Encyclopedia Astronautica
Sputnik 8A91



r7back.jpg
R-7 aft end
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Modified R-7 ICBM used to launch Sputnik 3.

LEO Payload: 1,327 kg (2,925 lb) to a 217 km orbit at 65.00 degrees. Failures: 1. First Fail Date: 1958-04-27. Last Fail Date: 1958-04-27 in 1985 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 33.000 million.

AKA: SL-2; 8A91; A.
Status: Retired 1958.
Gross mass: 269,300 kg (593,700 lb).
Payload: 1,327 kg (2,925 lb).
Height: 31.10 m (102.00 ft).
Diameter: 2.99 m (9.80 ft).
Span: 9.76 m (32.02 ft).
Thrust: 3,784.90 kN (850,879 lbf).
Apogee: 217 km (134 mi).
First Launch: 1958.04.27.
Last Launch: 1958.05.15.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Sputnik 3 Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1958.04.27 (Sputnik failure) to 1958.05.15 (Sputnik 3). In July 1956 OKB-1 completed the draft project for the first earth satellite, designated ISZ (Artificial Earth Satellite). More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-107-8D76 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 971 kN. Sputnik 8A91-0. Out of Production. OKB Glushko. Used on 8A91 Stage 0. Developed in 1956-1957. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=310s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-108-8D77 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 804 kN. Sputnik 8A91-1. Out of Production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1958. More...

See also
  • R-7 The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • R-7A 8K74-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,700/7,300 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...

Sputnik 8A91 Chronology


1958 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8A91. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8A91 B1-2. FAILURE: Launch vehicle disintegrated 88 seconds after liftoff.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Sputnik failure - . Payload: D-1 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Decay Date: 1958-04-01 . COSPAR: F580427A.

1958 May 15 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8A91. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8A91 B1-1.
  • Sputnik 3 - . Payload: D-1 s/n 2. Mass: 1,327 kg (2,925 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Decay Date: 1960-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 8 . COSPAR: 1958-Delta-2. Apogee: 1,864 km (1,158 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 106.00 min. Summary: Variety of scientific data. Research in the upper atmosphere and outer space.

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