Encyclopedia Astronautica
Bremen


German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. OHB System GmbH, Germany.

AKA: OHB System GmbH; SSC/MBB/ERNO; ERNO; DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, Bremen (formerly ERNO).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • BremSat German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1994.02.03. Atomic oxygen, dust particle, microgravity, reentry experiments. More...
  • Inspector German logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1997.10.05, X-Mir Inspector. Robotic spacecraft designed for free flight and camera inspection of the exterior of the Space Shuttle or International Space Station. More...
  • Safir German civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 1998.07.10. Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen. More...
  • ABRIXAS German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.04.28. X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band with 30 arcsecond resolution. More...
  • Rubin German technology microsatellite. 8 launches, the first on 2000.07.15 (Rubin). Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. More...
  • SAR-Lupe German military surveillance radar satellite. 5 launches, 2006.12.19 (SAR-Lupe 1) to 2008.07.22 (SAR-Lupe 5). Germany's first satellite-based radar reconnaissance system. It consisted of five identical small satellites and a ground segment. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Spacelab European/American joint project provided the Spacelab pressurized module that remained attached to space shuttle and permitted conduct of a range of experiments. More...
  • STS The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's. More...

Bremen Chronology


1994 February 3 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-60.
  • BremSat 1 - . Payload: Discovery F18 / WSF 1 / BremSat 1 / ODERACS A, .... Mass: 63 kg (138 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DARA; Bremen. Class: Technology. Type: Re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Spacecraft: BremSat. Decay Date: 1995-02-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 22998 . COSPAR: 1994-006H. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Summary: Atomic oxygen, dust particle, microgravity, reentry experiments. .

1997 April 4 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-83.
  • MSL-1 Spacelab - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1997-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 24755 . COSPAR: 1997-013xx. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Remained attached to OV-102.

1997 July 1 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-94.
  • STS-94 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Thomas; Crouch; Linteris. Payload: Columbia F23 / Spacelab LM Unit 1 / EDO. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Halsell; Kilrain; Voss, Janice; Gernhardt; Thomas; Crouch; Linteris. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-94. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.70 days. Decay Date: 1997-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 24849 . COSPAR: 1997-032A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. STS-94 was the reflight, with the same equipment and crew, of the curtailed STS-83 mission. Cargo Bay Payloads:

    • MSL-1: The Microgravity Science Laboratory included the first test of the International Space Stationís EXPRESS Rack. MSL-1 also contained numerous other experiment payloads to test materials and combustion processes in zero gravity.
    • CRYOFD: The Cryogenic Flexible Diode (CRYOFD) heat pipe was a Hitchhiker payload.
    • OARE: The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment was a self-calibrating instrument that monitored extremely small accelerations and vibrations experienced during orbit of the Shuttle.
    In-Cabin Payloads: SAREX, MSX

    The mission this time went for its full two week duration and the crew completed the full list of experiments. The deorbit burn was on July 17, 1997 at 09:44 GMT and Columbia landed on KSC's Runway 33 at 10:46:34 GMT.

  • Spacelab MSL-1R - . Payload: Spacelab Long Module. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1997-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 24849 . COSPAR: 1997-032xx. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 296 km (183 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Remained attached to OV-102.

1997 August 7 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-85.
  • CRISTA - . Payload: ASTRO-SPAS. Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SPAS. Decay Date: 1997-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 24890 . COSPAR: 1997-039B. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 282 km (175 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Recaptured August 16..

1997 October 5 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • X-Mir Inspector - . Payload: Inspector. Nation: Germany. Agency: DASA. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: STS-86; Mir NASA-5; Mir NASA-4; Mir EO-24. Spacecraft: Inspector. Decay Date: 1998-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 25100 . COSPAR: 1997-058D. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi). Perigee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 91.10 min.

1998 April 17 - . 18:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-90.
  • STS-90 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Searfoss; Altman; Linnehan; Hire; Williams, Dave; Buckey; Pawelczyk. Backup Crew: Mukai; Dunlap. Payload: Columbia F25 / Spacelab LM Eurolab. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Searfoss; Altman; Linnehan; Hire; Williams, Dave; Buckey; Pawelczyk; Mukai; Dunlap. Agency: NASA Houston. Manufacturer: Bremen. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-90. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 15.91 days. Decay Date: 1998-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 25297 . COSPAR: 1998-022A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 247 km (153 mi). Inclination: 39.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Columbia rolled out to pad 39B on March 23. Payloads:

    • Spacelab transfer tunnel
    • Spacelab Long Module, with Neurolab experiments for the following life science studies:

      • Chronic Recording of Otolith Nerves in Microgravity
      • Development of the Aortic Baroreflex under Conditions of Microgravity
      • Neural-Thyroid Interaction on Skeletal Isomyosin Expression in OG
      • Spatial Orientation of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Velocity Storage
      • Autonomic Neuroplasticity in Weightlessness

    • Extended Duration Orbiter pallet
    • Two Get Away Special beams with canisters G-197, G-467, G-772 (Colorado's COLLIDE experiment, which collided small particles into each other to simulate the formation of planets and rings).

    The Neurolab mission was managed by NASA-Johnson at Houston, unlike earlier Spacelab flights which were NASA-Marshall/Huntsville's responsibility. Landed at Kennedy Space Center May 3 1998.


1998 July 10 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • SAFIR-2 - . Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Safir. USAF Sat Cat: 25399 . COSPAR: 1998-043F. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Summary: Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen..

1999 April 28 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65036-413.
  • ABRIXAS - . Mass: 470 kg (1,030 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: ABRIXAS. USAF Sat Cat: 25721 . COSPAR: 1999-022A. Apogee: 599 km (372 mi). Perigee: 550 km (340 mi). Inclination: 48.5000 deg. Summary: X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band. The satellite's battery failed and contact was lost on May 1..

2000 July 15 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47136-414.
  • Rubin - . Nation: Germany. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. Decay Date: 2001-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 26406 . COSPAR: 2000-039C. Apogee: 463 km (288 mi). Perigee: 411 km (255 mi). Inclination: 87.2558 deg. Period: 93.23 min. Summary: Rubin was a microsatellite to measure launch vehicle parameters developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. Rubin remained attached to the payload adapter of the Kosmos-3M final stage..

2002 November 28 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Rubin-3-DSI - . Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: NCST. Manufacturer: Polyot; Bremen. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27561 . COSPAR: 2002-054C. Apogee: 748 km (464 mi). Perigee: 687 km (426 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Delayed from September 12, October 29. Rubin-3-DSI, with a mass of 45 kg, was built by PO Polyot of Omsk (builders of the Kosmos-3M) and OHB System of Bremen. It remained attached to the booster final stage and measured the launch vehicle environment and performance

2002 December 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 1.
  • Rubin 2 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27609 . COSPAR: 2002-058E. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Messaging technology satellite..

2006 December 19 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53727-226.
  • SAR-Lupe 1 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: BWB. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 29658 . COSPAR: 2006-060A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 467 km (290 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Summary: First of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 143 deg..

2007 July 2 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 11K65M-SL.
  • SAR-Lupe 2 - . Mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: BWB. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: SAR-Lupe. USAF Sat Cat: 31797 . COSPAR: 2007-030A. Apogee: 508 km (315 mi). Perigee: 470 km (290 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Summary: Second of five planned German military surveillance satellites using synthetic aperture radar for target coverage at night and in all weathers. Orbital plane ascending node 208 deg..

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