Encyclopedia Astronautica
Astronaut


Category of persons, applied to those trained for spaceflight outside of Russia and China.

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Associated People
  • Hart, Jane Hart, Jane Briggs (1920-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Glenn Glenn, John Herschel Jr (1921-) American test pilot astronaut, later a politician and US Senator. First American in orbit on his first flight, Mercury MA-6, in 1962, and oldest person in space on his second flight, STS-95, in 1998. More...
  • Cagle, Myrtle Cagle, Myrtle K Thompson (1922-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Hixson Hixson, Jean (1922-1984) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Steadman Steadman, Bernice Trimble (1923-) American pilot, winner of many awards and races, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Schirra Schirra, Walter Marty Jr 'Wally' (1923-2007) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MA-8, Gemini 6, Apollo 7. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and commander of first manned Apollo mission. Remembered both for practical jokes and uncompromising attention to detail. Flew 90 combat missions in the Korean War. More...
  • Shepard Shepard, Alan Bartlett Jr 'Al' (1923-1998) First American in space. Flew on Mercury MR-3, Apollo 14. Grounded due on medical grounds during Gemini, but reinstated, becoming fifth person to walk on the moon. Millionaire entrepreneur on the side. More...
  • Leverton Leverton, Irene (1924-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Slayton Slayton, Donald Kent 'Deke' (1924-1993) American test pilot astronaut. Slated to fly third Mercury mission, grounded due to a medical issue and became astronaut commander, assigning crews for lunar landings. Later finally flew on Apollo (ASTP). More...
  • Wood Wood, James Wayne (1924-1990) American pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. More...
  • Carpenter Carpenter, Malcolm Scott (1925-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MA-7, but left NASA under a cloud after running out of propellant on his mission and splashing down 'way down range. More...
  • Dietrich, Marion Dietrich, Marion (1926-1974) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female pilots declared fit for astronaut duty in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Dietrich Dietrich, Jan (1926-2008) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Grissom Grissom, Virgil Ivan 'Gus' (1926-1967) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MR-4, Gemini 3. Second American in space and first Gemini commander. Flew 100 combat missions in Korea. Died in on-pad fire of Apollo 1. More...
  • Thompson Thompson, Milton Orville 'Milt' (1926-1993) American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. Flew lifting bodies, X-15, assigned as X-20 spaceplane astronaut. More...
  • Truhill Truhill, Geraldine 'Jerri' (1927-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Cooper Cooper, Leroy Gordon Jr 'Gordo' (1927-2004) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Mercury MA-9, Gemini 5. First American to spend over a day in space. High spirited, and reportedly denied an Apollo assignment. More...
  • See See, Elliot McKay Jr (1927-1966) American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1966. Died in crash of his T-38 trainer into the McDonnell Aircraft plant. More...
  • Allison Allison, Rhea Hurrle nee Woltman (1928-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Borman Borman, Frank Frederick II (1928-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 7, Apollo 8. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and first to orbit the moon. More...
  • Lovell Lovell, James Arthur Jr 'Shaky' (1928-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8, Apollo 13. Member of first crew to rendezvous in space, and first to orbit the moon. Altitude (401,056 km) record. More...
  • Rogers Rogers, Russell Lee (1928-1967) American test pilot astronaut, 1962-1963. More...
  • Crews Crews, Albert Hanlin Jr (1929-) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • McDivitt McDivitt, James Alton 'Jim' (1929-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 4, Apollo 9. Flew 145 combat missions during the Korean War. More...
  • Gordon Gordon, Richard Francis Jr 'Dick' (1929-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 11, Apollo 12. More...
  • Knight Knight, William Joseph 'Pete' (1929-2004) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on X-15 Flight 190. More...
  • Givens Givens, Edward Galen Jr 'Ed' (1930-1967) American test pilot astronaut, 1966-1967. Died in an automobile accident. More...
  • Aldrin Aldrin, Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 12, Apollo 11. Second person on the moon. More...
  • Pogue Pogue, William Reid 'Bill' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 4. More...
  • Freeman Freeman, Theodore Cordy 'Ted' (1930-1964) American test pilot astronaut, 1963-1964. Died in crash of T-38 trainer after bird strike on windshield. More...
  • Irwin Irwin, James Benson 'Jim' (1930-1991) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 15. Eighth person to walk on the moon. More...
  • Adams Adams, Michael James 'Mike' (1930-1967) American test pilot astronaut. Died in crash of X-15 Flight 191 when spacecraft went out of control during reentry. More...
  • Conrad Conrad, Charles Peter Jr 'Pete' (1930-1999) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 5, Gemini 11, Apollo 12, Skylab 2. Third person on the moon. Only astronaut to fly Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab. Commander of first successful space station mission. More...
  • Eisele Eisele, Donn Fulton (1930-1987) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 7. Died of a heart attack. More...
  • Armstrong Armstrong, Neil Alden (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 8, Apollo 11. First person to step onto the moon. Member of first crew to dock in space. More...
  • Mitchell Mitchell, Edgar Dean 'Ed' (1930-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 14. Sixth person to walk on the moon. More...
  • Stafford Stafford, Thomas Patten 'Tom' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 6, Gemini 9, Apollo 10, Apollo (ASTP). Member of first crew to rendezvous in space. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). More...
  • Young Young, John Watts (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16, STS-1, STS-9. Only astronaut to fly Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle. Ninth person to walk on the moon. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). More...
  • Collins Collins, Michael 'Mike' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 10, Apollo 11. First space walk from one spacecraft to another. More...
  • White White, Edward Higgins II 'Ed' (1930-1967) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 4. First American to walk in space. Died in on-pad fire of Apollo 1. More...
  • Taylor Taylor, James Martin (1930-1970) American test pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Gorelick Gorelick, Sarah Lee nee Ratley (1931-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Graveline Graveline, Duane Edgar (1931-) American physician astronaut, 1965-1965. More...
  • Cobb Cobb, Geraldyne M 'Jerrie' (1931-) American pilot, holder of four aviation records, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Brand Brand, Vance DeVoe (1931-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo (ASTP), STS-5, STS-41-B, STS-35. More...
  • Macleay Macleay, Lachlan 'Mac' (1931-) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Swigert Swigert, John Leonard Jr 'Jack' (1931-1982) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 13. Survived first emergency beyond low earth orbit. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Died of complications from cancer. More...
  • Bassett Bassett, Charles Arthur II 'Charlie' (1931-1966) American test pilot astronaut, 1963-1966. Died in crash of T-38 trainer into the McDonnell Aircraft plant. More...
  • Worden Worden, Alfred Merrill (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 15. More...
  • Kerwin Kerwin, Dr Joseph Peter (1932-) American physician astronaut. Flew on Skylab 2. Member of first successful space station mission. More...
  • Bean Bean, Alan LaVerne 'Al' (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 12, Skylab 3. Fourth person to walk on the moon. More...
  • Cunningham Cunningham, Ronnie Walter 'Walt' (1932-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 7. More...
  • Neubeck Neubeck, Francis Gregory (1932-) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Llewellyn Llewellyn, Dr John Anthony 'Tony' (1932-) British-American pilot astronaut, 1967-1968. More...
  • Scott Scott, David Randolph 'Dave' (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 8, Apollo 9, Apollo 15. Seventh person to walk on the moon. First to drive a lunar wheeled vehicle. Member of first crew to dock in space. More...
  • Weitz Weitz, Paul Joseph (1932-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 2, STS-6. Member of first successful space station mission. More...
  • Carr Carr, Gerald Paul 'Gerry' (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 4. More...
  • Engle Engle, Joe Henry (1932-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on X-15 Flight 138, X-15 Flight 143, X-15 Flight 153, STS-2, STS-51-I. More...
  • Williams, Clifton Williams, Clifton Curtis 'CC' (1932-1967) American test pilot astronaut, 1963-1967. US Marine Corps aviator. Died in crash of his T-38 trainer aircraft. More...
  • Lawyer Lawyer, Richard Earl (1932-2005) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Herres Herres, Robert Tralles (1932-2008) American pilot astronaut, 1967-1969. More...
  • Abrahamson Abrahamson, James Alan 'Abe' (1933-) American pilot astronaut, 1967-1969. Later Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative More...
  • Roosa Roosa, Stuart Allen 'Stu' (1933-1994) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 14. Died of viral pneumonia, a complication of pancreatitis. More...
  • Anders Anders, William Alison 'Bill' (1933-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 8. Member of first crew to orbit the moon. More...
  • Evans Evans, Ronald Ellwin Jr 'Ron' (1933-1990) American pilot astronaut. Flew combat missions over Vietnam. Flew on Apollo 17. More...
  • Haise Haise, Fred Wallace Jr 'Pecky' (1933-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 13. Survived first emergency beyond low earth orbit. Altitude (401,056 km) record. More...
  • Hartsfield Hartsfield, Henry Warren Jr 'Hank' (1933-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-4, STS-41-D, STS-61-A. More...
  • Cernan Cernan, Eugene Andrew 'Gene' (1934-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 9, Apollo 10, Apollo 17. Eleventh person to walk on the moon and last person to step off of the moon. Space speed record (11,107 m/s). More...
  • Michel Michel, Dr Frank Curtis 'Curt' (1934-) American scientist astronaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Bull Bull, John Sumter (1934-2008) American test pilot astronaut, 1966-1968. More...
  • Chaffee Chaffee, Dr Roger Bruce (1935-1967) American pilot astronaut, 1963-1967. Killed in Apollo 1 fire on launch pad. More...
  • Chapman Chapman, Philip Kenyon (1935-) Australian scientist astronaut, 1967-1972. More...
  • Schmitt Schmitt, Dr Harrison Hagan 'Jack' (1935-) American geologist astronaut. Flew on Apollo 17. Twelvth person and only geologist to walk on the moon. More...
  • Duke Duke, Charles Moss Jr 'Charlie' (1935-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 16. Tenth person to walk on the moon. More...
  • Schweickart Schweickart, Russel Luis 'Rusty' (1935-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 9. More...
  • Finley Finley, John Lawrence 'Jack' (1935-2006) American test pilot astronaut, 1965-1968. More...
  • Lousma Lousma, Jack Robert (1936-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Skylab 3, STS-3. More...
  • Mattingly Mattingly, Thomas Kenneth II 'Ken' (1936-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 16, STS-4, STS-51-C. More...
  • Overmyer Overmyer, Robert Franklin 'Bob' (1936-1996) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-5, STS-51-B. More...
  • Fullerton Fullerton, Charles Gordon (1936-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-3, STS-51-F. More...
  • Stumough Stumough, Gene Nora (1937-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Crippen Crippen, Robert Laurel 'Bob' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-1, STS-7, STS-41-C, STS-41-G. Member of first crew to fly a winged spacecraft to orbit and back. More...
  • Truly Truly, Richard Harrison 'Dick' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-2, STS-8. More...
  • Bobko Bobko, Karol Joseph 'Bo' (1937-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-6, STS-51-D, STS-51-J. More...
  • Funk Funk, Mary Wallace 'Wally' (1939-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training. More...
  • Holmquest Holmquest, Dr Donald Lee (1939-) American physician astronaut, 1967-1971. More...
  • Scobee Scobee, Francis Richard 'Dick' (1939-1986) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-C, STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • O Leary O Leary, Brian Todd (1940-) American scientist astronaut, 1967-1968. More...
  • Gregory Gregory, Frederick Drew 'Fred' (1941-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-B, STS-33, STS-44. Flew 550 combat missions in Vietnam. USAF helicopter pilot who would fly his T-38 trainer at alarmingly low altitude during cross-country trips. Paradoxically later appointed NASA Administrator for Safety. More...
  • Hauck Hauck, Frederick Hamilton 'Rick' (1941-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-7, STS-51-A, STS-26. Flew 114 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Blaha Blaha, John Elmer (1942-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-29, STS-33, STS-43, STS-58, Mir NASA-2. Flew 361 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Brandenstein Brandenstein, Daniel Charles 'Dan' (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-8, STS-51-G, STS-32, STS-49. Flew 192 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Creighton Creighton, John Oliver (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-36, STS-48. Grew up in Seattle, Washington. Flew 175 combat missions in Vietnam. Bachelor navy fighter pilot with a midnight blue corvette and a ski boat dubbed Sin Ship. More...
  • Casper Casper, John Howard (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-36, STS-54, STS-62, STS-77. Grew up in Gainesville, Georgia, son of an Air Force officer. Flew 229 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Bridges Bridges, Roy Dunbard Jr (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F. Grew up in Gainesville, Georgia. Flew 226 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • McCulley McCulley, Michael James (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-34. More...
  • McBride McBride, Jon Andrew (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G. Heavyset Navy pilot with a talent for playing to a crowd. Flew 64 combat missions in Vietnam. Later ran in, but lost, the Republican primary for governor of West Virginia. More...
  • Walker, Dave Walker, David Mathieson 'Dave' (1944-2001) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-A, STS-30, STS-53, STS-69. Navy nickname Red Flash, a cocky pilot, over-confident in some astronaut's eyes. More...
  • Shriver Shriver, Loren James (1944-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-C, STS-31, STS-46. Grew up in Paton, Iowa. More...
  • Smith Smith, Michael John (1945-1986) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Shaw Shaw, Brewster Hopkinson Jr (1945-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-61-B, STS-28. More...
  • Grabe Grabe, Ronald John 'Ron' (1945-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-J, STS-30, STS-42, STS-57. Flew 200 combat missions over Vietnam. More...
  • Coats Coats, Michael Lloyd 'Mike' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-29, STS-39. Flew 315 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Covey Covey, Richard Oswalt 'Dick' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I, STS-26, STS-38, STS-61. Grew up in Fort Walton Beach, Florida, son of an Air Force officer. Flew 339 combat missions during two tours in Southeast Asia More...
  • Bolden Bolden, Charles Frank Jr 'Charlie' (1946-) African-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-61-C, STS-31, STS-45, STS-60. More...
  • Richards Richards, Richard Noel 'Dick' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-41, STS-50, STS-64. More...
  • O Connor O Connor, Bryan Daniel 'OC' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-61-B, STS-40. More...
  • Nagel Nagel, Steven Ray (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-61-A, STS-37, STS-55. Was married to astronaut Linda Godwin. More...
  • Gibson Gibson, Robert Lee 'Hoot' (1946-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-61-C, STS-27, STS-47, STS-71. Flew combat missions over Vietnam. Was married to astronaut Rhea Seddon. More...
  • Gardner, Guy Gardner, Guy Spencer (1948-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-27, STS-35. Grew up in Alexandria, Virginia. Flew 177 combat missions over Vietnam. More...
  • Cabana Cabana, Robert Donald 'Bob' (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-53, STS-65, STS-88. US Marine Corps More...
  • Culbertson Culbertson, Frank Lee Jr (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-38, STS-51, ISS EO-3. More...
  • Wilcutt Wilcutt, Terrence Wade 'Terry' (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-68, STS-79, STS-89, STS-106. US Marine Corps More...
  • Cameron Cameron, Kenneth Donald (1949-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-56, STS-74. US Marine Corps More...
  • Cockrell Cockrell, Kenneth Dale 'Taco' (1950-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-56, STS-69, STS-80, STS-98, STS-111. More...
  • Reightler Reightler, Kenneth Stanley Jr 'Ken' (1951-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-48, STS-60. More...
  • Gutierrez Gutierrez, Sidney McNeill 'Sid' (1951-) Hispanic-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-40, STS-59. Some data removed at subject's request. More...
  • Oswald Oswald, Stephen Scott (1951-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-42, STS-56, STS-67. More...
  • Hammond Hammond, Lloyd Blaine Jr (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-64. More...
  • Readdy Readdy, William Francis 'Bill' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-42, STS-51, STS-79. More...
  • McMonagle McMonagle, Donald Ray 'Don' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-54, STS-66. More...
  • Henricks Henricks, Terence Thomas 'Tom' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-44, STS-55, STS-70, STS-78. More...
  • Wetherbee Wetherbee, James Donald 'Wexbee' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-32, STS-52, STS-63, STS-86, STS-102, STS-113. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Duffy Duffy, Brian J (1953-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-45, STS-57, STS-72, STS-92. More...
  • Baker, Mike Baker, Michael Allen 'Mike' (1953-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-43, STS-52, STS-68, STS-81. More...
  • Ashby Ashby, Jeffrey Shears 'Bones' (1954-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-93, STS-100, STS-112. Grew up near Evergreen, Colorado. Flew 33 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. More...
  • Chilton Chilton, Kevin Patrick 'Chili' (1954-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-49, STS-59, STS-76. More...
  • Precourt Precourt, Charles Joseph 'Charlie' (1955-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-55, STS-71, STS-84, STS-91. More...
  • Allen, Andy Allen, Andrew Michael 'Andy' (1955-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-46, STS-62, STS-75. US Marine Corps More...
  • Brown Brown, Curtis Lee Jr 'Curt' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-47, STS-66, STS-77, STS-85, STS-95, STS-103. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Lockhart Lockhart, Paul Scott 'Paco' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-111, STS-113. More...
  • Polansky Polansky, Mark Lewis 'Roman' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-98, STS-116, STS-127, , , , More...
  • Searfoss Searfoss, Richard Alan 'Rick' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-58, STS-76, STS-90. More...
  • Rominger Rominger, Kent Vernon (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-73, STS-80, STS-85, STS-96, STS-100. More...
  • Kregel Kregel, Kevin Richard (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-70, STS-78, STS-87, STS-99. More...
  • Halsell Halsell, James Donald Jr (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-74, STS-83, STS-94, STS-101. More...
  • Bowersox Bowersox, Kenneth Duane 'Ken' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-50, STS-61, STS-73, STS-82, ISS EO-6. More...
  • Collins, Eileen Collins, Eileen Marie 'Mom' (1956-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-63, STS-84, STS-93, STS-114. US Air Force test pilot, first female shuttle pilot and first female spacecraft commander. More...
  • Horowitz Horowitz, Dr Scott Jay 'Doc' (1957-) Jewish-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-75, STS-82, STS-101, STS-105. Grew up in Thousand Oaks, California. Left NASA for a position with ATK Thiokol, promoting shuttle-derived vehicles for use as the CEV launch vehicle. More...
  • Carey Carey, Duane Gene 'Digger' (1957-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-109. More...
  • Gorie Gorie, Dominic Lee Pudwill (1957-) American test pilot astronaut 1995-2010. Flew on STS-91, STS-99, STS-108, STS-123. Flew 38 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Gregory, William Gregory, Dr William George 'Borneo' (1957-) African-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-67. More...
  • Husband Husband, Rick Douglas (1957-2003) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-96, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Edwards Edwards, Joe Frank Jr (1958-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-89. Grew up in Lineville and Roanoke, Alabama. Flew combat missions over Lebanon in 1983 More...
  • Jett Jett, Brent Ward Jr (1958-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-72, STS-81, STS-97, STS-115. More...
  • Bloomfield Bloomfield, Michael John 'Bloomer' (1959-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-86, STS-97, STS-110. Grew up in Lake Fenton, Michigan. More...
  • Altman Altman, Scott Douglas 'Scooter' (1959-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-90, STS-106, STS-109, STS-125. More...
  • Ford Ford, Kevin Anthony (1960-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Loria Loria, Christopher Joseph 'Gus' (1960-) Hispanic-American test pilot astronaut, 1996-2005. US Marine Corps. Grew up in Belmont, Massachusetts. Flew 42 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Lindsey Lindsey, Steven Wayne (1960-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-87, STS-95, STS-104, STS-121, STS-133. Grew up in Temple City, California. More...
  • Archambault Archambault, Lee Joseph 'Bru' (1960-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-117, STS-119. Grew up in Bellwood, Illinois. Flew 22 combat missions in F-117s during the Gulf War. More...
  • De Winne De Winne, Frank (1961-) Belgian physician astronaut. Flew on ISS EP-4, ISS EO-20. More...
  • Sturckow Sturckow, Frederick Wilford 'Rick' (1961-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-88, STS-105, STS-117, STS-128. Grew up in Lakeside, California. US Marine Corps. Flew 41 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. More...
  • Ferguson Ferguson, Christopher John (1961-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-115, STS-126, STS-135. More...
  • Melroy Melroy, Pamela Ann (1961-) American test pilot astronaut 1995-2009. Flew on STS-92, STS-112, STS-120. Grew up in Pittsford, New York. US Air Force test pilot. More...
  • McCool McCool, William Cameron 'Willie' (1961-2003) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Kilrain Still-Kilrain, Susan Leigh (1961-) Jewish-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-83, STS-94. US Navy test pilot. More...
  • Garan Garan, Ronald John Jr (1961-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-124, ISS EO-27. More...
  • Poindexter Poindexter, Alan Goodwin 'Dex' (1961-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-122, STS-131. Grew up in Rockville, Maryland, son of John Poindexter, a US Naval Officer and senior US government official. More...
  • Hobaugh Hobaugh, Charles Owen 'Scorch' (1961-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-104, STS-118, STS-129. US Marine Corps. More...
  • Johnson, Gregory H Johnson, Gregory Harold 'Box' (1962-) British-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-123, STS-134. Flew 34 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. More...
  • Zamka Zamka, George David 'Zambo' (1962-) Hispanic-American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-120, STS-130. Grew up in Rochester, Michigan. US Marine Corps. More...
  • Wilmore Wilmore, Barry Eugene 'Butch' (1962-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Gasparini Gasparini, Jean-Marc Michel Daniel (1963-) French engineer astronaut, 1990-1998. Graduated from Polytechnic School, 1985 Combat and test pilot, French Air Force. Chief test pilot at Bretigny Flight Test Center . More...
  • Kelly, Scott Kelly, Scott Joseph (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-103, STS-118, ISS EO-25. Twin brother of astronaut Mark Kelly. More...
  • Kelly, Mark Kelly, Mark Edward (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-108, STS-121, STS-124, STS-134. Twin brother of astronaut Scott Kelly. Grew up in West Orange, New Jersey. Flew 39 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Kelly Kelly, James McNeal 'Vegas' (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-102, STS-114. More...
  • Frick Frick, Stephen Nathaniel (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-110, STS-122. Flew 26 combat missions over Iraq. More...
  • Boe Boe, Eric Allen (1964-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-126, STS-133. More...
  • Ham Ham, Kenneth Todd (1964-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-124, STS-132. More...
  • Oefelein Oefelein, William Anthony 'Bill' (1965-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-116. More...
  • Hurley Hurley, Douglas Gerald (1966-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. Flew on STS-127, STS-135. US Marine Corps. More...
  • Antonelli Antonelli, Dominic Anthony 'Tony' (1967-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Bresnik Bresnik, Randolph James 'Randy' (1967-) American test pilot astronaut, 2004-on. More...
  • Virts Virts, Terry Wayne Jr (1967-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Dutton Dutton, James Patrick Jr (1968-) American test pilot astronaut, 2004-on. Flew combat air patrols over Northern Iraq during the 1990s. More...

See also
  • NASA Group 20 - 2009 Requirement: pilot and mission specialists for post-ISS spaceflights to the moon and beyond. Nickname: The Chumps (unexplained; originally the Chimps, but perhaps the Chumps based on the unlikelihood they will ever fly in space). More...
  • Canada Group 2 - 1992 Requirement: engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flight billets provided in exchange for Canadian development of the shuttle's remote manipulator arm. More...
  • Canada Group 1 - 1983 Requirement: engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flight billets provided in exchange for Canadian development of the shuttle's remote manipulator arm. More...
  • CNES Group 2 - 1990 Requirement: French astronauts for spaceflights aboard Hermes spaceplane and to Mir and US space stations. More...
  • Man-In-Space-Soonest - 1958 To provide pilots for the USAF Project 7969 MISS "Man-In-Space-Soonest" manned spacecraft. On 25 June 1958 the Air Force completed a preliminary astronaut selection for the project. The list was prioritized according to the weight of the pilot due to the low payload available. The 150-175 pound group consisted of test pilots Bob or Robert Walker, Scott Crossfield, Neil Armstrong, and Robert Rushworth. In the 175 to 200 pound group were William Bridgeman, Alvin White, Iven Kincheloe, Robert White, and Jack McKay. It was the first astronaut selection in history. More...
  • Mercury 13 - 1961 Group of 13 female pilots who passed astronaut physical testing in 1961 to prove that women were also qualified for spaceflight. NASA never considered them, maintaining that astronauts had to be qualified test pilots (all of whom were white males). Nickname: The Mercury Thirteen More...
  • NASA Group 9 - 1980 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: 19+80 - The two European astronauts in the group were not considered by the Americans to be part of the 'official' group. This led to a scene at graduation. More...
  • NASA Group 8 - 1978 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Recruit women and minorities to introduce diversity into the astronaut corps. Nickname: TFNG - Thirty-Five New Guys, also an obscene military phrase. More...
  • NASA Group 7 - 1969 NASA was forced to take on seven pilot-astronauts from the cancelled USAF MOL military space station program. All of these men would have to wait to the shuttle era for space missions, but they all would eventually fly. More...
  • NASA Group 6 - 1967 Requirement: additional scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and earth-orbit space station missions. Nickname: The Excess Eleven. More...
  • NASA Group 5 - 1966 Requirement: pilot-astronauts for the Apollo Applications Program (then planned as 10 lunar landings after Apollo 11 and 30 Apollo flights to earth-orbit space stations). Nickname: The Original Nineteen More...
  • NASA Group 4 - 1965 Requirement: scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and Apollo applications earth-orbit space station missions. Nickname: The Scientists. More...
  • NASA Group 3 - 1963 Requirement: crew members for planned Apollo missions (then planned as 4 Saturn I missions in 1965, 2-4 Saturn IB missions in 1966, 6 Saturn V missions from 1967). Nickname: The Fourteen. More...
  • NASA Group 1 - 1959 Requirement: six pilots for the single-crew Mercury manned spacecraft. Originally a wide pool of candidates was going to be considered, but in December 1958 President Eisenhower ruled that military test pilots would form the candidate pool. Nickname: The Original Seven More...
  • NASA Group 17 - 1998 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Penguins. Originally called the Dodos by the Sardines, after an extinct flightless bird; they renamed themselves after a flightless bird that eats fish... More...
  • NASA Group 16 - 1996 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Sardines (named because that's how packed they were; at 44 this was the largest ASCAN class of all time) More...
  • NASA Group 15 - 1995 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Flying Escargot. Originally dubbed the 'snails' by the Hogs, because they were supposed to be the class of 1994, but the announcement was delayed a year;. They renamed themselves with the better-sounding French equivalent. More...
  • NASA Group 13 - 1990 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Hairballs. As the 13th astronaut group, the 'unlucky' theme was discussed in designing an emblem for the group. A black cat was used on an early patch design rejected by NASA. This reminded some of hairballs and the group members adopted this as a nickname. More...
  • NASA Group 12 - 1987 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Gaffers (acronym for 'George Abbey Final Fifteen' - the last group selected with George Abbey as Director of Flight Crew Operations). The class motto: 'What's the rush?' since there was expected to be along wait for flights after the Challenger disaste More...
  • NASA Group 10 - 1984 Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Maggots. Named by Bill Shepherd, who dubbed them in their earliest group training in aircraft survival school, a term familiar to graduates of USMC boot camp. More...
  • Phantom Cosmonaut Over the years the Western press named a number of cosmonauts that were never acknowledged by the Soviet Union. Most were said to have died in space. More...

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