Encyclopedia Astronautica
Topol



topolmw.jpg
Topol
Credit: © Mark Wade
Containerised all-solid propellant Nadiradze ICBM designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos.

Nadiradze at MIT began study of mobile ICBM in 1975. This would considered absolutely necessary since increasing US missile accuracy was making silo-based ICBM's vulnerable to a first strike. In response a government decree of 19 July 1976 ordered development of the Topol ICBM. Development of this all-solid propellant design would be continued by Boris Lapygin after Nadiradze's death Guidance was designed by Pilyugin at NPO AP. Launch from the mobile transports was controlled from a separate mobile command post. The first launch on 27 October 1982 was a failure. The second on 8 February 1983 was successful, travelling 6430 km from Plesetsk to the impact zone in Kamchatka. The first four launches, two of them unsuccessful, were conducted from a test silo originally built for the RT-2P. Trials of the RT-2PM version capable of dispensing 3 to 4 MIRV's began on 30 May 1983. The first test series was completed in December 1984, but many reliability problems had been identified. Further test series were required and the missile not finally accepted by the military until 1 December 1988. Throughout this process severe 'maskirova' (concealment and deception) measures were used to confuse the Americans as to the nature and status of development and deployment of the missile.

Despite the problems with the first test series the threat was considered so urgent that the Votkinsk Factory was ordered to begin series production in December 1984. The missile was deployed in rocket divisions of 4 to 5 regiments, each regiment with nine mobile launchers and one mobile command vehicle. The first provisional regiment became operational on 23 July 1985 at Yoshkar-Ola. This was followed by replacement of silo-based UR-100's by RT-2PM's at Teikovo. Deployment of the mobile version extended to Nizhniy Tagil on 28 April 1987. This was the first site to use the Baryev redundant multi-channel radio command link between the control points and the missile launchers. On 27 May 1988 a regiment began operations at Irkutsk with the improved Granit command point featuring a completely automated guidance system update. By 1991 288 launchers had been built, and deployment peaked at 386 in 1997. Rocket divisions were provided with the RT-2PM at Barnaul, Nizhniy Tagil, Bologoye, Yoshkar-Ola, Teikovo, Yurya, Novosibirsk, Kansk, Irkustsk , and Drovyanaya. Nine regiments with 81 launchers had been deployed to Lida, Mozyr, and Pruzhany in Belorus, but were moved back to Russia from 13 August 1990 to 27 November 1996. By 1999 there were 360 launchers in ten divisions. 57 missiles were test fired from Plesetsk to the end of the century, without a single failure of an operational missile.

The missile featured much new technology, including a new high energy, high density solid propellant in the first stage. A new countermeasure system was designed to confuse enemy defences. The missile could be launched at any time within two minutes, whether on the march or from special garage shelters with split roof doors. The missile was designed for a two year operational life, later extended based on in-service tests. Surplus ICBM's were marketed as Start and Start-1 space launchers. The first launch of this version took place from Svobodniy in March 1992.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Start Russian communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.03.25. Experimental satellite carried on test flight of the Start-1 carrier rocket, a new booster based on SS-25 ICBM. More...
  • EKA Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1995.03.28. Eksperimentalniy Kosmicheskiy Apparat - dummy of test satellite. More...
  • Gurwin Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.03.28 (Gurwin 1) and 1998.07.10 (Gurwin Techsat 1B). Gurwin satellites were built by the Technion Institute of Technology, Israel. More...
  • Ofeq 3 Israeli military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1995.04.05 (Ofeq-3) to 2006.04.25 (EROS-B). Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite. More...
  • Zeya Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1997.03.04. The Zeya satellite was used for navigation and geodesy tests from a sun-synchronous orbit. More...
  • Early Bird American civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.12.24 (Early Bird) and 2000.11.20 (QuickBird 1). Civilian earth resources / intelligence photo-imaging program. More...
  • Odin Swedish infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.02.20. Odin was a Swedish dual disciplinary (astrophysics and atmospheric science) spacecraft. The 250 kg, 340 W spacecraft had a pointing accuracy of 15 arcsec and a data storage capacity of 100 MB. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Topol Russian containerised all-solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos. More...
  • Start-1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned ICBM's. Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 47 tonnes. More...
  • Topol M All-Russian solid propellant ICBM set to replace all older models in the first decade of the 21st Century. Designed for mobile deployment on 8-axis transport-launcher RT-2M2/SS-X-29), or placement in existing UR-100N and R-36M silos (RT-2M1/SS-X-27). More...
  • Start Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned SS-25 ICBM's (differs from ICBM/basic Start-1 in having second stage used twice, in tandem, for increased payload). Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 60 tonnes. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Svobodniy Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1994, equipped with 90 light ICBM (UR-100) silos. The number of operational silos declined to 60 by 1993. The break-up of the Soviet Union left the main Russian cosmodrome on foreign territory (Baikonur, in Kazakhstan). The Northern Cosmodrome at Plesetsk did not have facilities for large launch vehicles and was not suited for support of launches into lower-inclination orbits. Therefore Svobodniy Cosmodrome, located 7,777 km east of Moscow, was established as the Second State Space Trials Launch Centre (GIK-2) on 2 February 1996. More...

Topol Chronology


1981 September 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC167. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • First launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 October 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 February 8 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 May 4 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 May 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 December 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 February 28 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 March 29 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 May 15 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 May 21 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 May 25 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 July 31 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 August 8 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 August 16 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 October 17 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 November 1 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 November 27 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 December 25 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 December 25 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 February 7 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 April 5 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 June 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 August 19 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 October 2 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 February 25 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 March 25 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC158. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • Start-1 - . Payload: EKA-1. Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Start. USAF Sat Cat: 22561 . COSPAR: 1993-014A. Apogee: 964 km (599 mi). Perigee: 681 km (423 mi). Inclination: 75.8000 deg. Period: 101.40 min. Summary: Test flight of new booster based on SS-25 ICBM. Full-scale mock-up (actual weight) for the flight-design testing of the Start-1 carrier rocket. Experimental satellite launched by a Start-1 carrier rocket from the Plesetsk launch site. .

1993 July 23 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 June 22 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 September 23 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 November 10 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 December 20 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk Yu-1. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 March 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC158. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start. FAILURE: Fell in Sea of Okhotsk.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gurwin 1 - . Payload: TECHSAT-1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: RVSN. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Gurwin. Decay Date: 1995-03-28 . COSPAR: F950328A.
  • Oscar 29 - . Payload: ENB UNAMSAT A. Nation: Mexico. Agency: RVSN. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. COSPAR: F950328C. Summary: UNAMSAT was an AMSAT Microsat class amateur radio satellite built by UNAM, the Autonomous University of Mexico..
  • EKA - . Payload: EKA-2. Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: EKA. COSPAR: F950328B. Summary: Eksperimentalniy Kosmicheskiy Apparat - dummy of test satellite..

1995 April 14 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 September 5 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 October 10 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 April 17 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 June 6 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 July 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 October 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 November 9 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol. LV Configuration: Topol 52.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 March 4 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.2.
  • Zeya - . Payload: Zeya No. 1. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Zeya. Decay Date: 1999-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 24744 . COSPAR: 1997-010A. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 460 km (280 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 93.60 min.

1997 July 8 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 October 3 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 December 24 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • Early Bird - . Payload: EarlyBird. Nation: USA. Agency: DigitalGlobe. Manufacturer: McLean. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Early Bird. Decay Date: 2000-07-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 25123 . COSPAR: 1997-085A. Apogee: 488 km (303 mi). Perigee: 479 km (297 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.10 min.

1998 September 16 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 October 22 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1998 December 8 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 6.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 June 3 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 7.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 September 3 - . 11:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 8.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 October 1 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol. LV Configuration: Topol 57.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 December 14 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 9.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 February 9 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 10.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 September 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 September 27 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC167. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M 12 (1M).
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 October 11 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol. LV Configuration: Topol 58.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 December 5 - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • EROS A1 - . Mass: 240 kg (520 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ImageSat. Manufacturer: IAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. USAF Sat Cat: 26631 . COSPAR: 2000-079A. Apogee: 542 km (336 mi). Perigee: 533 km (331 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. Launch delayed from November 28. The Israeli commercial imaging satellite EROS A1 was owned by ImageSat (an Israeli-led company registered in the Netherlands Antilles) and built by IAI using the Ofeq-3 design. EROS A1 was placed in a sun-synchronous orbit together with the DS 5th stage. The 250 kg (dry mass) triaxially stabilized spacecraft carried a black and white high resolution (1.8 m) CCD camera, to obtain images (with terrain width of 12.6 km) of locations chosen by Israeli military or world-wide commercial clients, and downlink them at one of the 14 ground stations.

2001 February 16 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 February 20 - . 08:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • Odin - . Mass: 250 kg (550 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: ZAO. Manufacturer: SSC. Class: Astronomy. Type: Infrared astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Odin. USAF Sat Cat: 26702 . COSPAR: 2001-007A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 573 km (356 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.20 min. Sweden's Odin scientific satellite carried a submillimeter wave astronomy instrument and a radiometer for atmospheric studies. The 1.1-meter reflector fed 500 GHz and 119 GHz radiometers and was used to study galactic molecular clouds, complementing NASA's SWAS satellite. The Odin satellite was designed and built by the Swedish Space Corporation (Svenska Rymdbolaget or Rymdaktiebolaget). SSC does most of its satellite design and construction in-house, although Saab made the antenna and carried out satellite final assembly. SSC was a goverment-owned company and a contractor for the Rymdstyrelsen (Swedish National Space Board).

2001 October 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 November 1 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M.
  • MRV Test Kura - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Topol ICBM test launched from Plesetsk to Kamchatka..

2002 June 6 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2002 October 12 - . 09:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 February 18 - . 10:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Kura R&D payload? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Launched during a nationwide military exercise..

2004 April 20 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M.
  • Pacific operational test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 November 2 - . 09:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Topol ICBM Test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 December 24 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M.
  • Kura (at 1003) - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2005 November 1 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M.
  • Topol M test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Evasive Warhead ICBM Test. The missile was said to have entered a lower suborbital trajectory than was standard, and the warhead to have made evasive maneuvers both in space and during re-entry. This was said to give the system an 87% chance of penetrating planned American ballistic missile defence systems.

2005 November 29 - . 07:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol. LV Configuration: Topol 81.
  • PBS test 1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2006 April 25 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1. LV Configuration: Start-1 No. 441.
  • EROS-B - . Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ImageSat. Manufacturer: IAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. USAF Sat Cat: 29079 . COSPAR: 2006-014A. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 505 km (313 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: Combined civilian/military imaging satellite operated by an Israeli company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. Its capability was demonstrated when, within days of launch, sharp photographs of people and motor vehicles on a Syrian dam were released..

2006 August 3 - . 10:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Kura (at 1104) - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2007 May 29 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M RS-24 Yars.
  • ICBM Test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). First test of a new Russian heavyweight, mobile, solid propellant ICBM. The multiple test warheads were said to have impacted on target 5,500 km down range in the Kura Test Range in the Kamchatka Peninsula. Although development must have been underway for some time, the launch was touted as a reply to American plans to install ABM system elements in the Czech Republic and Poland.

2007 October 18 - . 05:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Kura OT - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2007 December 8 - . 14:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Balkhash - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2007 December 25 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M. LV Configuration: Topol-M RS-24.
  • Kura? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2008 August 28 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Kura R&D payload - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2008 October 12 - . 07:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Kura OT - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2008 November 26 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M.
2009 April 10 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Topol Test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Op Test.

2009 December 10 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Topol test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Summary: ICBM test, flew to impact area at Sary Shagan..

2010 October 28 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Operational test..

2010 December 5 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Topol RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Test mission, impacting in Sary Shagan range..

2011 September 3 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Test mission, launched from Plesetsk to the Kamchatka peninsula impact area..

2011 September 27 - . 07:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi). Summary: Test mission of a new Russian ICBM type, launched from Plesetsk but failed at a few kilometers altitude..

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