Encyclopedia Astronautica
Austria


Austria

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Associated People
  • Schmiedl Schmiedl, Friedrich (1902-1994) Austrian rocket pioneer, tested recoverable solid propellant rockets from 1924-1934 for use as stratospheric probes and mail delivery. Refused to participate in development of military rockets, either for the Nazis or the Americans. More...
  • Neuhoefer Neuhoefer, Kurt Kunibert Karlmann (1903-1973) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Zborowski, Helmut Zborowski, Count Helmut (1905-1969) Austrian technical designer of liquid rocket motors and expert in anti-tank missiles. In WW2 joined SS, headed aircraft engine and rocket engine development near Dachau. Received over 300 patents. Worked for the French briefly after the war. More...
  • Tschinkel Tschinkel, Johann G (1907-2004) German-Austrian rocket technician, arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Fluent in English prior to arrival in the United States. Died in Tallahassee, Florida. More...
  • Steinhoff, Ernst Steinhoff, Ernst August Wilhelm (1908-1987) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Boehm Boehm, Josef Maria (1908-1973) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Tessmann Tessmann, Bernhard (1912-1998) Austrian-German engineer, leading engine test at Peenemuende from 1936. In 1943 evacuated to Koelpinsee; designed V-2 mobile launcher and planned Zement facility at Ebensee. In US from 1945, worked as von Braun's Deputy Director for Testing. More...
  • Steurer Steurer, Wolfgang Hermann (1913-1986) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hellebrandt Hellebrandt, Emil A H, (1914-1981) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Sendler Sendler, Karl (1914-) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Low, George Low, George M (1926-1984) Austrian-American engineer, at NASA 1950-1976. He occupied key manned spaceflight leadership positions at NASA during the Mercury, Germini, Apollo, Skylab, and early Shuttle programs. More...
  • Furrer Furrer, Dr Reinhard Alfred (1940-1995) Austrian physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A. Died in an airplance crash. More...
  • Heiss Heiss, Klaus P (1942-) Austrian-American economist, prepared a major economic feasibility study for the Space Shuttle program in 1971. He later worked with Econ, Inc., and founded and headed Space Transportation Corp., in Princeton, New Jersey. More...
  • Shchukin Shchukin, Alexandr Vladimirovich (1946-1988) Belarusian test pilot cosmonaut, 1980-1988. More...
  • Viehboeck Viehboeck, Franz Artur (1960-) Austrian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Austromir. First Austrian astronaut. More...
  • Lothaller Lothaller, Clemens (1963-) Austrian engineer cosmonaut, 1989-1991. Doctorate degree from University of Vienna, 1987. One of five Austrian candidates in 1992 ESA selection. Made short list twice, but not selected in 1992 and 1998. Later had his own medical practice. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Schmiedl Friedrich Schmiedl used powder rockets to make regular rocket mail service between two Austrian towns from 1931 to 1933. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Maul Austrian manufacturer of rockets. Maul, Austria. More...

Austria Chronology


1903 November 12 - .
1905 August 21 - .
  • Birth of Count Helmut Zborowski - . Nation: Austria. Summary: Austrian technical designer of liquid rocket motors and expert in anti-tank missiles. In WW2 joined SS, headed aircraft engine and rocket engine development near Dachau. Received over 300 patents. Worked for the French briefly after the war..

1907 April 7 - .
  • Birth of Johann G Tschinkel - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Summary: German-Austrian rocket technician, arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Fluent in English prior to arrival in the United States. Died in Tallahassee, Florida..

1908 January 11 - .
1908 August 7 - .
  • Birth of Josef Maria Boehm - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Summary: Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1912 August 15 - .
  • Birth of Bernhard Tessmann - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Summary: Austrian-German engineer, leading engine test at Peenemuende from 1936. In 1943 evacuated to Koelpinsee; designed V-2 mobile launcher and planned Zement facility at Ebensee. In US from 1945, worked as von Braun's Deputy Director for Testing..

1913 May 11 - .
1914 August 1 - .
1914 August 19 - .
  • Birth of Karl Sendler - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Summary: Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1923 - .
  • Hermann Oberth published Die Rakete zu den Planetenraumen (The Rocket into Planetary Space). - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Oberth. Hermann Oberth published Die Rakete zu den Planetenraumen (The Rocket into Planetary Space), which contained the first serious proposal for a manned space station to appear in scientific literature rather than fiction. Oberth's study presented to the scientific community a broad treatise on the practicability and scientific value not only of manned permanent stations in orbit above the Earth, but also space flight in general. Oberth suggested a permanent station supplied by smaller rockets on a periodic basis and suggested rotation of the vehicle to produce an artificial gravity for the crew. Such a station, he said, could serve as a base for Earth observations, as a weather forecasting satellite, as a communications satellite, and as a refueling station for extraterrestrial vehicles launched from orbit.

1928 - .
  • Hermann Noordung published Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums (The Problem of Space Flight). - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Noordung. Spacecraft: Noordung. Hermann Noordung (the pseudonym for Captain Potocnik of the Austrian Imperial Army) published Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums (The Problem of Space Flight), which included one of the first serious attempts to put on paper the design of a manned space station. Noordung's proposed design consisted of a doughnut-shaped structure for living quarters, a power generating station attached to one end of the central hub, and an astronomical observation station. He was among the first to suggest a wheel-shaped design for a space station to produce artificial gravity, and also argued the scientific value of such a station in a synchronous orbit above the Earth.

1928 - .
  • Von Pirquet writes on manned space travel. - . Nation: Austria. Writing in the monthly journal Die Rakete, Baron Guido von Pirquet presented broad arguments in favor of the scientific possibility of manned space travel and the velocities required for orbital and interplanetary flight, of which orbital speed was by far the more difficult to attain. Von Pirquet suggested several different space stations for diverse functions: one in a near-Earth orbit as primarily an observation site and another station in a much higher orbit that would be more suitable as an orbital refueling station for escape vehicles.

June 1928 - . Launch Vehicle: Schmiedl.
  • Schmiedl attempts launch of balloon-lofted rockets. - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Schmiedl. Summary: The first attempted launch of instrumented rockets from stratospheric balloons. These V1 and V2 rockets failed to ignite but Schmiedl's work anticipated the Van Allen Rockoon concept by twenty years..

1929 - .
  • Hermann Oberth published Wege zur Raumschiffahrt (Path to Space Travel) - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Oberth. Hermann Oberth published Wege zur Raumschiffahrt, in which he greatly elaborated on ideas presented in his 1923 book. Oberth here presented several specific designs for orbital space stations, ranging from spherical living quarters for the crew to large reflective mirrors fabricated in orbit. Among several innovations were methods for fabrication in orbit, propulsion by particle emission, and small ferry vehicles to permit travel in the vicinity of the station. Such stations could be used for a variety of purposes, ranging from scientific observation sites to military installations.

1931 February 2 - . Launch Vehicle: Schmiedl.
  • First rocket-mail. - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Schmiedl. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Summary: Schmiedl launches his V7 post rocket with 100 letters aboard from Schoeckel bei Graz to Sankt Radegund, a distance of two kilometres. The 880 cm long rocket descended as planned by parachute ..

1931 September 9 - . Launch Vehicle: Schmiedl.
  • First rocket-mail service. - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Schmiedl. Apogee: 2.50 km (1.50 mi). Summary: Schmiedl's Post Rocket R1, with 333 letters aboard, is launched 5 km from the top of the Hochtroetsch to the town of Semriach. A month later the first return service rocket is launched at night from Semriach to Hochtroetsch..

1933 March 16 - . Launch Vehicle: Schmiedl.
  • Final Schmiedl rocket mail service. - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Schmiedl. Apogee: 2.50 km (1.50 mi). Summary: Schmiedl conducts his final rocket mail 'service' with 379 letters aboard his S1 two-stage rocket over a distance of 5 km at Graz between Sankt Martin and Grazer Feld..

October 1933 - .
  • Saenger proposal to the Austrian Army - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Summary: Saenger proposes development of a rocket-powered hypersonic bomber..

1934 February 3 - .
  • Austrian Defence Ministry rejects Saenger's rocketplane proposal - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Summary: The Ministry rejects Saenger's prposed rocket bomber, on the grounds that liquid rocket engines will never be feasible due to the explosive nature of the chemical reactions involved..

1934 March 15 - .
  • Saenger rocket engine - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Summary: Saenger's Experiment Number 25 is the first to successfully sustain combustion. The water-cooled combustion chamber sustains an internal pressure of 15 atmospheres for 30 seconds..

June 1934 - .
  • Saenger studies fuel additives - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Summary: Saenger's engine experiments showed that lithium best improved motor performance in engines with liquid oxygen oxidiser..

August 1934 - .
  • Saenger motor - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Summary: Saenger's rocket engine achieves a sustained thrust of 30 kgf. Saenger is the first to observe shock diamonds in the exhaust..

December 1934 - .
  • Saenger paper on rocket-propelled aircraft - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Saenger. Summary: Eugen Saenger published Neuere Ergebnisse der Rakenflugtechnik (New Possibilities for Rocket Flight Technology) in Vienna. However the dean of the Vienna Technische Hochschule prohibits Saenger from conducting any further rocket experiments..

1940 November 25 - .
1946 January 19 - .
1960 August 24 - .
  • Birth of Franz Artur Viehboeck - . Nation: Austria. Summary: Austrian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Austromir. First Austrian astronaut..

1961 May 24 - . Launch Site: Cuxhaven.
  • Rocket mail in Vienna - . Nation: Austria. Summary: The DRG (German Rocket Society) launched twelve of their small mail rockets from Vienna (Wien-Aspern) with 5000 postcards aboard..

1963 May 8 - .
  • Birth of Clemens Lothaller - . Nation: Austria. Summary: Austrian engineer cosmonaut, 1989-1991. Doctorate degree from University of Vienna, 1987. One of five Austrian candidates in 1992 ESA selection. Made short list twice, but not selected in 1992 and 1998. Later had his own medical practice..

1969 November 16 - .
  • Death of Count Helmut Zborowski - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Zborowski, Helmut. Summary: Austrian technical designer of liquid rocket motors and expert in anti-tank missiles. In WW2 joined SS, headed aircraft engine and rocket engine development near Dachau. Received over 300 patents. Worked for the French briefly after the war..

1973 February 1 - .
1973 December 1 - .
  • Death of Josef Maria Boehm - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Related Persons: Boehm. Summary: Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1981 December 16 - .
1986 April 12 - .
1987 February 12 - .
1989 October 1 - .
  • Austrian Commercial Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: Austria. Related Persons: Lothaller; Viehboeck. Summary: The group was selected to provide Austrian candidates for the Austromir mission to the Mir space station..

1998 December 19 - .
  • Death of Bernhard Tessmann - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Related Persons: Tessmann. Summary: Austrian-German engineer, leading engine test at Peenemuende from 1936. In 1943 evacuated to Koelpinsee; designed V-2 mobile launcher and planned Zement facility at Ebensee. In US from 1945, worked as von Braun's Deputy Director for Testing..

2004 September 21 - .
  • Death of Johann G Tschinkel - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Related Persons: Tschinkel. Summary: German-Austrian rocket technician, arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Fluent in English prior to arrival in the United States. Died in Tallahassee, Florida..

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