Encyclopedia Astronautica
Rotary Rocket


XCOR Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 22.250 kN. First stages. Developed in 1990's. Developed and tested by Rotary Rocket for their launcher before its cancellation.

In April 2002, XCOR acquired selected intellectual property assets of the former Rotary Rocket Company. These assets included a 22,250-newton LOX/kerosene engine developed and tested by the company as well as hydrogen peroxide engine technology.

Application: First stages.

Status: Developed in 1990's.
Thrust: 22.25 kN (5,002 lbf).
First Launch: 2000-2004.

More... - Chronology...


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Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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