Encyclopedia Astronautica
ARPA Taurus



taur9417.jpg
Taurus
Taurus - COSPAR 1994-017
American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 1 x TU-904 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38

LEO Payload: 1,320 kg (2,910 lb).

Status: Retired 1998.
Gross mass: 73,000 kg (160,000 lb).
Payload: 1,320 kg (2,910 lb).
Height: 27.90 m (91.50 ft).
Diameter: 2.35 m (7.70 ft).
Thrust: 1,711.00 kN (384,648 lbf).
Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).
First Launch: 1994.03.13.
Last Launch: 1998.10.03.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • TAOS American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 101. TAOS was a technology demonstration satellite whose purpose was to demonstrate autonomous space navigation systems to reduce satellite ground support needs. More...
  • DARPASAT American technology satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 102. GPS receiver and data processor technology tests. More...
  • TiPS American tether technology satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.12 (USA 123) to 1998.10.03 (USA 141). The 53 kg satellite consisted of 2 end masses connected by a 4 km tether. NRO (the National Reconnaissance Office) provided funding for the TiPS project. More...
  • STEX American tether technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.03. STEX's (Space Technology EXperiments) main equipment was provided by the Naval Research Laboratory. More...

See also
  • Taurus Pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and Castor-120 first stage. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • OSC American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Orbital Sciences Corporation, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • STEP Space Test Experiment Program; series of USAF technology test satellites. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...

Associated Stages
  • Orion 50 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,370/345 kg. Thrust 118.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. More...
  • Peacekeeper-1 Solid rocket stage. 1711.00 kN (384,648 lbf) thrust. Mass 53,400 kg (117,727 lb). More...
  • Pegasus-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 985/203 kg. Thrust 34.57 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...

ARPA Taurus Chronology


1994 March 13 - . 22:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: ARPA Taurus. LV Configuration: ARPA Taurus T1 1110.
  • USA 101 - . Payload: STEP-0 / STEP M0. Mass: 502 kg (1,106 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: STEP. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: TAOS. USAF Sat Cat: 23030 . COSPAR: 1994-017A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 555 km (344 mi). Inclination: 105.0000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Summary: Space Test Experiment Program; 10 satellite subsystem experiments. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • USA 102 - . Payload: DarpaSat. Mass: 203 kg (447 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DARPASAT. USAF Sat Cat: 23031 . COSPAR: 1994-017B. Apogee: 556 km (345 mi). Perigee: 532 km (330 mi). Inclination: 105.0000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Summary: GPS receiver and data processor technology tests. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1998 October 3 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576E. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: ARPA Taurus. LV Configuration: ARPA Taurus T3 1110.
  • STEX - . Payload: STEX. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Manufacturer: NRL. Class: Technology. Type: Ion engine technology satellite. Spacecraft: STEX. USAF Sat Cat: 25489 . COSPAR: 1998-055A. Apogee: 759 km (472 mi). Perigee: 744 km (462 mi). Inclination: 84.9859 deg. Period: 99.77 min. Tested TAL-D55 plasma engine and was to be part of the NRO's ATex tether experiment. The ATeX lower end mass was meant to remain attached to the STEX parent spacecraft, but with only 21 m of tether deployed, it appeared the tether was so far off vertical that automatic safety systems jettisoned the base to protect the remainder of the STEX satellite. Thus, the upper and lower ATeX end masses were in orbit as one object connected by a 21 m tether, and designated USA 141 (1998-055C). The main STEX satellite was in orbit as a separate object, 1998-055A.
  • USA 141 - . Payload: ATEX. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; NRL. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: TiPS. USAF Sat Cat: 25615 . COSPAR: 1998-055C. Apogee: 766 km (476 mi). Perigee: 750 km (466 mi). Inclination: 84.9910 deg. Period: 99.90 min. NRO's ATeX (Advanced Tether eXperiment) reportedly failed on January 16. The ATeX lower end mass was meant to remain attached to the STEX parent spacecraft, but with only 21 m of tether deployed, it appeared the tether was so far off vertical that automatic safety systems jettisoned the base to protect the remainder of the STEX satellite. Thus, the upper and lower ATeX end masses were in orbit as one object connected by a 21 m tether, and designated USA 141 (1998-055C). The main STEX satellite was in orbit as a separate object, 1998-055A.

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