Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-36M



r36mmw.jpg
R-36M
The super-heavy Ukrainian R-36M ICBM replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. The fall of the Soviet Union ended production and the need for replacement. Nevertheless they remained in Russian service into the 21st Century, some being modified for use as space launchers.

The concepts leading to the mighty R-36M ICBM can be traced back to a decree of 2 September 1969. A replacement for the R-36 would be needed at the end of its service life, and it should be as large as possible to provide the maximum throw weight while using the existing silos. On the other hand the silo itself would need modification to improve its resistance to nearby nuclear explosions. It would still have to be installed in the silo as a 'certified round' - sealed in its canister, fuelled, and ready for instant launch at any time throughout its 10 to 15 year life.

In the early 1960's Chelomei had developed the gas dynamic launch method for this UR-100 missile. This used exhaust gases from the rocket to 'pop' the missile out of its silo. Yangel had appropriated this idea for his abortive mixed propulsion mobile RT-20P ICBM. In 1969 he conceived of the idea of a 'cold launch'. This would use a cold gas generator - essentially a huge mortar charge -- to pop the missile out of the silo. The first stage of the missile would only fire when it was some distance in the air. The advantages were several. A crucial initial energy impulse would be given to the rocket by a device that would not cut into the total missile mass. The silo would not be damaged by the hot exhaust gases of the rocket, providing the possibility for quick reloading and reuse of the silo. More room would be available in the silo itself for shock mounting of the missile.

The draft project for the R-36M missile itself was completed in December 1969. Four warhead variants were proposed -- a single light re-entry vehicle (RV), a single heavy RV, multiple independently-targeted RV's , and ballistically and manoeuvrable RV's to defeat enemy anti-ballistic missile defences. The missile was to be designed for a ten year operational life (later extended to 15 years as a result of in-service tests).

A preliminary project document for the new silo was completed in March 1970. However Yangel's usual collaborator on silo design, Yeveniy Rudyak at TsKB-34, did not agree with the cold launch concept at all. He did not see how it could be applied to a derivative of the R-36 rocket, with a launch mass of over 200 tonnes. But Rudyak was to depart for KB Spetsmash in December 1970 and the next chief designer, Vladimir Stepanov, was willing to pursue the concept. The greatest challenge was not the powder cold-gas generator, but the pneumatic cushioning planned to protect the missile in the silo. How could air bags be kept inflated without maintenance for the required 10 to 15 year guaranteed storage life of the missile? In parallel Vsevolod Soloyev at KBTM was developing an alternate system that would suspend the missile in the silo, isolating it from shock. But this approach was dropped in May 1970 and it was decided to use Stepanov's concept.

In August 1970 the Soviet military approved the complete R-36M/silo design concept. The existing silos would require extensive modification, but they would be fifty times more blast and radiation resistant. The original R-36M design followed the R-36 in the use of common Glushko engines in the first and second stages. But by August 1970 Yangel had selected Konopatov at KBKhA to provide a different engine design for the second stage.

Glushko's four-chamber RD-264 engine for the first stage was made up of four RD-263 chambers fed by common turbopumps. In this generation Glushko finally provided gimballed engines, that could swivel up to 7 degrees from vertical, allowing Yangel to dispense with the extra vernier rockets of the R-36. A big challenge in development was to ensure the missiles were undamaged and would ignite and operate properly after the mortar launch of the missile. The draft project for the RD-264 was completed in 1969, and stand tests began in September 1973. The engine was cleared for production, but in service high frequency oscillations were discovered. These affected the accuracy of the missile and impacted not only the R-36M but the MR-UR-100, also built by Yuzhnoye but using two RD-263 chambers. Fixes were confirmed at stand tests at KB Yuzhnoye in April-November 1977. The Ministry of Defence approved the fix in December 1977 and R-36M missiles in silos had to be removed and replaced by the R-36MUTTKh version in 1979-1983.

The RD-0228 second stage engine had been under development by Konopatov since 1967. Stand tests were completed in 1974. The guidance system was developed by NII-692/NPO Kharton under the supervision of Vladimir Sergeyev. The countermeasures system was by TsNIRTI. The solid rocket motors used for stage and warhead separation were by Boris Zhukov at LNPO Soyuz. Each ten silos was controlled by an improved hardened universal command point by Nikoai Krivoshein and Boris Aksyutin at TsKB TM.

In 1970 initial qualification tests of the missile began at the Pavlograd Mechanical Factory in the same year. In the same year KTBM completed design of the 8P867 facility of two surface launch complexes in order to conduct subsystems tests of the R-36M. These were above-ground but simulated the horizontal and vertical shock attenuators of the silo. The facility was built at Baikonur as LC-67, with the missile preparation at Area 42. In January 1971 tests of the new cold launch method began at Baikonur. Nine mortar launches of dummy missiles were made. In the first attempts friction during ejection of the missile allowed it to crash back on the concrete pad, reducing the rocket to a pile of twisted metal.

During development four different post-boost bus/warhead combinations were tested:

  • The single-warhead version using the 15B86 upper stage bus+warhead
  • The triple-warhead 15F143 (standardised to 15F143U during the course of development).
  • The ten-warhead 15F147 (standardised to 15F143U during the course of development).
  • The two-tier 15F678 bus that could accommodate 5, 6, 8, 10, or 14 manoeuvrable homing warheads. The bus used solid rocket motors to dispense the warheads.

The first attempted launch of a live missile on 6 March 1972 resulted in it blowing up directly over the silo, destroying it. The second and third launch attempts were also unsuccessful. The fourth and first successful launch of an R-36M (the single warhead variant) finally came on 21 February 1973. Trials with the 15F143 dispenser were conducted from September 1973 to October 1975. The first 15F147 launch was also in September 1973.

The 15F678 Mayak-1 homing warhead version used pressure-fed engines for manoeuvre. The draft project was completed in April 1975 and flight trials began in July 1978. In August 1980 tests of a second variant of the homing system for the warhead was tested, this using an optical matching system to allow the re-entry vehicle to home precisely onto the target.

The launches were tracked by US reconnaissance assets, among them a specially converted B-52 and the USS Arnold off the Kamchatka peninsular. Launches would sometimes be postponed to attempt to foil American observation. The Americans were usually able to anticipate launches, either via the warnings the Soviets had to issue to ships and aircraft when scheduling impacts in Kamchatka, or simply by studying weather forecasts. Test launches were normally conducted only in windows of good weather in both the launch and impact zones.

In September 1973 a test was conducted with the missile bus dispensing ten MIRV warheads. The Americans unfortunately detected this test, which would come to haunt the Soviets later in arms treaty negotiations. Although they planned to deploy the R-36M with only a maximum of eight warheads, they had to count each as capable of carrying ten under treaty rules.

Bureaucratic delays and problems with the first stage engines only detected after the missiles were in service resulted in the missiles being put into service years before they were formally accepted by the military. Production of both the R-36M and MR-UR-100 was authorised by a decree of October 1974. The Yuzhnoye factory built the R-36M airframe, the re-entry vehicles, and the first stage engines. Series production of the 15F143 and 15F147 warheads was undertaken by the Perm Chemical Industry Factory.

The first R-36M regiment became operational on 25 December 1974 at Dombarovskiy. The first missile in the new super-hardened silo was deployed on 30 November 1975. The complete missile and launch complex were accepted by the military on 30 December 1975, in the same decree that accepted the MR-UR-100 and the UR-100N missile systems. All three used the same automatic launch system developed by NPO Impuls in Leningrad.

However it was not until 20 November 1978 that the 15B86 single warhead was formally accepted into service, followed by the 15F143U on 29 November 1979. The 15F678 seems never actually to have entered service with the original R-36M before they it was withdrawn due to the engine problem. A peak deployment of 190 R-36M's was reached in 1979, but by 1983 they had all been replaced by the R-36MUTTKh.

In deployment an R-36M would be shipped from the factory to the launch silo or launch stand at Baikonur. After being inserted in the silo, electrical connections would be made and a series of electrical and avionics tests made. The rocket would be fuelled with 180 tonnes of corrosive propellants. The re-entry vehicles with their nuclear warheads would be mounted. The silo hatches and main door would be closed, and the missile was ready for launch within 30 seconds of the receipt of the command for up to fifteen years.

In the 1970's biological warheads for single-warhead ICBM's were developed and flight-tested, presumably including the R-36/R-36M. In the late winter of 1988 the extremely secretive Fifteenth Directorate of the Soviet Army prepared to arm the multiple-warhead R-36M with a biological agent in lieu of nuclear warheads. It seemed that an interchangeable dispensing warhead had already been developed and qualified for this purpose, since the only issue was which agent to select and how quickly it could be produced. Anthrax 836 was the agent of choice. Ten warheads on a single R-36M could dispense 400 kg of milled anthrax in aerosol form over a major city. This would be sufficient, it was calculated, for a single R-36M to kill 12 million people. Attacks were considered against New York, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Chicago. Soviet production capacity at that time was sufficient to load the planned 'hundreds' of warheads on dozens of missiles within two weeks.

The START-1 treaty reduced the number of allowable warheads. R-36M versions were began to be replaced by the R-36M2 in 1988. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the manufacturer of the missiles was in newly-independent Ukraine, an unacceptable situation for a key strategic weapon. The missiles in Kazakhstan were removed in the early 1990's and moved to the Soviet Union for use as spares. By 1999 deployment was down to 180 silos, all of which were to be demolished by 2007 under the START-2 Treaty. Thus ended the career of the 'city buster', the most awesome strategic weapon ever deployed.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • MicroSat-70 British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • ROCSAT Taiwanese earth sea satellite. 3 launches, 1999.01.27 (ROCSAT-1) to 2008.10.01 (ROCSAT 2). Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office. More...
  • MiniSat-400 British technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.21 (UoSAT-12) to 2005.12.28 (Giove-A). Basic Surrey Minisat bus. More...
  • Megsat Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.28 (Megsat-0) and 2000.09.26 (MegSat-1). The first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data. More...
  • Rubin German technology microsatellite. 8 launches, the first on 2000.07.15 (Rubin). Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. More...
  • UniSat Italian technology satellite. 3 launches, 2000.09.26 (UniSat) to 2004.06.29 (Unisat 3). Experimental satellite developed by the GAUSS (Gruppo di Astrodinamica dell' Universita degli Studi 'la Sapienza') in Roma. More...
  • Saudisat Saudi amateur radio communications satellite. 7 launches, 2000.09.26 (SaudiSat 1A) to 2007.04.17 (Saudisat 2). More...
  • AprizeSat American civilian store-dump communications satellite. 6 launches, 2002.12.20 (LatinSat 1) to 2009.07.29. Aprize's satellites were miniature spacecraft designed and optimized for data relay with very low power consumption. More...
  • Cubesat American low-cost nanosatellite bus. Used in dozens of launches, the first on 2003.06.30. More...
  • Amsat Echo American military communications satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29. More...
  • Demeter French earth seismology satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29. Demeter studied disturbances of the ionosphere due to seismo electromagnetic effects and human activities (power lines, VLF transmitters, HF broadcasting stations). More...
  • MS-1 Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2004.12.24 (Mikron) to 2007.04.17 (MisrSat 1). Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment. More...
  • Reimei Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2005.08.23. Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload. More...
  • Kirari Japanese communications satellite. One launch, 2005.08.23. Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite. Its laser communications experiment was be used in with ESA's Artemis geostationary satellite. More...
  • Genesis Pathfinder American technology satellite. 2 launches, 2006.07.12 (Genesis 1) to 2007.06.28 (Genesis 2). One third scale version of the Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module. More...
  • TerraSAR-X German civilian surveillance radar satellite. First launch 2007.06.15. Scientific / commercial surveillance satellite, equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution More...
  • SSTL-150 German civilian surveillance satellite. Surrey satellite bus, notably used for the RapidEye constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites. Mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-36M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. More...
  • R-36MU 15A18 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the R-36M with a new ten warhead MIRV bus, better guidance system, increased throw-weight, and increased range. More...
  • R-36M2 15A18M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in very limited numbers before the end of the Cold War. More...
  • Dnepr Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Dombarovskiy Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Operated 64 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M). One silo was modified to launch surplus R-36M missiles as orbital launch vehicles, and used for used for 3 launches from 2004 to 2007. More...

R-36M Chronology


1971 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-2 Silo tests test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 November 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 December 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-2 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1971 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 March 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 April 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 June 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 August 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC67/21. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • BI-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1972 October 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1972 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BI-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1973 February 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Phase 1 state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 April 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 April 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 May 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1973 June 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 July 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 July 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 August 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 September 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1973 October 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1973 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 November 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 December 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 January 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • POR state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 February 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1974 February 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • POR state trials missile launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 February 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1974 June 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 July 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 July 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 August 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 August 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 October 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 November 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1974 December 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC104. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 December 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1975 February 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 February 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 March 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI POR test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI POR test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 April 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 May 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 June 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 June 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 August 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 August 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 August 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 September 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 January 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 February 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 February 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC101. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 May 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 June 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 September 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 December 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • DP - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 February 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC103. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 March 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 May 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 May 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 October 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • SLI - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 February 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC102. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1978 July 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • DP - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 September 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC140/18. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Missile accuracy test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 September 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1978 December 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1979 April 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • DP - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 March 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • DP - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 April 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 July 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 August 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • DP operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 July 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 August 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 February 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC106. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 July 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 November 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 March 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1986 August 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1986 November 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1987 June 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1987 September 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1987 October 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 March 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 May 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 June 12 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 August 17 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 August 29 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 December 11 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 May 28 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 September 12 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 September 17 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 October 10 - . 11:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 20 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 28 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 April 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36MU 15A18.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Dnepr Demo test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 April 21 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 6703542509.
  • UoSAT-12 - . Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Surrey. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MiniSat-400. USAF Sat Cat: 25693 . COSPAR: 1999-021A. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. First launch of Russia's Dnepr launch vehicle, a converted R-36M2 ICBM. The Dnepr was launched from a silo. The third stage maneuvring bus (used on the ICBM for dispensing multiple warheads) placed UoSAT-12 into a 638 km x 652 km x 64.6 deg orbit. The third stage separated from the payload at 05:13 GMT and then made a burn into a 599 km x 1403 km x 64.6 deg orbit. UoSAT-12 was the first test of the Minibus platform, at 325 kg a larger spacecraft than earlier 50 kg Surrey UoSATs. It carried a mobile radio experiment (MERLION), a GPS receiver, and imaging cameras.

2000 September 26 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Tiungsat-1 - . Payload: MY-Sat 1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Malaysia. Agency: BKSA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 26545 . COSPAR: 2000-057A. Apogee: 658 km (409 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5585 deg. Period: 97.67 min. Launch delayed from August 25/26. Customer: Astonautic Technology (M) SDN. BHD. Malaysia's first microsatellite built through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd Carried multi-spectral Earth imaging CCD cameras, meteorological Earth imaging CCD camera, digital store and forward communications, cosmic-ray energy deposition experiment (CEDEX)
  • SaudiSat 1A - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26548 . COSPAR: 2000-057D. Apogee: 651 km (404 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5576 deg. Period: 97.59 min. Summary: Saudisat 1A and 1B were developed by the Saudi Institute for Space Research at KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology), Riyadh, and carried amateur store-forward communications payloads..
  • SaudiSat 1B - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26549 . COSPAR: 2000-057E. Apogee: 664 km (413 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5547 deg. Period: 97.73 min. Summary: Saudisat 1A and 1B were developed by the Saudi Institute for Space Research at KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology), Riyadh, and carried amateur store-forward communications payloads..
  • UniSat - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: la Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26547 . COSPAR: 2000-057C. Apogee: 670 km (416 mi). Perigee: 643 km (399 mi). Inclination: 64.5585 deg. Period: 97.78 min. Experimental satellite developed by the GAUSS (Gruppo di Astrodinamica dell' Universita degli Studi 'la Sapienza') in Roma. Unisat was financed by ASI and MURST (Ministero dell'Universtia e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica). It carried NiMH batteries, a magnetometer, and a payload consisting of a space debris sensor and a camera.
  • MegSat-1 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: MegSat. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MegSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26546 . COSPAR: 2000-057B. Apogee: 649 km (403 mi). Perigee: 643 km (399 mi). Inclination: 64.5574 deg. Period: 97.56 min. Summary: Research satellite owned and built by MegSat Space Division, part of the Gruppo Meggiorin companies in Brescia, Italy..

2002 December 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • LatinSat 1 - . Payload: AprizeSat 3. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27605 . COSPAR: 2002-058A. Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Perigee: 635 km (394 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.90 min. Summary: Messaging satellite..
  • Rubin 2 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27609 . COSPAR: 2002-058E. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Messaging technology satellite..
  • UniSat 2 - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: La Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27608 . COSPAR: 2002-058D. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi). Perigee: 636 km (395 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.80 min.
  • SaudiSat 1S - . Payload: SaudiSat 2. Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27607 . COSPAR: 2002-058C. Apogee: 690 km (420 mi). Perigee: 633 km (393 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Summary: Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • LatinSat 2 - . Payload: AprizeSat 4. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27606 . COSPAR: 2002-058B. Apogee: 702 km (436 mi). Perigee: 632 km (392 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Summary: Messaging satellite..

2004 June 29 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Aprizesat 2 (LatinSat D) - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28366 . COSPAR: 2004-025A. Apogee: 853 km (530 mi). Perigee: 695 km (431 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.30 min. Summary: Delayed from March. 31.
  • Demeter - . Mass: 125 kg (275 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: Demeter. USAF Sat Cat: 28368 . COSPAR: 2004-025C. Apogee: 723 km (449 mi). Perigee: 695 km (431 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Demeter studied disturbances of the ionosphere due to seismo electromagnetic effects and human activities (power lines, VLF transmitters, HF broadcasting stations). Study of natural electromagnetic emissions in the ULF/ELF/VLF range related to seismic or volcanic activity could be used to predict earthquatkes or eruptions in advance. Demeter tracked these emissions and other space plasma parameters (ion composition, electron density and temperature, energetic particles). The scientific payload consisted of three electric and three magnetic sensors (covering six components of the electromagnetic field from DC to 3.5 MHz); a Langmuir probe; an ion spectrometer; and an energetic particle analyzer. 8 Gbits of onboard memory recorded the data, which was returned to earth as 18 Mb/s high bit rate telemetry in the X band. The two-year mission was handled from a control center in Toulouse.
  • Saudicomsat 1 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28369 . COSPAR: 2004-025D. Apogee: 751 km (466 mi). Perigee: 699 km (434 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Summary: Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • Saudicomsat 2 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28370 . COSPAR: 2004-025E. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.60 min. Summary: Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • Saudisat 2 - . Mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28371 . COSPAR: 2004-025F. Apogee: 736 km (457 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Summary: Experimental technology satellite that included imaging with resolution better than 15 m for remote sensing..
  • Aprizesat 1 (LatinSat C) - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28372 . COSPAR: 2004-025G. Apogee: 767 km (476 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.50 min.
  • Unisat 3 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: La Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28373 . COSPAR: 2004-025H. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.80 min.
  • Amsat Echo - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: AmSat. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Amsat Echo. USAF Sat Cat: 28375 . COSPAR: 2004-025K. Apogee: 818 km (508 mi). Perigee: 697 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.00 min.

2004 December 22 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • R-36M2 ICBM demonstration flight - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). The sixteen-year old missile was launched from an operational ICBM base and its dummy warheads impacted in the test range on the Kamchatka Peninsula after a 6,000 kilometer flight. The test was touted as a demonstration of use of the surplus ICBM's, launched directly from their silos, for launch of commerical orbital payloads, in lieu of more expensive decommissioning. Others saw it as the beginning of the development of Dombarovskiy into a new spaceport, on Russian soil, in replacement of Baikonur.

2005 August 23 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Kirari - . Mass: 570 kg (1,250 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Manufacturer: Toshiba. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Kirari. USAF Sat Cat: 28809 . COSPAR: 2005-031A. Apogee: 614 km (381 mi). Perigee: 596 km (370 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 96.80 min. Moved from J-1A . Delayed from August 15. Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite. Its laser communications experiment was be used in with ESA's Artemis geostationary satellite. The satellite was renamed Kirari (twinkle) after launch.
  • Reimei - . Payload: Index. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Manufacturer: Mitsubishi. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Reimei. USAF Sat Cat: 28810 . COSPAR: 2005-031B. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload..

2006 July 12 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n 6.
  • Genesis 1 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Bigelow. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Genesis Pathfinder. USAF Sat Cat: 29252 . COSPAR: 2006-029A. Apogee: 565 km (351 mi). Perigee: 552 km (342 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Summary: One third scale version of the privately-financed Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module..

2006 July 26 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 804 (4502973804). FAILURE: First stage engine failed. Failed Stage: 1.
  • BelKA, Baumanets, Unisat 4, PicPot, and 9 nanosats - . Mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Nation: Belarus. Agency: BNAS. Manufacturer: Korolev. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. COSPAR: F20060726. Summary: Payload consisted of 19 nanosats from academic institutions: BelKA; Baumanets; Unisat-4; PICPOT; ICECube-1; ION; RINCON; AeroCube-1; CalPoly CP1; SEEDS; nCube-1; HAUSAT-1; MEROPE; CalPoly CP2; KUTESat; SACRED; Voyager; ICECube 3.

2007 April 17 - . 06:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 806.
  • MisrSat 1 - . Payload: Egyptsat 1 / MS-1TK. Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Egypt. Agency: NARSSS. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: MS-1. USAF Sat Cat: 31117 . COSPAR: 2007-012A. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi). Perigee: 657 km (408 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Summary: MisrSat/Egyptsat carried an imaging payload for Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences..
  • Saudisat 3 - . Mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Saudisat. USAF Sat Cat: 31118 . COSPAR: 2007-012B. Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Perigee: 656 km (407 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Summary: Saudisat 3 carried a suveillance instrument, backed by data collection and relay avionics, to work in concert with the five smaller SaudiComSats launched at the same time..
  • SaudiComsat-3 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31125 . COSPAR: 2007-012J. Apogee: 718 km (446 mi). Perigee: 653 km (405 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.50 min.
  • SaudiComsat-4 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31127 . COSPAR: 2007-012L. Apogee: 751 km (466 mi). Perigee: 650 km (400 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.80 min.
  • SaudiComsat-5 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31124 . COSPAR: 2007-012H. Apogee: 729 km (452 mi). Perigee: 652 km (405 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.60 min.
  • SaudiComsat-6 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31121 . COSPAR: 2007-012E. Apogee: 762 km (473 mi). Perigee: 649 km (403 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.90 min.
  • SaudiComsat-7 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31119 . COSPAR: 2007-012C. Apogee: 740 km (450 mi). Perigee: 651 km (404 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.70 min.
  • CAPE 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Louisiana. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31130 . COSPAR: 2007-012P. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment by the University of Louisiana at Lafayette..
  • Aerocube 2 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Aerospace. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31122 . COSPAR: 2007-012F. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: AeroSpace Corporation cubesat..
  • CSTB 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Boeing. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31133 . COSPAR: 2007-012R. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: CubeSat TestBed for Boeing IDS/Advanced Systems, Huntington Beach, California..
  • CP 3 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Cal Poly. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31128 . COSPAR: 2007-012M. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: California Polytechnic University cubesat, the backup for CP2 lost in a Dnepr launch failure in 2006..
  • CP 4 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Cal Poly. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31132 . COSPAR: 2007-012Q. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: California Polytechnic University cubesat..
  • Libertad - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Colombia. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Arboleda. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31129 . COSPAR: 2007-012N. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Picosat built and operated by the Universidad Sergio Arboleda, Bogota, Colombia..
  • MAST - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Tethers. Manufacturer: Stanford. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31126 . COSPAR: 2007-012K. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 647 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Multi Application Survivable Tether experiment, built by Tethers Unlimited Inc and Stanford University. MAST consisted of the TED (Tether Deployer) satellite, with a 1 km deployable multi-strand Hoytether; RALPH, a small end mass satellite; and between them, GADGET, an inspector satellite which could move along the tether. Before deployment the MAST package fit into a 0.3 m x 0.1 m module.

2007 June 15 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n No. 9.
  • TerraSAR-X - . Mass: 1,346 kg (2,967 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: TerraSAR-X. USAF Sat Cat: 31701 . COSPAR: 2007-026A. Apogee: 512 km (318 mi). Perigee: 499 km (310 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Summary: Scientific/commercial surveillance satellite. equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution.

2007 June 28 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n No. 10.
  • Genesis 2 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Bigelow. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Genesis Pathfinder. USAF Sat Cat: 31789 . COSPAR: 2007-028A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 556 km (345 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. One third scale version of the privately-financed Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module. The spacecraft's 22 interior and exterior cameras provided images of items and pictures carried for paying participants in Bigelow's “Fly your Stuff” program.

2008 August 29 - . 07:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Tachys - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33312 . COSPAR: 2008-040A. Apogee: 632 km (392 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. RapidEye AG of Brandenberg paid for launch of a constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites in a single launch, each with a mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. The satellites had an optical resolution of 6 meters, and were designed to provide on-demand images for agricultural storm damage assessment and support of emergency services.
  • Mati - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33313 . COSPAR: 2008-040B. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 624 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.50 min.
  • Choma - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33314 . COSPAR: 2008-040C. Apogee: 631 km (392 mi). Perigee: 598 km (371 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.00 min.
  • Choros - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33315 . COSPAR: 2008-040D. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 620 km (380 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.30 min.
  • Trochia - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33316 . COSPAR: 2008-040E. Apogee: 647 km (402 mi). Perigee: 623 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.40 min.

2008 October 1 - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Theos - . Mass: 715 kg (1,576 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 33396 . COSPAR: 2008-049A. Apogee: 693 km (430 mi). Perigee: 673 km (418 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 98.40 min. Summary: Thai surveillance satellite, based on EADS Astrium bus used for ROCSAT-2..

2009 July 29 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Deimos 1 - . Mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: MicroSat-100. USAF Sat Cat: 35681 . COSPAR: 2009-041A. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 635 km (394 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Summary: Deimos Space SL, Madrid, Spain..
  • Dubaisat 1 - . Mass: 190 kg (410 lb). Nation: UAE. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: SatRec. USAF Sat Cat: 35682 . COSPAR: 2009-041B. Apogee: 682 km (423 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.20 min. Summary: Emirates Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Dubai..
  • DMC 2 - . Mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: MicroSat-100. USAF Sat Cat: 35683 . COSPAR: 2009-041C. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 625 km (388 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Summary: DMC International Imaging, Guildford, Surrey, UK..
  • Aprizesat 4 - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev. Program: AIS. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 35684 . COSPAR: 2009-041D. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 607 km (377 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Spacequest, Fairfax, Virginia..
  • Nanosat 1B - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Makeyev. USAF Sat Cat: 35685 . COSPAR: 2009-041E. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 587 km (364 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Summary: INTA, Spain..
  • Aprizesat 3 - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev. Program: AIS. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 35686 . COSPAR: 2009-041F. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 566 km (351 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. Summary: Spacequest, Fairfax, Virginia..

2009 December 24 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2.
  • RV x 10? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Test.

2010 April 8 - . 13:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n D-14.
  • Cryosat 2 - . Mass: 720 kg (1,580 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Cryosat. USAF Sat Cat: 36508 . COSPAR: 2010-013A. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi). Perigee: 713 km (443 mi). Inclination: 92.0000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Satellite carried a Ku-band radar to study the thickness of the polar ice caps. Launched to fulfill mission of Cryosat 1, which failed to reach orbit in 2005..

2010 June 15 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Picard - . Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 36598 . COSPAR: 2010-028A. Apogee: 730 km (450 mi). Perigee: 725 km (450 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Summary: Solar observation payload..
  • Prisma - . Mass: 180 kg (390 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Prisma. USAF Sat Cat: 36599 . COSPAR: 2010-028B. Apogee: 787 km (489 mi). Perigee: 724 km (449 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Prototype Research Instruments and Space Mission technology Advancement satellite to test space rendezvous and formation-flight technologies. Consisted of 140 kg primary satellite and 40 kg target..

2010 June 21 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n D-16.
  • Tandem X - . Mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: TerraSar-X. USAF Sat Cat: 36605 . COSPAR: 2010-030A. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 507 km (315 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: Radar surveillance satellite with 1-m resolution in spotlight mode..

2010 July 31 - . LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Prisma Tango - . Payload: Tango. Nation: Sweden. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: Prisma. USAF Sat Cat: 36827 . COSPAR: 2010-028F. Apogee: 786 km (488 mi). Perigee: 725 km (450 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Tango subsatellite separated from the main Prisma satellite Mango on 11 August 2010 at 17:51 GMT to begin formation flying experiments..

2011 August 17 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • RASAT - . Mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Nation: Turkey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37791 . COSPAR: 2011-044D. Apogee: 699 km (434 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.40 min. Summary: Turkish Earth observation satellite with a Korean-built imager, built for TUBITAK, the Turkish science research council and UZAY, the Space Technology Research Insitute in Ankara..
  • Aprizesat 5 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37792 . COSPAR: 2011-044E. Apogee: 697 km (433 mi). Perigee: 610 km (370 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Aprizesat 5 and 6 were built by SpaceQuest for exactEarth Ltd. Equipped with AIS (maritime Automatic Identification System) payloads for ship location tracking. The exactEarth system also included the SpaceQuest AprizeSat 3 and 4, and a payload attached to ISRO's ResourceSat-2 satellite.
  • Aprizesat 6 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37793 . COSPAR: 2011-044F. Apogee: 698 km (433 mi). Perigee: 627 km (389 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 98.00 min.
  • Sich 2 - . Mass: 175 kg (385 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37794 . COSPAR: 2011-044G. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.60 min. Summary: Ukrainian remote sensing satellite built by the Yuzhnoye..
  • BPA-2/SL-24 - . Nation: Russia. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37795 . COSPAR: 2011-044H. Apogee: 1,296 km (805 mi). Perigee: 692 km (429 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Yuzhnoye launch vehicle engineering payload which remained attached to the post-boost maneuvering upper stage after deployment of the other six satellites on the launch. 16 minutes after launch, at an altitude of 700 km, the upper stage dispensed the six satellites at two-minute intervals, then maneuvered into itself into a higher orbit.

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