 10:39:40 on 8 Feb 1967. Launch time of Diadem II was 11:06:57 on 15 Feb 1967..

1967 February 15 - . 10:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Brigitte. LV Family: Diamant. Launch Vehicle: Diamant A. LV Configuration: Diamant A No. 4.
  • Diademe 2 - . Payload: Diademe D-1D. Mass: 23 kg (50 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Diadem. USAF Sat Cat: 2680 . COSPAR: 1967-014A. Apogee: 1,733 km (1,076 mi). Perigee: 584 km (362 mi). Inclination: 39.4000 deg. Period: 108.50 min. Summary: Launch time of Diadem I was 10:39:40 on 8 Feb 1967. Launch time of Diadem II was 11:06:57 on 15 Feb 1967. .

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