Encyclopedia Astronautica
Scout D-1


American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Star 20

LEO Payload: 183 kg (403 lb). Failures: 1. First Fail Date: 1974-08-30. Last Fail Date: 1974-08-30.

Gross mass: 20,600 kg (45,400 lb).
Payload: 183 kg (403 lb).
Height: 25.00 m (82.00 ft).
Diameter: 1.14 m (3.74 ft).
Thrust: 464.00 kN (104,311 lbf).
Apogee: 10,000 km (6,000 mi).
First Launch: 1972.08.13.
Last Launch: 1983.06.27.
Number: 16 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Transit American navigation satellite. 46 launches, 1959.09.17 (Transit 1A) to 1988.08.25 (Transit O-31). The Transit Navigation System began development in 1958. More...
  • Ariel American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1962.04.26 (Ariel 1) to 1979.06.02 (Ariel 6). Ionospheric studies; returned X-ray, ionospheric, cosmic ray data. More...
  • San Marco Italian earth atmosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1964.12.15 (San Marco 1) to 1988.03.25 (San Marco D/L). Atmospheric density studies. More...
  • ESRO European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1967.05.30 (ESRO 2A) to 1972.11.22 (ESRO 4). The ESRO series were small Scout-launched probes of near-earth space. More...
  • SAS Italian solar satellite. 3 launches, 1970.12.12 (Explorer 42) to 1975.05.07 (Explorer 53). More...
  • MTS American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1972.08.13, Explorer 46. Micrometeoroid tests. More...
  • TIP American navigation satellite. 6 launches, 1972.09.02 (Triad 1) to 1988.06.16 (Nova 2). More...
  • AEROS German earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.12.16 (Aeros 1) and 1974.07.16 (Aeros 2). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • Miranda British technology satellite. One launch, 1974.03.09. Satellite technology. Anticipated life: longer than 50 years. More...
  • ANS Dutch visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1974.08.30. Astronomical Netherlands Satellite; lower than planned orbit. More...
  • AEM American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1978.04.26, HCMM. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; produced thermal maps of atmosphere. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. More...
  • SAGE American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.02.18. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. More...

See also
  • Scout Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Vought American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Vought, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Explorer Series of satellites launched by Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the exploration of the space environment (micrometeoroids, charged particles, radiation, etc) from both earth orbital and heliocentric orbital locations. More...
  • Transit Spin-stabilized Transit satellites were developed by the US Navy into the first operational navigation satellite system, for use by ballistic missile submarines and surface vessels. Early Transits carried a variety of piggy-back payloads, many still classified. Transit was also known as the Navy Navigation Satellite (NNS). Transit provided continuous navigation satellite service from 1964, initially for Polaris submarines and later for civilian use. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • San Marco In 1962 NASA signed an agreement with the Centro Ricerche Aerospaziali at the University of Rome creating the San Marco program. The purpose of the program was to place an Italian satellite in orbit and to create an Italian equatorial launch site for the Scout rocket. Permission was obtained from Kenya to emplace two modified oil platforms off their coast, on the equator. The Santa Rita platform would serve as a launch control center and would also be used for launch of sounding rockets. The San Marco platform would be dedicated to launch of Scout rockets to orbit. More...
  • Vandenberg SLC5 Scout launch complex. Dedicated Scout launch pad, used during the life of that vehicle from 1962 to 1994. More...

Associated Stages
  • Algol 3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,320/1,600 kg. Thrust 471.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 284 seconds. More...
  • Altair 3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 301/25 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. More...
  • Antares 2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,400/300 kg. Thrust 93.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...
  • Castor 2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,424/695 kg. Thrust 258.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 262 seconds. More...

Scout D-1 Chronology


1972 August 13 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S184C.
  • Explorer 46 - . Payload: Meteoroid Technology Satellite. Mass: 136 kg (299 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: MTS. Decay Date: 1979-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 6142 . COSPAR: 1972-061A. Apogee: 811 km (503 mi). Perigee: 492 km (305 mi). Inclination: 37.7000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Summary: Micrometeoroid tests. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1972 November 15 - . 22:13 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S170CR.
  • Explorer 48 - . Payload: SAS B. Mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SAS. Decay Date: 1976-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6282 . COSPAR: 1972-091A. Apogee: 526 km (326 mi). Perigee: 526 km (326 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1972 November 22 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S185C.
  • ESRO 4 - . Mass: 114 kg (251 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ESRO. Decay Date: 1974-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6285 . COSPAR: 1972-092A. Apogee: 1,173 km (728 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 91.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: Polar ionosphere investigations. Seventh ESRO satellite. Mass 115 kg. Also registered by the United States as 1972-92A, in A/AC.105/INF.267, with orbital parameters 98.8 min, 244 x 1160 km x 91.1 deg, category B. .

1972 December 16 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S181C.
  • Aeros 1 - . Payload: GRS B. Mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Aeros. Decay Date: 1973-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6315 . COSPAR: 1972-100A. Apogee: 867 km (538 mi). Perigee: 223 km (138 mi). Inclination: 96.9000 deg. Period: 95.60 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1974 February 18 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S190C.
  • San Marco 4 - . Payload: San Marco C2. Mass: 164 kg (361 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: San Marco. Decay Date: 1976-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 7154 . COSPAR: 1974-009A. Apogee: 875 km (543 mi). Perigee: 270 km (160 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. Summary: Measurement of density, temperature, composition of atmosphere. Launch time 10:05:28.5 GMT. Anticipated life: 3 years. .

1974 March 9 - . 02:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S188C.
  • Miranda - . Payload: X-4. Mass: 93 kg (205 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: RAE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Miranda. USAF Sat Cat: 7213 . COSPAR: 1974-013A. Apogee: 866 km (538 mi). Perigee: 677 km (420 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 100.30 min. Summary: Satellite technology. Miranda was launched at 02:22:11.4 GMT on 1974 Mar 9. Interjection point 13.9N, 126.0E. Anticipated life: longer than 50 years. .

1974 July 16 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S186C.
  • Aeros 2 - . Payload: Aeros B. Mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Aeros. Decay Date: 1975-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7371 . COSPAR: 1974-055A. Apogee: 869 km (539 mi). Perigee: 224 km (139 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 95.60 min. Summary: Upper atmospheric research. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1974 August 30 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S189C. FAILURE: Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • ANS 1 - . Mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Nation: Netherlands. Agency: NIVR. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: ANS. Decay Date: 1977-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 7427 . COSPAR: 1974-070A. Apogee: 1,173 km (728 mi). Perigee: 258 km (160 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Summary: Astronomical Netherlands Satellite; lower than planned orbit. .

1975 October 12 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S195C.
  • Triad 2 - . Payload: TIP 2. Mass: 94 kg (207 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: TIP. Decay Date: 1991-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 8361 . COSPAR: 1975-099A. Apogee: 490 km (300 mi). Perigee: 427 km (265 mi). Inclination: 90.4000 deg. Period: 93.80 min. Summary: Prototype of improved Transit satellite. Tested pulsed plasma engine..

1976 June 18 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S193C.
  • GP-A Physics mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10,230 km (6,350 mi).

1976 September 1 - . 21:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S197C.
  • TIP 3 - . Payload: Triad 3 (TIP 3). Mass: 94 kg (207 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: TIP. Decay Date: 1981-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 9403 . COSPAR: 1976-089A. Apogee: 789 km (490 mi). Perigee: 345 km (214 mi). Inclination: 90.3000 deg. Period: 95.90 min. Summary: Prototype of improved Transit satellite. Also tested pulsed plasma engine..

1977 October 28 - . 04:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S200C.
  • Transat O-11 - . Mass: 94 kg (207 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 10457 . COSPAR: 1977-106A. Apogee: 1,097 km (681 mi). Perigee: 1,059 km (658 mi). Inclination: 89.7000 deg. Period: 106.80 min. Summary: Modification of first APL-built operational Transit for 'related experiments'..

1978 April 26 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S201C.
  • HCMM - . Payload: AEM 1. Mass: 134 kg (295 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: AEM. Decay Date: 1981-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10818 . COSPAR: 1978-041A. Apogee: 641 km (398 mi). Perigee: 560 km (340 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 96.70 min. Summary: Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; prodeuced thermal maps of atmosphere. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1979 February 18 - . 16:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S202C.
  • SAGE - . Payload: AEM 2. Mass: 147 kg (324 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: SAGE. Decay Date: 1989-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11270 . COSPAR: 1979-013A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 456 km (283 mi). Inclination: 55.0000 deg. Period: 94.20 min. Summary: Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1979 June 2 - . 23:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S198C.
  • Ariel 6 - . Payload: UK 6. Mass: 154 kg (339 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Ariel. Decay Date: 1990-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11382 . COSPAR: 1979-047A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 372 km (231 mi). Inclination: 55.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Detection of heavy cosmic particles and X-ray astronomy. Launch time 2326 GMT. Also registered by the United States in ST/SG/SER.E/26, with parameters 97.2 min, 601 x 653 km x 55.0 deg, category A. .

1983 June 27 - . 15:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1 S205C.
  • HILAT - . Payload: Transit O-16 / P83-1. Nation: USA. Agency: USAF STP. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 14154 . COSPAR: 1983-063A. Apogee: 818 km (508 mi). Perigee: 754 km (468 mi). Inclination: 82.0000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Summary: Modification of Transit O-16 for military communications research. Officially: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

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